A SEMINAR REPORT on GRID COMPUTING
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Computer Science Clay
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14-06-2009, 09:48 AM


A SEMINAR REPORT
on
GRID COMPUTING

Submitted by
ARBIND KUMAR
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
KOCHI

ABSTRACT
The famous test run of a massive particle collider, the team of scientists overseeing the 111-nation effort is using a worldwide grid of servers and desktops to study the results. There are about 30,000 servers and more than 100,000 processor cores around the world hooked into grids that support the LHC project and implimentation ($9 billion Large Hadron Collider). There are many more computers running calculations through the distributed- computing project and implimentation 'LHC@home'. These are computers owned by 'regular people' that are dedicating a chunk of their processor time to helping out with the massive calculations that the LHC project and implimentation will require. It requires 15 petabytes(1000 terabytes or 10^15 bytes) of data per year. Grid computing is a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the Internet, or in some cases with the help of dedicated optical fibre networks. Grid computing is making big contributions to scientific research, helping scientists around the world to analyze and store massive amounts of data. Grid computing joins together many individual computers, creating a large system with massive computational power that far surpasses the power of a handful of supercomputers. Because the work is split into small pieces that can be processed simultaneously, research time is reduced from years to months. The technology is also more cost-effective, enabling better use of critical funds. In recent years, numerous organizations have been using for donated resources for their grid applications. Potential resource donors are inundated with worth- while grid project and implimentations such as discovering Bio-informatics, cure for AIDS,CANCER, research applications like chip design, particle physics, nanotechnology, data mining, and searching for extraterrestrial intelligence. Grid computing framework where all (not just large organizations) are able to effectively tap into the resources available on the global network is the establishment of trust between grid application developers and resource donors. Resource donors security, safety, and privacy policies are the main issues for grid software eg. Myproxy and firewalls and programs that use their systems.
Grid computing enables the use and pooling of computer and data resources to solve complex research and real-life problems. The technique is the latest development in an evolution that earlier brought forth such advances as distributed computing, the Worldwide Web, and collaborative computing.
 Creation of virtual super computers by a network of heterogenous machines which can perform extraordinarily very large task with no extra price of money
 If Super Computers are coupled together, a very very vast and efficient but no more impossible SUPER COMPUTER GRID can be easily created.
 It also makes use of old systems of slow speed and gives them a good efficiency, so will make them in use in modern day of FAST computer world.
 Like LHC, the $9 billion Large Hadrons Collider project and implimentation there are many a project and implimentations and research area which can be successfully completed
 Now, Supercomputers can be yours, with grid computing.
1. INTRODUCTION
Grid computing is form of networking unlike conventional network that focus on communication among devices. It harnesses unused processing cycles of all computers in a network for solving problems too intensive for any stand alone machine. Grid computing is a method of harnessing the power of many computers in network to solve problems requiring a large numbers of processing cycles and involving huge amount of data. In grid computing pcs, servers and workstations are linked together so that computing capacity is never wasted. So rather than using a network of computers simply to communicate and transfer and sharing of data, grid computing taps the unused processor cycles or numerous i.e. thousands of computers. It is a distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal of grid computing is to create the illusion of a simple yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of large collection of connected heterogeneous system sharing various combination of resources. Grid computing is a way to enlist large no. of machines to work on multipart computational problem such as circuit analysis, mechanical design, special effects or any big project and implimentation. It harnesses a diverse number of machines and other resources to rapid processes to solve problem beyond an organization's available capacity. Once a proper infrastructure established by resource brokers, a user will have access to a virtual computer that is reliable and adaptable to the users. For this, there must be standard for grid computing that will allow a secure and robust infrastructure to be built. Standards such as Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) and tools such as provided by Globus Toolkit provide the necessary framework. Grid computing uses open source protocol and software called Globus. Globus software allows computers to share data, power, software and processing capacity. Sun microsystem is using a on-demand grid computing called network.com. which provides processing cpu-cycles on demand and also specific hardware systems. IBM is providing a world community grid with the help of donated cpu-cycles from the people all around the world. Around 250 thousand users over 500 thousand user are now the member of world community grid and are donating their cpu-cycles. similarly many a institutes and organizations are collaborated together to form different grids and work on same project and implimentation efficiently with minimum use of system, computing as well as human power. Many project and implimentations like LHC(Large Hedrons Collider ) project and implimentation, SETI@home are going on, while many are yet to come on grid computing.
