3D Model Searching
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29-01-2011, 07:48 PM


3D Model Searching
A Seminar Report
by
Febin P Jacob
M105105
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
College of Engineering Trivandrum
Kerala - 695016
2010-11

Abstract
Three dimensional shape searching refers to the process of shape based retrieval of 3D mod-
els from a large database by determining the similarities among 3D shapes. 3D models are
extensively used in the movie industry, video game industry, architecture industry, medical
industry, and in the science and engineering community. Three dimensional model databases
used around the web is growing at a fast speed which makes the problem of 3D model search-
ing signi cant. Time and e ort that is involved in creating a high quality 3D model is high.
Considerable amount of resources could be saved if these existing models are reused. However,
nding a model is not easy since most online models are scattered across the web on repository
sites, project and implimentation sites, and personal homepages. The main diculties that arise when developing
a 3D model search engine are the selection of query interface and computational representa-
tions of the 3D model. The query interface should be simple enough that even novice users
could use it. The representation using the shape descriptors should be ecient such that the
computation and comparison could be done correctly. Since the search engine is an interactive
system, a matching method has only limited time to run. One of the principal challenges faced
in the area of shape matching is that in many applications, a model and its image under a
similarity transformation are considered to be the same. Thus, the challenge in comparing
two shapes is to nd the best measure of similarity over the space of all transformation. So a
rotation invariant shape representation of 3D shape descriptors is needed to perform the search
e ectively.


