3G MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY full report
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3G MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY EC03 3G MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ---- THE EVOLUTIONARY ROUTE TO WIRLESS COMMUNICATION

PRESENTDED BY:
P.MOHAN KRISHNA
(III/IV) B.TECH
E.C.E
IMRAN AHMED
(III/IV) B.TECH
E.C.E
KONERU LAKSHMAIAH COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING



ABSTRACT:

3G stands for third generation, and is a wireless industry term for a collection of international standards and technologies aimed at increasing efficiency and improving the performance of mobile wireless networks.
3G wireless services offer enhancements to current applications, including greater data speeds, increased capacity for voice and data and the advent of packet data networks versus todayâ„¢s switched networks.
3G (Third Generation) is a generic name for a set of mobile technologies which use a host of high-tech infrastructure networks, handsets, base stations, switches and other equipment to allow mobiles to offer high-speed Internet access, data, and video and CD- quality music services.

This paper presentation the 3 generations of mobile technology features and services offered by 3G mobile Technology .

GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATONS;

1G (or 1-G) is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology, cell phones. These are the analog cell phone standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital cell phones. 2G networks (GSM, CDMA One, DAMPS) are the first digital cellular systems launched early 1990s.2G services are frequently referred as Personal Communications Service2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used.
The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital. Note that both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. But the call itself is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency (typically 150MHz and up).
2.5G networks (GPRS, cdma2000 1x) are the enhanced versions of 2G networks with data rates up to about 144kbit/s.While the terms "2G" and "3G" are officially defined, "2.5G" is not. It was invented for marketing purposes only.
2.5G is a stepping stone between 2G and 3G cellular wireless technologies. The term "second and a half generation" is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet switched domain in addition to the circuit switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit switched data services (HSCSD) as well.e of wireless communic2M bit/sec.
3G networks (UMTS FDD and TDD, cdma2000 1x EVDO, cdma2000 3x, TD- SCDMA, Arib WCDMA, EDGE, IMT-2000 DECT) are the latest cellular networks that have data rates 384kbit/s and more.
3G

BACKGROUND:

At the UMTS Congress in Monte Carlo, nine global leaders in wireless communications - AT&T Wireless Services, Inc., British Telecommunications Plc, Rogers Cantel Inc., Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Nokia Corporation, Nortel Networks Inc., Telenor AS, and Telecom Italia Mobile - announced the formation of a new focus group to promote an Internet Protocol (IP) based wireless system for third generation (3G) mobile communications technology.
The newly initiated focus group will go by the name 3G.IP. The nine companies have committed to support the development of next-generation wireless services such as voice, high speed data and Internet access, imaging and video conferencing on an all IP based network architecture using a common core network based on evolved General Packet Radio System (GPRS).
The 3G.IP group plans to set the direction and requirements for the work towards the development of an IP based system for 3G mobile communications technology using W- CDMA and broadband interfaces, which are ideally IP enabled voice and high-speed data transmission for global 3G services. .
The combination of a common network, harmonized air interfaces and multi- mode terminals will give customers seamless access to 3G IP services around the world, while satisfying the varied needs of each carrier.
The 3G.IP member companies will cooperate closely and share information in the development of standards for advanced communications systems that will meet or exceed all of the requirements for 3G services established by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and regulatory bodies.
The focus group expects that standardization activities related to an all IP based architecture for third generation systems should continue rapidly in the appropriate standard and specification development bodies, and the Group will fully support these standards development processes.

STANDARDS OF 3G:

International Telecommunications Unit (ITU): IMT-2000 consists of five radio interfaces
W-CDMA
CDMA2000
CDMA2001
TD-CDMA / TD-SCDMA
UWC-136
3G is a generic term covering a range of future wireless network technologies, including WCDMA, CDMA2000, UMTS and EDGE. 3G combines high-speed mobile access with Internet Protocol (IP) based services. This doesn't just mean fast mobile connection to the World Wide Web - by liberating us from slow connections, cumbersome equipment and immovable access points, 3G will enable new ways to communicate, access information, conduct business and learn. This is summarized in the diagram on below produced by Allied Business. WCDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access: A technology for wideband digital radio communications of Internet, multimedia, video and other capacity- demanding applications. WCDMA has been selected for the third generation of mobile telephone systems in Europe, Japan and the United States. Voice, images, data, and video are first converted to a narrowband digital radio signal. The signal is assigned a marker (spreading code) to distinguish it from the signal of other users. WCDMA uses variable rate techniques in digital processing and it can achieve multi-rate transmissions. WCDMA has been adopted as a standard by the ITU under the name IMT-2000 direct spread.
CDMA 2000 - Code Division Multiple Access 2000: Commercially introduced in 1995, CDMA quickly became one of the world's fastest-growing wireless technologies. In 1999, the International Telecommunications Union selected CDMA as the industry standard for new "third-generation" (3G) wireless systems. Many leading wireless carriers are now building or upgrading to 3G CDMA networks in order to provide more capacity for voice traffic, along with high-speed data capabilities. Today, over 100 million consumers worldwide rely on CDMA for clear, reliable voice communications and leading-edge data services.
CDMA 20001X for Voice and Data: CDMA2000 1X technology supports both voice and data services over a standard (1X) CDMA channel, and provides many performance advantages over other technologies. First, it provides up to twice the capacity of earlier CDMA systems (with even bigger gains over TDMA and GSM), helping to accommodate the continuing growth of voice services as well as new wireless Internet services. Second, it provides peak data rates of up to 153 kbps (and up to 307 kbps in the future), without sacrificing voice capacity for data capabilities.CDMA2000 1X phones also feature longer standby times. And because it's backwards-compatible with earlier CDMA technology, CDMA2000 1X provides an easy and affordable upgrade path for both carriers and consumers.
CDMA 20001xEV- DO for Faster Data: For those who want higher-speed or higher capacity data services, a data-optimized version of CDMA2000 called 1xEV-DO provides peak rates of over 2 Mbps, with an average throughput of over 700 kbps - comparable to wire line DSL services and fast enough to support even demanding applications such as streaming video and large file downloads. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO also delivers data for the lowest cost per megabyte, an increasingly important factor as wireless Internet use grows in popularity. 1xEV-DO devices will provide "always-on" packet data connections, helping to make wireless access simpler, faster and more useful than ever.

UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System:

The name for the third generation mobile telephone standard in Europe, standardized by ETSI. UMTS offers tele-services (like speech or SMS) and bearer services, which provide the capability for information transfer between access points. It is possible to negotiate and renegotiate the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment and during ongoing session or connection. Both connections oriented and connectionless services are offered for Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint communication.


EDGE - Enhanced Data for Global Evolution:

A technology that gives GSM the capacity to handle services for the third generation of mobile telephony. EDGE was developed to enable the transmission of large amounts of data at a high speed, 384 kilobits per second. EDGE uses the same TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) frame structure, logic channel and 200 kHz carrier bandwidth as today's GSM networks, which allows existing cell plans to remain intact

Features:

The most significant features offered by third generation (3G) mobile technologies are the momentous capacity and broadband capabilities to support greater numbers of voice and data customers - especially in urban centres - plus higher data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G.
3G uses 5 MHz channel carrier width to deliver significantly higher data rates and increased capacity compared with 2G networks.
The 5 MHz channel carrier provides optimum use of radio resources for operators who have been granted large, contiguous blocks of spectrum. On the other hand, it also helps to reduce the cost to 3G networks while being capable of providing extremely high- speed data transmission to users.
It also allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and 2Mbps for stationary systems. 3G users are expected to have greater capacity and improved spectrum efficiency, which will allow them to access global roaming between different 3G net workings.
The main characteristics of 3G are to provide mobile multimedia services at transmission rate of 144kbps at the highspeed 384kbps at the speed of walking 2Mbps indoors This theoretical maximum (2Mbps) is close to the speed of LAN connections that many households nowadays have. In addition, 3G networks can offer faster data transmission than the slowest.
What are the benefits of 3G?
Packet-based data provides several advantages over the existing circuit-switched techniques used for carrying mobile voice. It allows higher call volumes and support for multimedia data applications, such as video and photography. Users will be charged on how much data they transmit, not on how much time they are connected to the network, because with 3G you are constantly online and only pay for the information you receive.

ARCHITECTURE:

Internet
Subscription
Registers
Serving
Node - C
BS
Access Network
Serving
Node - U
Inter -connection
Service
Gateway
HA
O perator
service
network
BS
UE = User Equipment BS = Base Station
SN-U = Serving Node (User plane)
SN-C = Serving Node (Controlplane)
SGW = Service Gateway

Terminal availability:

The availability of user-friendly, affordable terminals is paramount to the speed of adoption of new technologies. It is critical at this stage to gain a clear understanding of vendor plans with regards to multimode and multi-band handset supply for 3G services. Backwards compatibility with existing 2G and 2.5G networks is key to the success of 3G. The upgrade from GSM to UMTS and the availability of dual-mode handsets is confirmed as are the terminals for CDMA and CDMA 1X.
A LOOK AT 3G SERVICES “IS THERE ANYTHING NEW?
In general terms, 3G services comprise of Mobile Internet “Browsing the Web from Mobile The term mobile Internet, or Internet in mobile, refers to gaining access to the Internet using a handheld, wireless device like a mobile phone or pda. Internet offers the advantage of always being near at hand, and of being a personal tool. On this basis possible successful services might be services developed for traveling like ticketing, checking schedules, traffic reports and related services.

Messaging services

Mobile messaging, referring to short message service (SMS) and multimedia message service (MMS), is expected to be the most utilized mobile service in the future. It is estimated that step-by-step consumers as well as business users will upgrade their messaging from sending simple text messages to multimedia messages including pictures and video clips However, in 3G networks the data transmission speed is depended upon the number of users accessing the network at the same point of time Location-specific information like informing users about the availability of stores, restaurants, gas stations, free parking lots and so on near them . Direct access to company networks business users will have a direct access to company networks while traveling or working outside office.

Third party organization:

The combination of 3g and ecommerce is leading to Ëœalwaysonâ„¢ technology enabling data to be transferred on a number of ways-not just by making a phone call. This could open up opportunities for the people to be charged by the amount data that they transfer.
City on air:
This world first development of a live 3g transmission provides a multimedia web based tourist guide with related Ëœfind me the nearestâ„¢ services, by knowing your location, your terminal can be used to find a certain street, make a hotel booking or calculate your hotel distance from the city center.
Expecting a friend to arrive by train to meet u? Using location aware technology, our Ëœbuddy finderâ„¢, can track them and notify u when they are within a certain distance.

A 3G PHONE:

Z1010 is music, video calling and full speed mobile video messaging. With this phone, you can access and enjoy the latest and most advanced operator services. UMTS makes everything go faster and smoother. With 3G video calling, you can see the person on the other end in full color and real-time movement. And they can see you. Z1010 also has an MP3 player for your favorite songs And Memory Stick Duo@ when you want to store more. Memory capacity may vary dependant on network provider and content stored/downloaded onto the phone.

Features:

Imaging Camera VGA Messaging Email Entertainment Content Online Communi Corder EMS (Enhanced Messaging) MMS(Multi Media Messaging) Games embedded Predictive text input MPEG4 Video Picture wallpaper Video call Video clip Video streaming Viewfinder display SMS long (Text messaging) Sound recorder MP3 Audio Melody composer MusicDJ„¢ Start-up/Shutdown shows Media player Connectivity Bluetooth„¢ technology GPRS Infrared

Internet

Modem
WAP 2.0 XHTML
WAP 1.2.1
RS232 cable support
UMTS
USB support
3G

Conclusion:

3G is considered to be the evolution of existing mobile communications. In the light of the discussion in this paper, there is strong evidence to suggest that the main outcome of using 3G networks and services will be to get access to the same services with faster data connection speed. Furthermore, it seems that the success of 3G lies in its ability to serve not only mobile users but in providing access to the Internet with data cardsinserted in laptops. Thus, 3G networks will serve the same purpose as LAN and WLAN networks. In terms of business opportunities, telecommunication companiesâ„¢ main source of income is still coming from voice-centric services. For example, the mobile operator Hutchinson, offering services purely in 3G networks, announced this autumn 2006 that its main source of income comes from discount packets that offer free speech time in 3G networks. Moreover, as long as the price of the network time is high in 3G, operators cannot wait fast diffusion of data centric mobile services. According to mobile operators, 3G is needed in congested places where the demand on current mobile networks exceeds the capacity.
On this basis, future research that identifies additional factors or views the factors presented in different light would contribute to the understanding of 3G acceptance. Thus, a natural extension of this study is the collection of primary data about the use and acceptance of 3G services in both consumer and business markets.