2. BASIC CONCEPTS OF HOW IT WORKS?
The computer is tied to network such as internet, which enables regular people with home pcs to participate in the grid project and implimentation from anywhere in the world. The pc owners have to download a simple software from the grid computing provider. And the project and implimentation sites use the software that can divide and distribute the pieces of program to thousands of computers for processing. This system on desktop of user shows a grid computing system that is distributed among the various local domains.
Working:
A grid user have to install the provided grid s/w on his system . System is connected with Internet. Internet is most far reaching n/w. The user establishes his identity with a certificate authority. Once the user and/or machine are authenticated, the grid software provided to the user for installing on his machine for the purposes of using the grid as well as donating to the grid. This software may be automatically reconfigured by the grid management system to know the communication address of the management nodes in the grid and user or machine identification information. In this way, the installation may be a one click operation. To use the grid, most grid systems require the user to log on to a system using a user ID that is enrolled in the grid. Once logged on, the user can query the grid and submit jobs. The user will usually perform some queries to check to see how busy the grid is, to see how his submitted jobs are progressing, and to look for resources on the grid. Grid systems usually provide command line tools as well as graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for queries. Command line tools are especially useful when the user wants to write a script. Job submission usually consists of three parts, even if there is only one command required. First, some input data and possibly the executable program or execution script file are sent to the machine to execute the job. Sending the input is called staging the input data. Second, the job is executed on the grid machine. The grid software running on the donating machine executes the program in a process on the userâ„¢s behalf. Third, the results of the job are sent back to the submitter. When there are a large number of sub-jobs, the work required to collect the results and produce the final result is usually accomplished by a single program, usually running on the machine at the point of job submission. The data accessed by the grid jobs may simply be staged in and out by the grid system. Depending on size and number of jobs, this can be added up to a large amount of data traffic. The user can query the grid system to see how his application and its sub jobs are Progressing.
A job may fail due to a:
1. Programming error: The job stops part way with some program fault.
2. Hardware /power failure:The machine /devices used stops working in some way.
3. Communications interruption: A communication path to the machine has
failed or is overloaded with other data traffic.
4. Excessive slowness: The job might be in an infinite loop or normal job progress
may be limited by another process running at a higher priority or some other form of contention.Grid applications can be designed to automate the monitoring and recovery of their own sub jobs using functions provided by the grid system software application programming interfaces (APIs). Grid computing harnesses a diverse array of machines and other resources to rapidly process and solve problems beyond an organizationâ„¢s available capacity. Academic and government researchers are using it to solve large-scale problems, and the private sector is increasingly adopting the technology. To create innovative products and services, reduce time and enhance business processes.
APPLICATION OF GRID COMPUTING:
The grid computing is used to solve the problems which are beyond the scope of single processor, the problems involving the large amount of computations or the analysis of huge amount of data. Right now there are scientific and technical project and implimentations such as CANCER,AIDS and other medical research project and implimentations that involves the analysis of the inordinate amount of data.Now a days grid computing is used by the sites which are the hosts of the large online games. There are many users on the Internet playing a large online game like YAHOO games, there is information of the virtual organization of all the players. Grids are primarily being used today by universities and research lab for project and implimentation that require high performance computing applications. These project and implimentations require a large amount of computer processing power or access to large amount of data.
3. GRID :
Grids are usually heterogeneous networks. Grid nodes, generally individual computers, consist of different hardware and use a variety of operating systems and networking to connecting them vary in bandwidth. It is a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection and aggregation of resources distributed across multiple domains based on their resources availability, capability, performance, cost and users requirement. It is a system formed to share the resources among the various local domains and which owns the resources. These resources are used among the various project and implimentations. This forms the system as the aggregation of resources for a particular task i.e.
Virtual organization.
SIMPLE GRID :
3.1 TYPES OF GRID:-
Computational grid:
A computational grid is focused on settings aside resources specifically for computing power. In this type of grid most of machines are high performance servers. Like on demand grid provided by SUN microsystem.
Scavenging grid:
A scavenging grid is most commonly used with large numbers of desktop machines. Machines are scavenged for available cpu cycles and other resources. Owners of desktop machines are usually given control over when their resources are available to participate in the grid. Like world wide grid by IBM.
