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31-12-2010, 05:24 PM

.docx   A Case Study Of Different Processes Of Sewage Treatment Plant.docx (Size: 1.03 MB / Downloads: 130)


(Department Of Environmental Engineering)
Hindustan College Of Science & Technology, Farah,(Mathura)

Env. Engg final year

Sewerage system for any city is essential need. Because of sewerage provide a proper drainage of sewer water and waste water from communities as well as industrial areas. All the waste water drains in a water body like river, canal, nallas etc. As environmental aspect the waste water should be treated before drainage because untreated waster creates water pollution in water bodies and disturbs the ecological system. Overcome these problems we need a proper sewer treatment system.
In Agra the four treatment plant are located as given below:
All of them here we visited 78 mld stp plant, dhandhupura, agra, which works on the uasb technology. And all treated water reaches to river Yamuna and near by areas of agra villages.
Some aspects of treatment technology and waste water characterstics are given as follows:


before we can decide about the line of its treatment and disposal, it is essential to know its composition, quality and characteristics. through the characteristics of sewage or waste water depends up to the source of its discharge . the characteristics of waste water can be classified under the following three head:


A) COLOR : fresh sewage is generally grey, with the passage of time, as putrefications starts, it begin to get black.
B) ODOUR: normal fresh sewage has a musty odour which is normally not offensive, but as it starts to get stale, it begin to give offensive odour.
C) TEMPERATURE: generally, the temperature of waste water is higher than that of the water supply, due to addition of warm water from the households and industries. when waste water flows in closed conduits, its temperature rise further. this results the increase in the viscosity of waste water and also increase in the bacterial activity.
D) TURBIDITY: the turbidity of waste water depends on the quantity of solid matters present in the suspension state.
E) TOTAL SOLIDS: sewage normally contain 99.9 % of water and 0.1 % of solids. Analytically, the total solid contents of a waste water is defined as al the matter that remains as residue upon evaporation to 103 to 105 c. total solid in waste water exist in three differen forms-
i) Suspended solid
ii) Colloidal solid
iii) Dissolved solid
iv) Suspended solid


A) pH VALUE: the test for pH value of waste water is carried out to determine weather it is acidic or alkaline in nature. Fresh sewage is generally alkaline in nature.
B) CHLORIDE CONTENT: chloride is mineral salt and, therefore, are not affected by biological action of sewage. Chloride is natural water result from the leaching of chloride-containing rock and soil which the water comes in contact.
C) NITROGEN CONTENT: the presence of nitrogen in waste water indicates the presence of organic matter in it.
D) FATS, GREASE AND OILS: fat and oil are mainly contributed from kitchen waste, because they are major components of food material.
E) SURFACTANTS: surfactants comes primarily from synthetic detergents. These are discharged from bathroom, kitchen, washing machine etc.
F) PHENOLS, PESTICIDE AND AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL: phenol are mostly found in industrial waste water. Pesticide, herbicides and other agriculture chemicals primarily results from surface runoff from agricultural and vacant land.
G) TOXIC COMPOUND: Copper, lead, silver, chromium, arsenic and boron are some of the cation which are toxic to micro-organism resulting in the malfunctioning of the biological treatment plant.
H) SULPHATE, SULPHIDE AND H2S GAS: Sulphate and sulphide are formed due to decomposition of various sulphur containing substances presence in wastewater.
I) OTHER GASES: following are the gases that are commonly found in untreated waste water:
i) Nitrogen (N2)
ii) Oxygen (O2)
iii) Carbon-dioxide (CO2)
iv) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
v) Ammonia (NH3)
vi) Methane(CH4)
The first three gases are found in all water while methane gas is the principal by-product of the anaerobic decomposition of the organic matter in waste water.

J) DISSOLVED OXYGEN: dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen in the dissolved state in the state in the waste water. Through waste water generally does not have DO, its presence in untreated waste water indicate that waste water is fresh. Similarly , its presence in treated waste water indicates that considerable oxidation has been accomplished during the treatment stages.

K) BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD):"The bod may be defind as the oxygen required for the micro-organisms to carry out biological decomposition of dissolved solid or organic matter in the wastewater under aerobic condition at standard temperature.”
The BOD test may result are used for the following purposes-
• Determination of approximate quantity of oxygen required for the biological stabilization of organic matter present in the wastewater.
• Determination of size of wastewater treatment facilities.
• Measurement of efficiency of some treatment processes.
• Determination of strength of sewage.
• Determination of amount of clear water required for the efficient disposal of waste water by dilution.

Domestic sewage, by its nature, contains enormous quantities of micro-organism the biological characteristics of sewage are related to the presence of these micro-organisms. The various micro-organisms found in water or wastewater are broadly classified under three categories:-
(i) Aquatic plant
(ii) Aquatic animal
(iii) Aquatic molds, bacteria and viruses

groups on the basis of organic matter present in the wastewater as follows-
(b) The ultimate BOD or Corbogeneous BOR or first stage BOD
© Nitrogenous BOD or second stage BOD

The anaerobic treatment of organic wastes resulting in the production of carbon dioxide and methane, involves two distinct stages. In the first stage, complex waste components, including fats, proteins, and polysaccharides are first hydrolyzed by a heterogeneous group of facultative and anaerobic bacteria. These bacteria then subject the products of hydrolysis to fermentations, b-oxidations, and other metabolic processes leading to the formation of simple organic compounds, mainly short-chain (volatile) acids and alcohols. The first stage is commonly referred to as "acid fermentation". However in the second stage the end products of the first stage are converted to gases (mainly methane and carbon dioxide) by several different species of strictly anaerobic bacteria. This stage is generally referred to as "methane fermentation".
The process is essentially based on a special flow regime allowing the sewage to get into contact with a „sludge blanket“ or “sludge bed” situated in the reactor, and a following 3-phase-separation of water, sludge and gas (methane). Within the sludge bed, the organic matter in the sewage is reduced by bacteria. In the anaerobic milieu of the reactor, the methane is formed due to bacterial activity during the fermentation process, which can be utilized as energy source.

seminar addict
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27-01-2012, 09:42 AM

to get information about the topic EFFECTIVE LOW STRENGTH WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING UASB TECHNOLOGY full report,ppt and related topic please refer the link bellow



Thinking To Register

10-04-2013, 02:27 PM

Hello Aravind Kumar, i am a businessman interested in working on water treatment project and implimentations, call me Kartikey 09359911177, agra.
Thinking To Register

24-05-2013, 09:56 PM

This is not fair arvind , u upload this presention on this ....u know this is our group project and implimentation.....in 3rdyear training ............u stole this from our laptop & miss use it..................

Jagveer singh
Environmental engineer
Jk cement ltd
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25-05-2013, 11:06 AM

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