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THIRD GENERATION (3G) WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

Presented BY
P.SUNIL
3rd YEAR , E.C.E,
ELECRTONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING,
VIGNANâ„¢S ENGINEERING COLLEGE, VADLAMUDI,
GUNTUR DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH .
PINCODE : 522213
VIGNANâ„¢S ENGINEERING COLLEGE
VADLAMUDI


ABSTRACT:

Third Generation (3G) mobile devices and services will transform wireless communications in to on-line, real-time connectivity. 3G wireless technology will allow an individual to have immediate access to location-specific services that offer information on demand. The first generation of mobile phones consisted of the analog models that emerged in the early 1980s. The second generation of digital mobile phones appeared about ten years later along with the first digital mobile networks. During the second generation, the mobile telecommunications industry experienced exponential growth both in terms of subscribers as well as new types of value-added services. Mobile phones are rapidly becoming the preferred means of personal communication, creating the world's largest consumer electronics industry.
The rapid and efficient deployment of new wireless data and Internet services has emerged as a critical priority for communications equipment manufacturers. Network components that enable wireless data services are fundamental to the next-generation network infrastructure. Wireless data services are expected to see the same explosive growth in demand that Internet services and wireless voice services have seen in recent years.
This white paper presents an overview of current technology trends in the wireless technology market, a historical overview of the evolving wireless technologies and an examination of how the communications industry plans to implement 3G wireless technology standards to address the growing demand for wireless multimedia services. We also show the differences between third generation wireless technology when compared to different wireless technologies.

3G Wireless Market Drivers:

Telecommunications service providers and network operators are embracing the recently adopted global third generation (3G) wireless standards in order to address emerging user demands and to provide new services. The concept of 3G wireless technology represents a shift from voice-centric services to multimedia-oriented (voice, data, video, fax) services. In addition, heavy demand for remote access to personalized data is fueling development of applications, such as the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and multimedia management, to complement the 3G protocols. Complementary standards, such as Bluetooth, will enable interoperability between a mobile terminal (phone, PDA etc.) and other electronic devices, such as a laptop/desktop and peripherals, providing added convenience to the consumer and allowing for the synchronization and uploading of information at all times. According to Lehman Brothers, approximately 50 percent of current voice services subscribers are expected to use wireless data services by 2007, instead of 25 percent as previously forecast1. Lehman Brothers further predicts that, within seven years, 18 percent of cellular revenues and 21 percent of PCS (personal communications services) revenue will come from wireless data services. Cellular subscriptions are forecast to exceed one billion by 20032, compared with the 306 million that was forecast at the end of 1998, representing a compound annual growth of 29 percent. Demand for voice services has traditionally been a market driver. However, today, demand for data services has emerged as an equally significant market driver. After many years of stasis, the telecommunications industry is undergoing revolutionary changes due to the impact of increased demand for data services on wireline and wireless networks. Up until recently, data
traffic over mobile networks remained low at around 2% due to the bandwidth limitations of the present second-generation (2G) wireless networks. Today, new technologies are quickly emerging that will optimize the transport of data services and offer higher bandwidth in a mobile environment. As a case in point, the increased use of the Internet as an acceptable source for information distribution and retrieval, in conjunction with the increased demand for global mobility has created a need for 3G wireless communications protocols.
The third generation of mobile communications will greatly enhance the implementation of sophisticated wireless applications. Users will be able to utilize personal, location-based wireless information and interactive services. Also, many companies and corporations are restructuring their business processes to be able to fully exploit the opportunities provided by the emerging new wireless data services. Many advanced wireless services are already available today, and the introduction of 3G wireless technologies will add to their ubiquity.

Generation First Wireless Technology:

The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signalling. Analog systems, implemented in North America, were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of the world were typically identified as a variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice, not data.
Second Generation Wireless Technology:
The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signalling. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). GSM systems, first implemented in 1991, are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200kHz each. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight timeslots. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. Today, GSM systems operate in the 900MHz and 1.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1.9 GHz band. In addition to GSM, a similar technology, called Personal Digital Communications (PDC), using TDMA-based technology, emerged in Japan. Since then, several other TDMA-based systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. While GSM technology was developed in Europe, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. CDMA uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small, digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. While GSM and other TDMA-based systems have become the dominant 2G wireless technologies, CDMA technology is recognized as providing clearer voice quality with less background noise, fewer dropped calls, enhanced security, greater reliability and greater network capacity. The Second Generation (2G) wireless networks mentioned above are also mostly based on circuit-switched technology. 2G wireless networks are digital and expand the range of applications to more advanced voice services, such as Called Line Identification. 2G wireless technology can handle some data capabilities such as fax and short message service at the data rate of up to 9.6 kbps, but it is not suitable for web browsing and multimedia applications.

Next Generation Mobile Networks:

Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks: As stated in a previous section, the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. However, the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow -- too slow for today's Internet. As a result, GSM, PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies. HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband mobile data networks. This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57.6kbps by introducing 14.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14.4 kbps. GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems. GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM, PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200kHz-frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet, such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail, ftp and HTTP-based Web services. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD, whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. In ECSD, the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface, but the data rate per timeslot will triple. Similarly, in EGPRS, the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput, including all eight timeslots in the radio interface, will exceed 384 kbps.
GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN), Base Station Services (BSS), Mobile handsets (MS), and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN), e.g. an Internet backbone or an X.25 network. The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA, TDMA), providing wireless voice and data connectivity to the mobile handsets. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information. The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS. On the data side, the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN, and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber.
Figure 1 shows a GPRS network.