Data grid:
A data grid is responsible for housing and providing access to data across multiple organizations. Users are not concerned with where this data is located as long as they access to the data .A data grid allow to share data, manage the data and manage security. Like different research institutes and enterprises makes a datagrid like GARUDA in INDIA.
OGSA AND OGSI:-
The Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) is an evolving standard for which there is
much industry support.OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture) defines a standard for
the overall structure and services to be provided in grid environments. The Open Grid
Services Interface (OGSI) specification is a companion standard that defines the
interfaces and protocols that will be used between the various services in a grid
environment.
Also, OGSA will provide for interoperability between grids that may have been built using different underlying toolkits. Therefore, work done today to implement a grid environment and enable applications will not necessarily be lost.
3.2 BENIFITS OF BUSSINESS BENEFITS:
Accelerate time to get results
. can help to get efficient research work in minimum time taking
. Can help to improve productivity and collaboration.
• Can help solve problems that were previously unsolvable.
Enable collaboration and promote operational flexibility
. Bring together not only IT resources but also peoples.
. Widely dispersed departments and businesses are created to virtual organizations to
share data and resources.
Efficient scale to meet available business demands
• Create flexible, resilient operational infrastructures.
• Address rapid fluctuations in customer demands needs.
• Instantaneously access compute and data resources to "sense and Respond" to
needs.
Increase productivity
• Can help give end-users uninhibited access to the computing, data and
storage resources they need (when they need them) .
• Can help equip employees to move easily through product dies phases,
research Projects and more faster than ever .
• Can help you improve optimal utilization of computing capabilities.
• Can help you avoid common pitfalls of over-provisioning and incurring
excess costs.
• Can free IT organizations from the burden of administering disparate,
non-integrated systems .
TECHNOLOGY BENEFITS
Infrastructure optimization:
• Consolidate workload management.
• Reduce cycle times.
Increase access to data and collaboration:
• Federate data and distribute it globally.
•Support large multi-disciplinary collaboration..
•Enable collaboration across organizations and among businesses.
Resilient, highly available structure:
•Balance work loads .
• Foster business community
• Enable recovery for failure .
Grid computing properties:
1. Improved efficiency and utilization of all computing resources within an enterprise to meet and user demand as well as the ability to solve problems that were previ0usly unsolvable due to lack of adequate computing, data or storage resources.
2. The ability to form virtual organizations that collaborate on common problem by enabling them to share applications and data.
3. The ability to tackle very large problems demanding huge computing resources by enabling the aggregation of computing power storage and other resources.
4. The ability to help lower the total cost of computing by enabling the sharing, efficient optimization and overall management of those computing resources
4. GRID COMPONENTS
4.1 Diff. entities and h/w components:
1. User interface:
Just as a consumer sees the power grid as a receptacle in the wall, a grid user should not see all of the complexities of the computing grid. Most users today understand the concept of a Web portal, where their browser provides a single interface to access a wide variety of information sources. From this perspective, the user sees the grid as a virtual computing resource just as the consumer of power sees the receptacle as an interface to a virtual generator.
2.Security:
A major requirement for Grid computing is security. At the base of any grid environment, there must be mechanisms to provide security, including authentication, authorization, data encryption, and so on. The Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) component of the Globus Toolkit provides robust security mechanisms. The GSI includes an Open SSL implementation. It also provides a single sign-on mechanism, so that once a user is authenticated, a proxy certificate is created and used when performing actions within the grid. When designing your grid environment, you may use the GSI sign-in to grant access to the portal, or you may have your own security for the portal. The portal will then be responsible for signing in to the grid, either using the user's credentials or using a generic set of credentials for all authorized users of the portal.
3.Broker:
Once authenticated, the user will be launching an application. Based on the application, and possibly on other parameters provided by the user, the next step is to identify the available and appropriate resources to use within the grid. This task could be carried out by a broker function. Although there is no broker implementation provided by Globus, there is an LDAP-based information service. This service is called the Grid Information Service (GIS), or more commonly the Monitoring and Discovery Service (MDS). This service provides information about the available resources within the grid and their status. A broker service could be developed that utilizes MDS.
