“GLOBALISATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA”
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MR.MRINAL KUMAR DUTTA
HEAD OF THE DEPT.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND E-COMMERCE
SIBSAGAR COMMERCE COLLEGE , SIVASAGAR , ASSAM
This is a world of convergence brought about by Technology, process of Globalisation, sharing of Information and the fusion of knowledge domains Globalisation leads convergence promotes collaboration, information leads convergence enables connectivity, technology leads convergence stimulates creativity and all this is leads by development which is the root of Globalisation. The Position and Prospects of Development of Information Technology with Globalisation in the fields of Quality Infrastructure Development, Investment of Potential Investors, development of Information Technology with e-villages , implementation of IT in Higher Education Departments in the NE States, e- Governance, utilization of the CICs (CSCs afterwards), issue of State Wide Area Network(WAN) has been examine by reviewing various Literatures. Implementation of different Information Technology based tools, techniques and the infrastructures with respect to Globalisation to maintain a position in the global markets. And suggestions are made for better productivity if implemented, to show the prospects if yet to be implement.
The term ‘globalisation’ appeared for the first time in the second half of twentieth century no other word has meant so many different things to different people and has evoked as much emotions.
The forces of globalisation affect virtually every country in the world. It has opened the door of many new opportunities as well as formidable challenges. All spheres of life–social, political, cultural and economic–have been subjected to both the positive and negative elements of globalisation. Globalisation means new market, particularly for those who are economically well developed. This is the fact. And information technology is one of the technologies fostered to the new market in this increasingly competitive world. Information Technology (IT) is a driving factor in the process of globalisation. Improvements in the early 1990s in computer hardware, software, and telecommunications have caused widespread improvements in access to information and economic potential. These advances have facilitated efficiency gains in all sectors of the economy. IT provides the communication network that facilitates the expansion of products, ideas, and resources among nations and among people regardless of geographic location. Creating efficient and effective channels to 2 exchange information, IT has been the catalyst for global integration. Recent advances in our ability to communicate and process information in digital form - a series of developments sometimes described as an "IT revolution" - are reshaping the economies and social lives of many countries around the world. The new electrical communication systems brought disparate regions and peoples into an unprecedented, increasingly synchronous global network of information, trade, finance, and culture. In the 20th century, the emerging global telecommunication infrastructure was extended and its uses expanded by the development of radio transmission, satellite communications, and terrestrial broadband networks. More recently, digital encoding, storage, and transmission have allowed for data compression and the convergence of multiple formats into a common digital stream, further accelerating the speed and volume of global information and communication flows. At the same time, the diffusion of inexpensive personal computers, the development of the graphical user interface, and the establishment of common data exchange protocols have given users around the world direct access to an increasing mass of data, text, and multimedia documents-as well as the power to create and distribute such documents themselves. The integration and interdependence of global media and information systems have created new challenges and new opportunities. Globalisation has facilitated positive forms of cross-cultural exchange, creating, for many, an unprecedented historical opportunity to learn about and benefit from the cultural diversity of the human species, but it has also smoothed the progress of cultural domination, threatening regional and national cultural self-determination and increasing the risk of global cultural homogenization and commercialization. It has greased the wheels of transnational investment, production, and trade in both goods and services, opening new markets and permitting new levels of economic productivity and efficiency, but the expansion and integration of the global economy has also deepened economic inequalities, both internationally and within nations.
Products based upon or enhanced by information technology are used in nearly every aspect of life in contemporary industrial societies. The spread of IT and its applications has been extraordinarily rapid. Just 20 years ago, for example, the use of desktop personal computers was still limited to a fairly small number of technologically advanced people. The overwhelming majority of people still produced documents with typewriters, which permit no manipulation of text and offer no storage. Fifteen years ago, large and bulky mobile telephones were carried only by a small number of users in just a few U.S. cities. Today, half of all Americans use a mobile phone, and in some developing countries, mobile phones are used by more people than the fixed line telephone network. But perhaps most dramatically, just ten years ago, only scientists were using, or had even heard about, the Internet, the World Wide Web was not up and running and the browsers that help users navigate the web had not even been invented yet. Today, of course, the Internet and the Web have transformed commerce, creating entirely new ways for retailers and their customers to make transactions, for businesses to manage the flow of production inputs and market products, and for job seekers and job-recruiters to find each other. The news industry has also been dramatically transformed by the emergence of numerous Internet-enabled news-gathering and dissemination outlets. Websites, chat rooms, instant messaging systems, e-mail, electronic 3 bulletin boards and other Internet-based communication systems have made it much easier for people with common interests to find each other, exchange information, and collaborate with each other. Education at all levels is being transformed by communication, educational, and presentational software and by Websites and other sources of information and analysis on the Internet.
The IT revolution has been driven by the extraordinarily rapid decline in the cost and rapid increase in the processing power of digital technologies . The digital device whose technological advance has perhaps been most crucial to the IT revolution is the microprocessor, the collections of millions of tiny circuits that serve as the "brains" of personal computers and that are being embedded in an ever-expanding number of products, from video games to cars to refrigerators. Over the past two decades, the processing power of microprocessors has doubled roughly every six months. Another set of advances that has been critical to the IT revolution has occurred in fiber optics. Fiber optics technology enables data, including voices captured in digital form, to be converted into tiny pulses of light and then transmitted at high speeds through glass fibers wrapped into large capacity telecommunication cables. Hundreds of thousands of miles of these cables have been installed over the past ten years, boosting the speed and capacity of telecommunications networks. Advances in microprocessors, fiber optics, and a number of other complementary technologies, such as telecommunications switching devices and memory chips, have dramatically increased the speed, processing capacity, and storage space of computers and dramatically increased the speed and carrying capacity of telecommunications networks. Advances in IT are producing many changes in our society. These changes have produced many benefits, but they have also raised several concerns. Innovations in IT have created new jobs, promoted the growth of new markets, and increased international trade and investment. However, the expansion of IT also introduces costs. Workers in certain sectors of the economy lose their jobs as innovations in IT create a greater demand for high-tech workers and introduce efficiencies that make jobs obsolete. Another negative consequence of the IT revolution is the inequitable distribution of access to IT, called the digital divide.
The North East India comprises of eight contiguous states6 of highly undulating hilly terrains, covering 263,179 sq km which is about 8% of the total geographical area of the country. The region is one of the landlocked regions of South Asia. About 4500 km i.e. 98% of its border is with five different countries of South Asia–Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. No other region of the Indian union share common border with so many different countries connecting with the heartland through the tenuous 22 km Siliguri corridor. The region is the home of extraordinarily diverse mosaic of ethnic groups having distinctive social, cultural and economic identity, more akin to their South Asia neighbors than main land India. The total population of the region is about 38 million, 3.8 per cent of the country’s total population, of which Assam contributes 68 per cent of the total population. Assam recorded the highest density of population with 340 per sq. km., which is also higher than the national average of 4 313 per sq. km., followed by Tripura with 305 per sq. km. Otherwise, the region is sparsely populated with an overall density of population of 149 per sq. km.