The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol, such as IP or X.25, to the underlying logical link control. SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression, segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol “ D (LAPD). This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS. BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism. GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP.
Figure 2 shows the protocols used in BTS, BSC, SGSN, GGSN, and mobile handsets:

GPRS Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signalling plane of GPRS, handles mobility issues such as roaming, authentication, selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context. Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sub-layer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN, thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers. BSSAP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. SCCP, MTP3, MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs. Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR.

Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks:

3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technology is its ability to unify existing cellular standards, such as CDMA, GSM, and TDMA, under one umbrella. The following three air interface modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA, CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC-136) interfaces. Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) is compatible with the current 2G GSM networks prevalent in Europe and parts of Asia. W-CDMA will require bandwidth of between 5Mhz and 10 Mhz, making it a suitable platform for higher capacity applications. It can be overlaid onto existing GSM, TDMA (IS-36) and IS95 networks. Subscribers are likely to access 3G wireless services initially via dual band terminal devices. W-CDMA networks will be used for high-capacity applications and 2G digital wireless systems will be used for voice calls. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. The third radio interface, Universal Wireless Communications “ UWC-136, also called IS-136HS, was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI-136, the North American TDMA standard. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain, which includes 3G SGSNs and GSNs, which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system, and a circuit-switched domain, which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF), which is also part of the core network. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. The access network provides a core network technology independent access for mobile terminals to different types of core networks and network services. Either core network domain can access any appropriate RAN service; e.g. it should be possible to access a speech radio access bearer from the packet switched domain. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements, known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. It provides the radio resource management, handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub, Iur and Iu interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. Data services run from the terminal device over IP, which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. The Iu interface is split into 2 parts: circuitswitched and packet-switched. The Iu interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL2 technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice.
The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in a 3G wireless network infrastructure:
Global Mobility Management (GMM): protocol that includes attach, detach, security, and routing area update functionality. Node B Application Part (NBAP): provides procedures for paging distribution, broadcast system information and management of dedicated and logical resources. Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP): maps higher level characteristics onto the characteristics of the underlying radio-interface protocols. PDCP also provides protocol transparency for higher layer protocols
Figure 3 shows the 3G wireless network architecture.

Figure 4 shows protocols used in Node B, RNC and mobile handsets.


PDCP also provides protocol transparency for higher layer protocols. Radio Link Control (RLC): provides a logical link control over the radio interface. Medium Access Control (MAC): controls the access signaling (request and grant) procedures for the radio channel. Radio resource Control (RRC): manages the allocation and maintenance of radio communication paths.
Radio Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP): encapsulates higher layer signaling. Manages the signaling and GTP connections between RNC and 3G-SGSN, and signaling and circuit-switched connections between RNC and 3G MSC. Radio Network Service Application Part (RNSAP): provides the communication between RNCs. GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP. Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR. AAL2 Signaling (Q.2630.1, Q.2150.1, Q.2150.2, AAL2 SSSAR, and AAL2 CPS): protocols suite used to transfer voice over ATM backbone using ATM adaptation layer 2. Sigtran (SCTP, M3UA): protocols suite used to transfer SCN signaling protocols over IP network.
Evolution to 3G Wireless Technology:
Initial coverage Initially, 3G wireless technology will be deployed as "islands" in business areas where more capacity and advanced services are demanded. A complete evolution to 3G wireless technology is mandated by the end of 2000 in Japan (mostly due to capacity requirements) and by the end of 2001 in Europe. NTT DoCoMo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000. In contrast, there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely thatcompetition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. For example, Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000. The implementation of 3G wireless systems raises several critical issues, such as the successful backward compatibility to air interfaces as well as to deployed infrastructures. Interworking with 2G and 2G+ Wireless Networks The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next-generation wireless technology.Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless technology by service providers and end-users.
The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services. However, this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. The core switches for next-generation of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. Second generation GSM networks consist of BTS, BSC, MSC/VLR and HLR/AuC/EIR network elements. The interfaces between BTS, BSC and MSC/VLR elements are circuit-switched PCM. GPRS technology adds a parallel packet-switched core network. The 2G+ network consists of BSC with packet interfaces to SGSN, GGSN, HLR/AuC/EIR. The interfaces between BSC and SGSN network elements are either Frame Relay and/or ATM so as to provide reliable transport with Quality of Service (QoS). 3G wireless technology introduces new Radio Access Network (RAN) consisting of Node B and RNC network elements. The 3G Core Network consists of the same entities as GSM and GPRS: 3G MSC/VLR, GMSC, HLR/AuC/EIR, 3G-SGSN, and GGSN. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. 3G wireless solutions allow for the possibility of having an integrated network for circuit-switched and packet-switched services by utilizing ATM technology. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. The carrier frequency (5Mhz) and the bands (2.5 to 5Ghz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP, RRC, RANAP, RNSAP and NBAP. Therefore, BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services. If an ATM network is chosen, then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. The evolution of SGSN and GGSN to 3G nodes is relatively easier. Enhancements to GTP protocol and support for new RANAP protocol are necessary to support 3G wireless systems. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. The HLR databases evolve into 3G-HLR by adding 3G wireless user profiles. The VLR database must also be updated accordingly. The EIR database needs to change to accommodate new equipment that will be deployed for 3G wireless systems. Finally, global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region. Towards this end, the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols.

Comparison of 2G and 3G Mobile Networks:

As mentioned above, although there are many similarities between 2G and 3G wireless networks (and many of the 2G and 3G components are shared or connected through interworking functions), there are also many differences between the two technologies. Table 1 compares the differences between the core network, the radio portion and other areas of the two networks.