4.Schedular:
Once the resources have been identified, the next logical step is to schedule the individual jobs to run on them. If a set of stand-alone jobs are to be executed with no interdependencies, then a specialized scheduler may not be required. However, if you want to reserve a specific resource or ensure that different jobs within the application run concurrently (for instance, if they require inter-process communication), then a job scheduler should be used to coordinate the execution of the jobs. The Globus Toolkit does not include such a scheduler, but there are several schedulers available that have been tested with and can be used in a Globus grid environment. It should also be noted that there could be different levels of schedulers within a grid environment. For instance, a cluster could be represented as a single resource. The cluster may have its own scheduler to help manage the nodes it contains. A higher level scheduler (sometimes called a meta scheduler) might be used to schedule work to be done on a cluster, while the cluster's scheduler would handle the actual scheduling of work on the cluster's individual nodes.
5.Data management:
If any data -- including application modules must be moved or made accessible to the nodes where an application's jobs will execute, then there needs to be a secure and reliable method for moving files and data to various nodes within the grid. The Globus Toolkit contains a data management component that provides such services. This component, know as Grid Access to Secondary Storage (GASS), includes facilities such as Grid FTP. Grid FTP is built on top of the standard FTP protocol, but adds additional functions and utilizes the GSI for user authentication and authorization. Therefore, once a user has an authenticated proxy certificate, he can use the Grid FTP facility to move files without having to go through a login process to every node involved. This facility provides third-party file transfer so that one node can initiate a file transfer between two other nodes.
6.Job and resource management:
With all the other facilities we have just discussed in place, we now get to the core set of services that help perform actual work in a grid environment. The Grid Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) provides the services to actually launch a job on a particular resource, check its status, and retrieve its results when it is complete. The Grid Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) provides the services to actually launch a job on a particular resource, check its status, and retrieve its results when it is complete.
4.2 GRID SOFTWARE COMPONENTS:
Management Component Any grid system has some management components. First, there is a component that keeps track of the resources available to the grid and which users are members of the grid. This information is used primarily to decide where grid jobs should be assigned. Second, there are measurement components that determine both the capacities of the nodes on the grid and their current utilization rate at any given time.Third, advanced grid management software can automatically manage many aspects of the grid.
Donor software:
The donor grid software must be able to receive the executable file or select the proper one from copies pre-installed on the donor machine. The software is executed and the output is sent back to the requester. Submission software: Usually any member machine of a grid can be used to submit jobs to the grid and initiate grid queries. However, in some grid systems, this function is implemented as a separate component installed on submission nodes or submission clients. Usually any member machine of a grid can be used to submit jobs to the grid and initiate grid queries. However, in some grid systems, this function is implemented as a separate component installed on submission nodes or submission The grid may be organized in a hierarchy consisting of clusters of clusters. The work involved in managing the grid is distributed to increase the scalability of the grid.
Schedulars:
This software locates a machine on which to run a grid job that has been submitted by a user . Schedulers usually react to the immediate grid load. They use measurement information about the current utilization of machines to determine which ones are not busy before submitting a job. Schedulers can be organized in a hierarchy. For example, a meta-scheduler may submit a job to a cluster scheduler or other lower level scheduler rather than to an individual machine. More advanced schedulers will monitor the progress of scheduled jobs managing the overall work-flow.
Communications:
A grid system may include software to help jobs communicate with each other .For example ,an application may split itself into a large number of sub jobs. Each of these sub jobs is a separate job in the grid. However, the application may implement an algorithm that requires that the sub jobs communicate some information among them. The sub jobs need to be able to locate other specific sub jobs, establish a communications connection with them, and send the appropriate data. The open standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) and any of several variations is often included as part of the grid system for just this kind communication purposes, to form the basis for grid resource brokering, or to manage priorities more fairly.
GRID CONSTRUCTION
Deployment planning:
The use of a grid is often born from a need for increased resources of some type. One of the first considerations is the hardware available and how it is connected via a LAN or WAN. Next, an organization may want to add additional hardware to augment the capabilities of the grid. It is important to understand the applications to be used on the grid. Their characteristics can affect the decisions of how to best choose and configure the hardware and its data connectivity. There are many planning procedures are used such as AI- planning.
Security:
Security is a much more important factor in planning and maintaining a grid than in conventional distributed computing, where data sharing comprises the bulk of the activity. In a grid, the member machines are configured to execute programs rather than just move data. This makes an unsecured grid potentially fertile ground for viruses and Trojan horse programs. For this reason, there are components of the grid which must be rigorously secured to deter any kind of attack. Furthermore, there are issues involved in authenticating users and properly executing the responsibilities of a certificate authority. These are done by different firewall, proxy eg. Myproxy.