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1 Introduction
Over the last decade, tools for acquiring and visualizing 3D models have become integral
components of data processing in a number of disciplines, including medicine, chemistry, archi-
tecture and entertainment. With the proliferation of these tools, an explosion in the number
of available 3D models has occured. These developments are changing the way people think
about 3D data. For years, a primary challenge in computer graphics has been how to construct
interesting 3D models. Now the key question shifted from \how do we construct them?"to
\how do we nd them?".
An important question then is how people will search for 3D models. Of course, the simplest
approach is to search for keywords in lenames, captions, or context. However, this approach
can fail: (1) when objects are not annotated (e.g. \B19745.wrl"), (2) when objects are an-
notated with unspeci c or derivative keywords (e.g. \yellow.wrl"or \sarah.wrl"), (3) when all
related keywords are so common that the query result contains a
ood of irrelevant matches
(e.g. searching for faces i.e., human not polygonal), (4) when relevant keywords are unknown
to the user (e.g. objects with misspelled or foreign labels), or (5) when keywords of interest
were not known at the time the object was annotated.
In these cases, shape-based queries will be helpful for nding 3D objects. Shape can also be
used to discriminate between similar objects. Query interfaces based on 3D sketches and 2D
sketches can be used in combination with text interfaces to yield a better search result.
5
2 System Overview
The execution of the system proceeds in four steps: crawling, indexing, querying and match-
ing. Crawling and indexing takes a lot of time. So these steps are done o -line. Querying and
matching is done for each user query at run time. The main research issue at the heart of this
system is how to provide shape based query interfaces and matching methods that enable easy
and ecient retrieval of 3D models from a large repository. The organization of the system is
shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: System Overview
The following text provides an overview of each step and highlights its main features.
1. Crawling: Crawling is the process by which the 3D models that are scattered across the
web are collected to build the database. 3D data still represents a very small percentage
of the web, and high quality models represent an equally small percentage of all 3D data.
So a focused crawler that incorporates a measure of 3D model quality into its page rank
should be used for crawling the web.
2. Indexing: Indexing is the process of computing the indices to retrieve 3D models e-
ciently based on text and shape based queries. This is done using a 3D shape descriptor
based on spherical harmonics that is descriptive, ecient to compute, robust to model
degeneracies, and invariant to rotations.
3. Querying: Querying allows the user to search interactively for 3D models. Query meth-
ods based on text keywords, 2D sketching, 3D sketching and model matching can be
used.
4. Matching: Matching is the process by which the shape descriptor of the query model
is found and compared with the shape descriptors of models in the database to fetch the
matching models.
6
3 Challenges
Selection of the query interface is important because the traditional text based query may not
return the desired result if the models in the web are poorly annotated. Thus shape based query
interfaces are used which utilizes other attributes of a 3D model like shape and appearance.
Shape based query interfaces like 2D sketching and 3D sketching can represent those details of
3D models which are very dicult to represent by words.
The main challenge in supporting these 3D shape-based similarity queries is to nd a com-
putational representation of shape (a shape descriptor) for which an index can be built and
geometric matching can be performed eciently. Generally speaking, the following properties
are desirable for a shape descriptor. It should be,
 quick to compute
 concise to store
 easy to index
 invariant under similarity transformations
 insensitive to noise and small extra features
 independent of 3D object representation, tessellation, or genus
 robust to arbitrary topological degeneracies
 discriminating of shape di erences at many scales
7
4 Retrieval Algorithm
As in many database retrieval applications, the retrieving algorithms for matching 3D shapes
are motivated by two principal concerns. First, the algorithm needs to be discriminating. This
means that it should be e ectively distinguishing between di erent classes of shapes and re-
turning those models in the database that most closely approximate the ones that a user would
want. Second, the algorithms need to be ecient in both space and time. In particular, since
many of the existant repositories index thousands, or even tens of thousands of models, the
stored representation of a 3D model needs to be compact and the retrieval time needs to be fast
enough to return results in real time. In practice, addressing the run-time eciency requrement
is done with the assistance of a shape descriptor. The shape descriptor is an abstraction of the
3D model, capturing salient shape information in a structure that is well-suited for comparison.
Figure 2: Retrieval Algorithm
The retrieval algorithm shown in Figure 2 works in two phases: the preprocessing phase and
the runtime phase. In the preprocessing phase the shape descriptor computation is done for
each model in the model database. At the runtime phase when user submits a query, shape
descriptor computation is done for the submitted query and it is then compared with all other
descriptors in the database using an matching method and the best matches are fetched.
8
5 Matching Methods
The query interfaces for 3D search can be based on text, 3D sketch or 2D sketch. The query
interface may use the combination of these to improve the search results.
5.1 Text Matching Method
Searching based on text keywords is by far the most common type of query interface available
on the web. A representative text document is created for each 3D model in our database, using
several potentially relevant text sources such as model lename, model le contents, descriptive
text of the hyperlink to the model le, full URL path to the model le, web page content, web
page context and WordNet synonyms and hypernyms. User entered text keywords are matched
to representative text documents, one for each 3D model in the database and best matches
are fetched. Since it compares the text keywords, it is fast and best suited for an interactive
search. But the precision of the search is less because most of the 3D models found on the web
are poorly annotated.
5.2 3D Shape Descriptor Computation and Matching Method
The user gives a 3D sketch as the query to the search engine and search engine computes
the shape descriptor of the 3D sketch. The computed 3D shape descriptor is compared with
the preprocessed shape descriptors of the 3D models in the database. 3D sketching programs
which are simple may not be ecient. Ecient 3D sketching require high levels of skill and
consumes lot of time which makes it unsuitable for interactive search. So the selection of
sketching programs should be done with utmost care.
Another option is to upload a 3D model le and compare the shape descriptor computed
from this model le with the shape descriptors in the database. 3D le formats like VRML2.0,
PLY, Wavefront OBJ can be used for this purpose. Since the shape descriptor computation
from a 3D model le is easier searching can be done faster.
Two shape descriptors are compared by computing the Euclidian distance between them.
Computation of the spherical harmonics shape descriptor is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Computing the spherical harmonics shape descriptor.
9
The main steps for computing a spherical harmonics shape descriptor for a set of polygons
are
1. First, the polygonal surfaces is rasterized into a 2R 2R 2R voxel grid, assigning a voxel
a value of 1 if it is within one voxel width of a polygonal surface, and assigning it a value
of 0 otherwise 1. To normalize for translation and scale, the model is moved so that the
center of mass lies at the point (R;R;R), and scale it so that the average distance from
non-zero voxels to the center of mass is R = 2.
2. The voxel grid is treated as a (binary) real-valued function de ned on the set of points
with length less than or equal to R and express the function in spherical coordinates.
By restricting to the di erent radii a collection of spherical functions f0; f1; :::; fR is
obtained.
3. Using spherical harmonics, each function fr is expressed as a sum of its di erent frequen-
cies.
4. Noting that the di erent irreducible representations are xed under rotation, and noting
that rotations do not change the L2 norm of functions, a rotation invariant signature for
fr is de ned.
5. Combining these di erent signatures over the di erent radii, a two-dimensional rotation
invariant spherical harmonics descriptor for the 3D model is obtained, with the value at
index (r0;m0) corresponding to the length of the m0th frequency of the restriction of f
to the sphere with radius r0.
5.3 2D Shape Descriptor Computation and Matching Method
Since it is very dicult for an average user to create a 3D shape query from scratch, a
2D free-form sketching interface is provided. User may create 2D sketches from three di erent
views and these sketches are converted into boundary descriptors and compared with the stored
boundary descriptors of models that are present in the database. Since drawing the front, top
and side views are easier for a novice user, it is popular than 3D query interface. Combination
of side and corner views gives the best search results among the 2D matching methods. Two
descriptors are compared by computing the Euclidian distance between them. Computation of
the shape descriptor for boundary contours is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Computing the shape descriptor for boundary contours.
10
The main steps for computing shape descriptor boundary contours are
1. Compute the distance transform of the boundary contour.
2. Obtain a collection of circular functions by restricting to di erent radii.
3. Expand each circular function as a sum of trigonometric functions.
4. Using the fact that rotations do not change the amplitude within a frequency, de ne the
signature of each circular function as a list of the amplitudes of its constituent trigono-
metrics.
5. Finally, combine these di erent signatures to obtain a 2D signature for the boundary
contour.
11
6 Query Processing Performance
The response time a user experiences is the sum of the time it takes for the following opera-
tions:
1. Connecting to the web server and sending query data.
2. Executing a CGI script on the web server (which connects to and has to wait for the
matching server).
3. Processing and matching of the query on the matching server.
4. Returning the results to the user.
5. Rendering the results web page on the user's machine.
The time taken in steps (1) and (4) depends on the available bandwidth between the user's
machine and our web server, step (5) depends on the performance of the user's machine. Step
(2) adds an estimated overhead of about 1-2 seconds. The accurate timings for step (3) can be
calculated. The time between when a query arrives at the web server and when its results are
ready is about 0.4 seconds on average. The time required for the text matching is 0.22 seconds
which is the fastest matching method while the time required for 3D shape matching is 3.2
seconds which makes it the slowest matching method.
12
7 Conclusion
The most popular searching method among all the above given methods is the text query
interface, because every user is used to that. The performance of text matching method is com-
paratively less because of the poor quality of text annotation of web models. The performance
of 2D shape matching method is also less. But it shows better discrimination of the shape dif-
ferences as the number of 2D sketches given by the user increases. 3D shape matching method
outperforms the text matching method. But the main disadvantage of 3D matching method is
that an average user will not be able to draw 3D sketches very e ectively. The quality of search
results can be increased by combining text with the 3D and 2D query interfaces. Combined
text and 3D shape based matching methods will give the best precision for the search.
13
References
[1] M. Kazhdan J. Chen A. Halderman D. Dobkin T. Funkhouser, P. Min and D. Jacob. \A
search engine for 3d models". ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. V(No. N, 10 202002).
[2] Thomas Funkhouser Michael Kazhdan and Szymon Rusinkiewicz. \Rotation invariant
spherical harmonic representation of 3d shape descriptors". Eurographics Symposium on
Geometry Processing, 2003.
[3] Princeton 3D Model Search Engine. shape.cs.princeton.edu.
[4] Princeton Shape Benchmark. shape.cs.princeton.edu/benchmark.