REFERENCES:

WWW://GOOGLE.COM
WWW://IEEE.COM
NATIONALWIDE WIRELESS.NET
SLIMSOUISSI.ADVANCES RESEARCH.NOVATTEL WIRELESS INC.
CDMA DEVELOPMENT GROUP.WHITE PAPERS
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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23-09-2010, 12:33 PM

i want to 3G technology histary
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27-09-2010, 09:59 AM


.ppt   3G.ppt (Size: 1,010.5 KB / Downloads: 615)
INTRODUCTION

Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications!!
For the consumer
Video streaming, TV broadcast
Video calls, video clips – news, music, sports
Enhanced gaming, chat, location services…
For business
High speed teleworking / VPN access
Sales force automation
Video conferencing
Real-time financial information

3G services in Asia

CDMA (1xEV-DO)
Korea: SKT, KTF
Japan: AU (KDDI)
WCDMA / UMTS
Japan: NTT DoCoMo, Vodafone KK
Australia: 3 Hutchinson
Hong Kong: 3 Hutchinson



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#5
08-10-2010, 02:38 PM


.ppt   Mobile Communications.ppt (Size: 2.99 MB / Downloads: 374)
Mobile Communications



Market
GSM
Overview
Services
Sub-systems
Components

GSM: Overview

GSM
formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982)
now: Global System for Mobile Communication
Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute)
simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991, 1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations (Germany: D1 and D2)  seamless roaming within Europe possible
today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 130 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America)
more than 100 million subscribers


Performance characteristics of GSM
Blush
Communication
mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services
Total mobility
international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers
Worldwide connectivity
one number, the network handles localization
High capacity
better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell
High transmission quality
high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains)
Security functions
access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN


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#6
12-10-2010, 02:54 PM

This article is presented by:
Rodger E. Ziemer
IEEE Communications Society
Distinguished Lecturer Program


3G CDMA - WCDMA and cdma2000


Rules for Efficient Multiple Access

Three laws
Know the channel
Minimize interference to others
Mitigate interference received from others
Requirements of wireless multiple access
Channel measurement
Channel control and modification
Multiple user channel isolation

Why CDMA?

Higher capacity
Improved performance in multipath by diversity
Lower mobile transmit power = longer battery life
Power control
Variable transmission rate with voice activity detection
Allows soft handoff
Sectorization gain
High peak data rates can be accommodated
Combats other-user interference = lower reuse factors

What is Third Generation?
Flexible support of multiple services
Voice
Messaging – email, fax, etc.
Medium-rate multimedia – Internet access, educational
High-rate multimedia – file transfer, video
High-rate interactive multimedia – video telecon-ferencing, telemedicine, etc.
Mobility: quasi-stationary to high-speed platforms
Global roaming: ubiquitous, seamless coverage
Evolution from second generation systems

For more information about this article,please follow the link:
googleurl?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBUQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fee.washington.edu%2Fresearch%2Fieee-comm%2FPresentations%2Fcomsoc_talks%2F3G%2520CDMA%2520-%2520WCDMA%2520and%2520cdma2000_2.ppt&ei=kCi0TPDtH4ycvgOEr8mLCg&usg=AFQjCNFQK8aqWBcZ7LR9NcKFcNe72ZI9CA

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24-02-2011, 09:31 AM


.ppt   21 Final 3G (1).ppt (Size: 1.04 MB / Downloads: 227)
Overview of 3G
Why 3G?

• Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications!!
• For the consumer
– Video streaming, TV broadcast
– Video calls, video clips – news, music, sports
– Enhanced gaming, chat, location services…
• For business
– High speed teleworking / VPN access
– Sales force automation
– Video conferencing
– Real-time financial information
3G services in Asia
• CDMA (1xEV-DO)
– Korea: SKT, KTF
– Japan: AU (KDDI)
• WCDMA / UMTS
– Japan: NTT DoCoMo, Vodafone KK
– Australia: 3 Hutchinson
– Hong Kong: 3 Hutchinson
3G Standards
• 3G Standard is created by ITU-T and is called as IMT-2000.
• The aim of IMT-2000 is to harmonize worldwide 3G systems to provide Global Roaming.
Upgrade paths for 2G Technologies
Evolution of Mobile Systems to 3G
- drivers are capacity, data speeds, lower cost of delivery for revenue growth
Performance evolution of cellular technologies
Services roadmap
2G TECHNOLOGIES
GSM evolution to 3G
GPRS

• General Packet Radio Service
– Packet based Data Network
– Well suited for non-real time internet usage including retrieval of email, faxes and asymmetric web browsing.
– Supports multi user network sharing of individual radio channels and time slots.
– Provides packet network on dedicated GSM radio channels
– GPRS overlays a packet-switched architecture on existing GSM network architecture
• Variable performance…
– Packet Random Access, Packet Switched
– Content handling
– Throughput depends on coding scheme, # timeslots etc
– From ~ 9 kbps min to max. of 171.8 kbps (in theory!)
• Modulation – GMSK
• Symbol Rate – 270 ksym/s
• Modulation bit rate – 270 kbps
• Radio data rate per time slot – 22.8kbps
• User data rate per time slot – 20kbps (CS4)
• User data rate (8 time slots) – 160kbps, 182.4kbps
• Applications are required to provide their own error correction scheme as part of carried data payload.
Channel data rates determined by Coding Scheme
 CS1 guarantees connectivity under all conditions (signaling and start of data)
 CS2 enhances the capacity and may be utilised during the data transfer phase
 CS3/CS4 will bring the highest speed but only under good conditions
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03-03-2011, 09:39 AM

PRESENTED BY:-
RAJESH KUMAR


.ppt   3G tech.ppt (Size: 2.67 MB / Downloads: 127)
WHAT IS 3G ?
WhY 3G?

 Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications!!
For the consumer
 Video streaming, TV broadcast
 Video calls, video clips – news, music, sports
 Enhanced gaming, chat, location services…
For business
 High speed teleworking / VPN access
 Sales force automation
 Video conferencing
 Real-time financial information
3G services in Asia
CDMA

 Korea: SKT, KTF
 Japan: AU (KDDI)
WCDMA / UMTS
 Japan: NTT DoCoMo, Vodafone KK
 Australia: 3 Hutchinson
 Hong Kong: 3 Hutchinson
 INDIA : BSNL
3G Standards
 3G Standard is created by ITU-T and is called as IMT-2000.
 The aim of IMT-2000 is to harmonize worldwide 3G systems to provide Global Roaming.
3G OR UMTS Network Architecture
3G Technical Specifications:

 The transfer rate for 3G networks is between 144 and 2mbps (kilobits per second) for devices that are moving fast and 384 kbps for slow ones(like for pedestrians). For fixed wireless LANs, the speed goes beyond 2 Mbps.
3G makes possible a world of mobile multimed
WHAT IS NEXT GEN..?
NEXT IS 3.5G:

3.5G or HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is an enhanced version and the next intermediate generation of 3G UMTS. It comprises the technologies that improve the Air Interface and increase the spectral efficiency, to support data rates of the order of 30 Mbps. 3.5G introduces many new features that will enhance the UMTS technology in future. 1xEV-DV already supports most of the features that will be provided in 3.5G. These include:
 Adaptive Modulation and Coding
 Fast Scheduling
 Backward compatibility with 3G
 Enhanced Air interface
4G: Anytime, Anywhere Connection
• Also known as ‘Mobile Broadband everywhere’
• ‘MAGIC’
 Mobile Multimedia Communication
 Anywhere, Anytime with Anyone
 Global Mobility Support
 Integrated Wireless Solution
 Customized Personal Service
• According to 4G Mobile Forum, by 2008 over $400 billion would be invested in 4G mobile project and implimentations.
• In India, communication Minister Mr. KAPIL SIBAL, has announced a national centre of excellence to work in 4G arena.
4G: Data rate Facts
 Transmission at 20 Mbps
 2000 times faster than mobile data rates
 10 times faster than top transmission rates planned in final build out of 3G broadband mobile
 10-20 times faster than standard ADSL services.
 Companies developing 4G technology
 Cellular phone companies: Alcatel, Nortel, Motorola,
 IT Companies: Hughes,HP,LG Electronics
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07-03-2011, 10:20 AM


.docx   An Introduction to 3G Technology.docx (Size: 12.46 KB / Downloads: 86)
An Introduction to 3G Technology
3G services for mobile devices have been introduced by various handset creators and cellular carriers. The companies, however, are not very good at explaining the exact details, except for a given few. There seems to be a missing link between the current standard from previous services provided by 2.5G or 2G technology. Knowing the types and details will help you pick the right tools for your personal use or business. Here are some features.
About 3G
3G cellular technology is defined as the provision of wireless broadband data and information services right to a person’s mobile unit. Compared to the previous technologies, 3G promises speeds ranging from 144 Kbps, which is 3 times faster compared to the traditional 56K dial-up modem connection up to 2.4 Mbps, which is very near cable-modem speed. The networks of 3G allows you to browse quickly through web pages, watch on-demand video programs, download and play music, videos and 3D games, watch streaming videos and music videos and have a video conference with others located on the other side of the plant.
More Developments
The HSDPA is a new technology, which may also be called 3.5G, coming very soon. This offers fasters speeds of up to 7.2 Mbps and also promises the likes of 14.4 Mbps very soon. The interface is very much different on a cellular phone, but other experiences like downloading, streaming, web browsing and sending messages and email can be very comparable to a computer broadband connection.
As of the present, there are 3 big carriers that introduced and launched 3G services. There is also a wide array of 3G-enabled handsets now. In early 2005, Verizon Wireless first marketed the devices. Sprint and Cingular followed soon after. Cingular is now known as AT&T. T-Mobile is also joining the pack as it introduces its new 3G network in 2008.
The Accesses
Currently, 3G technology is the most recent in mobile communications. 3G is the shorter term for third generation, making analogue cellular technology generation one and digital/PCS generation two. The 3G technology is planned and devised for the real multimedia cellular phone, also known as smart phones. These tools feature higher bandwidths and transfer rates to cater to web-based applications and phone-based video and audio data files.
The most common include CDMA2000, which is based on code division multiple access, TD-SCDMA, which stands for Time-division Synchronous Code-division Multiple Access and WCDMA or UMTS which stands for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access.
The Networks

3G networks have the capability of transferring speeds up to 3 Mbps which is equivalent to around 15 seconds for every download of a 3-minute MP3 song. To compare, the speediest 3G cellular phones can move speeds up to 144 Kbps, which is equivalent to around 8 minutes to download a 3-minute MP3 song. The high data rates of 3G are recommended when downloading or acquiring information online, as well as sending and receiving huge multimedia files.
3G phones are comparable to small laptops that can cater to several broadband applications like browsing the internet, receiving streaming videos online, video conferencing and sending and receiving faxes. The soaring towers are among the most important element of the group, allowing the data to be transferred from one hone to another. 3G basically is a cellular phone network protocol.
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18-03-2011, 02:31 PM


.ppt   21 Final 3G.ppt (Size: 1.24 MB / Downloads: 88)
Why 3G?
• Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications!!
For the consumer
– Video streaming, TV broadcast
– Video calls, video clips – news, music, sports
– Enhanced gaming, chat, location services…
For business
– High speed teleworking / VPN access
– Sales force automation
– Video conferencing
– Real-time financial information
3G services in Asia
• CDMA (1xEV-DO)
– Korea: SKT, KTF
– Japan: AU (KDDI)
• WCDMA / UMTS
– Japan: NTT DoCoMo, Vodafone KK
– Australia: 3 Hutchinson
– Hong Kong: 3 Hutchinson
3G Standards
• 3G Standard is created by ITU-T and is called as IMT-2000.
• The aim of IMT-2000 is to harmonize worldwide 3G systems to provide Global Roaming.
GSM evolution to 3G
GPRS

• General Packet Radio Service
– Packet based Data Network
– Well suited for non-real time internet usage including retrieval of email, faxes and asymmetric web browsing.
– Supports multi user network sharing of individual radio channels and time slots.
– Provides packet network on dedicated GSM radio channels
– GPRS overlays a packet-switched architecture on existing GSM network architecture
• Variable performance…
– Packet Random Access, Packet Switched
– Content handling
– Throughput depends on coding scheme, # timeslots etc
– From ~ 9 kbps min to max. of 171.8 kbps (in theory!)
EDGE
• EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
– EDGE is add-on to GPRS
– Uses 8-PSK modulation in good conditions
– Increase throughput by 3x (8-PSK – 3 bits/symbol vs GMSK 1 bit/symbol)
– Offer data rates of 384kbps, theoretically up to 473.6kbps
– Uses 9 Modulation coding schemes (MCS1-9)
– MCS(1-4) uses GMSK, while MCS(5-9) uses 8PSK modulation.
– Uses Link adaptation algorithm
– Modulation Bit rate – 810kbps
– Radio data rate per time slot – 69.2kbps
– User data rate per time slot – 59.2kbps (MCS9)
– User data rate (8 time slots) – 473.6kbps
• New handsets / terminal equipment; additional hardware in the BTS, Core network and the rest remains the same
• EDGE access develops to connect to 3G core
• Coding Schemes for EGPRS
UMTS
UMTS is the European vision of 3G.