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PritySole
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17-01-2012, 11:20 AM

I need more practical information about 3d model search engine with graphical representation.....
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28-01-2012, 10:00 AM


to get information about the topic 3d searching full report ,ppt and related topic please refer link bellow
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03-05-2012, 12:39 PM

3D Model Searching



.doc   3DSearching .doc (Size: 366.5 KB / Downloads: 14)

Introduction


Over the last decade, tools for acquiring and visualizing 3D models have become integral components of data processing in a number of disciplines, including medicine, chemistry, architecture and entertainment.

With the proliferation of these tools, an explosion in the number of available 3D models has occurred.

3D model searching , a tool which uses several techniques has been introduced in order to retrieve models from the database.


Challenges


The main challenge in supporting 3D shape-based similarity queries is to find a computational representation of shape (a shape descriptor) for which an index can be built and geometric matching can be performed efficiently.

The following properties are desirable for the shape descriptor.
- quick to compute
- concise to store
- easy to index
- invariant under similarity transformations
- insensitive to noise and small extra features
- independent of 3D object representation, tessellation, or genus
- robust to arbitrary topological degeneracy
- discriminating of shape differences at many scales


Retrieval Algorithm


Retrieval algorithms retrieves data from the database by using matching method. They are motivated by two principal concerns.
- The algorithm needs to be discriminating.
- The algorithm need to be efficient in both space and time

In practice, addressing the run-time efficiency requirement is done with the assistance of a shape descriptor which is an abstraction of the 3D model, capturing salient shape information in a structure that is well-suited for comparison.


Conclusion


The performance of text matching method and 2D shape matching method is comparatively less .

3D shape matching method outperforms the text matching method. But an average user will not be able to draw 3D sketches very effectively.

The quality of search results can be increased by combining text with the 3D and 2D query interfaces.




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