• UMTS is an upgrade from GSM via GPRS or EDGE.
• The standardization work for UMTS is carried out by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
• Data rates of UMTS are:
– 144 kbps for rural
– 384 kbps for urban outdoor
– 2048 kbps for indoor and low range outdoor
Virtual Home Environment (VHE)
UMTS Network Architecture

• UMTS network architecture consists of three domains:
– Core Network (CN) : To provide switching, routing and transit for user traffic.
– UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) : Provides the air interface access method for User Equipment.
– User Equipment (UE) : Terminals work as air interface counterpart for Node B. The various identities are: IMSI, TMSI, P-TMSI, TLLI, MSISDN, IMEI, IMEISV.
UTRAN
W-CDMA makes possible a world of mobile multimedia
• CDMA2000 evolution to 3G
• 1xEV-DV
• Backward compatible with CDMA 2000.
• EV-DV can be easily extended to operate in 3x mode under the framework of current system.
• Forward peak data rate : 3.072 Mbps.
• Reverse peak data rate: 451.2 kbps.
• Addition of three new channels to f/w link and reverse link for packet data operation and its support.
• Adaptive modulation and coding : QPSK, 8- PSK, 16-QAM
• Variable frame duration
• Mobile station can select one of N base stations.
• DTX transmission supported for saving battery life.
• CDMA2000 1X and CDMA 1X EVDO Vendors
Terminal Vendors
• Audiovox
• Ericsson
• Hyundai CURITEL
• Kyocera
• LG Electronics
• Motorola
• Nokia
• Samsung
• Sanyo
• SK TeleTech
Wireless Modem
• AirPrime
• AnyDATA
• GTRAN
• Novatel Wireless
• Sierra Wireless
3.5G
3.5G or HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is an enhanced version and the next intermediate generation of 3G UMTS. It comprises the technologies that improve the Air Interface and increase the spectral efficiency, to support data rates of the order of 30 Mbps. 3.5G introduces many new features that will enhance the UMTS technology in future. 1xEV-DV already supports most of the features that will be provided in 3.5G. These include:
• Adaptive Modulation and Coding
• Fast Scheduling
• Backward compatibility with 3G
• Enhanced Air interface
4G: Anytime, Anywhere Connection
• Also known as ‘Mobile Broadband everywhere’
• ‘MAGIC’
– Mobile Multimedia Communication
– Anywhere, Anytime with Anyone
– Global Mobility Support
– Integrated Wireless Solution
– Customized Personal Service
• According to 4G Mobile Forum, by 2008 over $400 billion would be invested in 4G mobile project and implimentations.
• In India, communication Minister Mr. Dayanidhi Maran, has announced a national centre of excellence to work in 4G arena.
4G: Data rate Facts
• Transmission at 20 Mbps
• 2000 times faster than mobile data rates
• 10 times faster than top transmission rates planned in final build out of 3G broadband mobile
• 10-20 times faster than standard ADSL services.
• Companies developing 4G technology
– Cellular phone companies: Alcatel, Nortel, Motorola,
– IT Companies: Hughes,HP,LG Electronics
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#11
18-03-2011, 03:44 PM

Good post, some useful information here.
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29-03-2011, 01:58 PM

Presented By
Kiran Kumar Panigrahi


.ppt   3Gmobile.ppt (Size: 255 KB / Downloads: 100)
Structure of Presentation
– What is 3G?
– 3G Standards and capabilities
– 3G mobile’s place in the market
– Summary
– Further information
The IMT-2000 third generation mobile standard enables mobile users to harness the full power of the Internet through efficient high-speed radio transmission, optimized for multimedia communications.
Bandwidth and Speed
3G Capabilities

 High-speed data transmissions
 Symmetrical and asymmetrical data transmission support
 Improved voice quality
 Greater capacity
 Multiple simultaneous services
 Global roaming across networks
 Improved security
 Service flexibility
The 3G Performance Advantage
Time to download a 1 MB file:
• Fixed line modem: 3 minutes
• GSM cell phone: 15 minutes
• Enhanced GSM phone: 1-5 minutes
• 3G phone (outdoor): 21 seconds
• 3G phone (indoor): 4 seconds
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02-04-2011, 03:32 PM

PRESENTED BY:
Abhijeet Mane
Aniruddha Jadhav
Archana Devi
Ramlal Bdre
Jeslina Correia
Dipti Dalvi
Dilip Jain
Dipesh Raut
Viral Doshi
Akanksha Gadade


.pptx   3G.pptx (Size: 1.07 MB / Downloads: 79)
What is 3G?
• 3G is the third generation technology.
• It supersedes 2G and precedes 4G.
• 2.5G was a temporary bridge between 2G & 3G.
Required Features:
– faster data-transmission speeds.
– greater network capacity.
– more advanced network services.
Feature Of 3G
• 3G promises increased bandwidth.
• up to 384 Kbps at stable.
• 128 Kbps in a car or moving.
• 2 Mbps in fixed applications.
• 3G will work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM,
TDMA, and CDMA.
• The new EDGE air interface has been developed specifically to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G.
How does 3G works?
• 3G technology is intended for the true multimedia cell phone(Smartphone).
• Features increased bandwidth and transfer rates to accommodate Web-based applications and phone-based audio and video files.
• 3G networks have potential transfer speeds of up to 3 Mbps (3min mp3 take 15 sec to download).
• Comparison to the fastest 2G phones can achieve up to 144Kbps (3min mp3 take 8 min to download).
Services By 3G
• video conferencing
• receiving streaming video from the Web
• IPTV
• sending and receiving faxes
• instantly downloading e-mail messages with attachments.
3G Protocol
• Protocols in 3G transmit data in terms of megabytes per second rather than kilobytes(some as fast as 10 Mbps).
• Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS)
• Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)
• High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
• Evolution Data Maximized (EVDO)
3G Development
• December 2005, 100 3G networks were operating in 40 countries.
• In Europe, 3G services were introduced starting in March 2003 in the UK and Italy.
• By June 2007 the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected.
• The first commercial UMTS 3G network in Africa (the first test call was made on 16 October 2004)
Advantage & Disadvantage of 3G
• Advantage:
– International Telecommunication Union .
– International Mobile Telecommunications program.
• Disadvantage:
– 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G.
– Expensive.
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#14
04-04-2011, 03:01 PM

Presented by:
Harsh Bhatia


.ppt   3G.ppt (Size: 379.5 KB / Downloads: 58)
INTRODUCTION
Before knowing about 3G we need to know the basic types of networks viz.:-
SIMPLEX
DUPLEX
TRIPLEX
SIMPLEX
In case of walky talky only one person can speak at a time pressing the button such a situation is SIMPLEX. (1 way data transmission)
DUPLEX
Whereas a mobile phone allows simultaneous two way data transmission-a situation known as DUPLEX.
TRIPLEX(3G)
3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single uniform global system which includes terrestrial and satellite components in its functioning.
SPEED
Overcoming the slow speeds of previous networks it provides a high speed of 2Mbit/s to 14.4Mbit/s for a stationary user.
SECURITY
3G networks offer a greater degree of security than 2G predecessors.
End to end security is offered when application frameworks are accessed.
SPECTRUM
Bandwidth needed for 3G services is 15-20 Mhz much greater than 30-200 Khz for a 2G network.
CONCLUSION
3G has ability to unify existing cellular standards such as GSM, CDMA and TDMA providing much better speed, security, usage and additional features to capture today’s market.
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#15
21-06-2011, 04:35 PM


.doc   22166143-3g-Seminar-Topic-Printout.doc (Size: 617.5 KB / Downloads: 75)
3G Technology
1. Introduction
What is 3G?

3G is a wireless data standard that has been developed and agreed upon by wireless infrastructure and equipment manufacturers. Developing a standard like 3G is no easy task. There are many wireless data technologies out there and there are big dollars chasing these technologies around not making the task any easier. The 3G specs have also been modified over the years and currently we are looking at 3G release 6.
3G encompasses a group of technologies that are all aimed at bringing high speed data transfers to mobile electronic devices. Many of the original 3G technologies have been built on W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) and TD-CDMA (Time Division Code Division Multiple Access) radio technologies. But, there has been great success using the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standardized, GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). GSM is used by companies like Cingular and AT&T Wireless. Today, HSDPA is promising to bring broadband speeds to GSM wireless networks with downstream speeds of up to 3.6Mbps and upstream of 384Kbps.
2. Generations and history
3G refers to the third generation of developments in wireless technology, especially mobile communications. The third generation, as its name suggests, follows the first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) in wireless communications.
2.1 1G
The 1G period began in the late 1970s and lasted through the 1980s. These systems featured the first true mobile phone systems, known at first as "cellular mobile radio telephone." These networks used analog voice signaling, and were little more sophisticated than the repeater networks used by amateur radio operators.
2.2 2G
The 2G phase began in the 1990s and much of this technology is still in use. The 2G cell phone features digital voice encoding. Examples include CDMA and GSM. Since its inception, 2G technology has steadily improved, with increased bandwidth, packet routing, and the introduction of multimedia.
3. 3G includes capabilities and features such as:
• Enhanced multimedia (voice, data, video, and remote control).
• Usability on all popular modes (cellular telephone, e-mail, paging, fax, videoconferencing, and Web browsing).
• Broad bandwidth and high speed (upwards of 2 Mbps).
• Roaming capability throughout Europe, Japan, and North America.
While 3G is generally considered applicable mainly to mobile wireless, it is also relevant to fixed wireless and portable wireless. A 3G system should be operational from any location on, or over, the earth's surface, including use in homes, businesses, government offices, medical establishments, the military, personal and commercial land vehicles, private and commercial watercraft and marine craft, private and commercial aircraft (except where passenger use restrictions apply), portable (pedestrians, hikers, cyclists, campers), and space stations and spacecraft.
3G offers the potential to keep people connected at all times and in all places. Researchers, engineers, and marketers are faced with the challenge of accurately predicting how much technology consumers will actually be willing to pay for. Another challenge faced by 3G services is competition from other high-speed wireless technologies, especially mobile WiMAX, and ability to roam between different kinds of wireless networks.
The current status of mobile wireless communications, as of July 2007, is a mix of 2nd and 3rd generation technologies.
4. 4G
Although the new, third generation (3G) wireless technology has not yet been implemented, leading companies in the industry are already laying the groundwork for what some are calling fourth generation (4G) technology. For the purposes of this article, 4G will be considered those technologies that are still in the planning stages and will not be deployed within the next five years.
Researchers are continuing their ideas in the development of an undefined wireless world, which could become operational by 2010.
The first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) of mobile telephony were intended primarily for voice transmission.
The third generation of mobile telephony (3G) will serve both voice and data applications.
There really is no clear definition of what 4G will be. It is generally accepted that 4G will be a super-enhanced version of 3G – i.e., an entirely packet switched network with all digital network elements and extremely high available bandwidth.
For the most part, it is believed that 4G will bring true multimedia capabilities such as high-speed data access and video conferencing to the handset. It is also envisioned that 4G systems will be deployed with software defined radios, allowing the equipment to be upgraded to new protocols and services via software upgrades.
4G also holds the promise of worldwide roaming using a single handheld device.
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