Organization:
The technology considerations are important in deploying a grid. However, organizational and business issues can be equally important. It is important to understand how the departments in an organization interact, operate, and contribute to the whole. Often, there are barriers built between departments and project and implimentations to protect their resources in an effort to increase the probability of timely success.
User perspective Enrolling and installing grid software A user first enrolls as a grid user, and installs the provided grid software on his own machine .He may optionally enroll his machine as a donor on the grid Enrolling in the grid may require authentication for security purposes. The user positively establishes his identity with a certificate authority. Once the user and/or machine are authenticated, the grid software is provided to the user for installing on his machine for the purposes of using the grid as well as donating to the grid.. Logging onto the grid To use the grid, most grid systems require the user to log on to a system using a user ID that is enrolled in the grid. Other grid systems may have their own grid login ID separate from the one on the operating system.
Queries and submitting jobs:
The user will usually perform some queries to check to see how busy the grid is, to see how his submitted jobs are progressing. Job submission usually consists of three parts, even if there is only one command required . First, some input data and possibly the executable program or execution script file are sent to the machine to execute the job. Sending the input is called staging the input data. Second, the job is executed on the grid machine. The grid software running on the donating machine executes the program in a process on the userâ„¢s behalf. It may use a common user ID on the machine or it may use the userâ„¢s own user ID, depending on which grid technology is used. Some grid systems implement a protective sandbox around the program so that it cannot cause any disruption to the donating machine if it encounters a problem during execution. Rights to access files and other resources on the grid machine may be restricted. Third, the results of the job are sent back to the submitter. In some implementations, intermediate results can be viewed by the user who submitted the job. In some grid technologies that do not automatically stage the output data back to the user, the results must be explicitly sent to the user, perhaps using a networked file system.
Data configuration:
The data accessed by the grid jobs may simply be staged in and out by the grid system. However, depending on its size and the number of jobs, this can potentially add up to a large amount of data traffic. For this reason, some thought is usually given on how to arrange to have the minimum of such data movement on the grid. Monitoring progress and recovery The user can query the grid system to see how his application and its sub jobs are progressing. When the number of sub jobs becomes large, it becomes to difficult to list them all in a graphical window .
A grid system, in conjunction with its job scheduler, often provides some
degree of recovery for sub jobs that fail. A job may fail due to a:
¢ Programming error: The job stops part way with some program fault. Hardware or power failure: The machine or devices being used stop working in some way.
¢ Communications interruption: A communication path to the machine has failed or is , overloaded with other data traffic.
¢ Excessive slowness: The job might be in an infinite loop or normal job progress may be limited by another process running at a higher priority or some other form of contention.
WHAT GRID COMPUTING CAN DO
CAPABILITY OF GRID COMPUTING:

1. Exploiting underutilized resources:
The easiest use of grid computing is to run an existing application on a different machine. The processing resources are not the only ones that may be underutilized. Often, machines may have enormous unused disk drive capacity. Grid computing, more specifically, a data can be used to aggregate this unused storage into a much larger virtual data store, possibly configured to achieve improved performance and reliability over that of any single Another function of the grid is to better balance resource utilization.
2.Virtual resources and virtual organization for collaboration:
Another important grid computing contribution is to enable and simplify collaboration among a wider audience. Grid computing takes these capabilities to an even wider audience, while offering important standards that enable very heterogeneous systems to work together to form the image of a large virtual computing system offering a variety of virtual resources, The users of the grid can be organized dynamically into a number of virtual organizations, each with different policy requirements. These virtual organizations can share their resources collectively as a larger grid.
3.Access to additional resources:
In addition to CPU and storage resources, a grid can provide access to increased quantities of other resources and to special equipment, software, licenses, and other services. The additional resources can be provided in additional numbers and/or capacity.
4.Resource balancing:
A grid federates a large number of resources contributed by individual machines into a greater total virtual resource. For applications that are grid enabled, the grid can offer a resource balancing effect by scheduling grid jobs on machines with low utilization, as illustrated in Figure 2. This feature can prove invaluable for handling occasional peak loads of activity in parts of an larger organization. This can happen in two ways: An unexpected peak can be routed to relatively idle machines in the grid. If the grid is already fully utilized, the lowest priority work being performed on the grid can be temporarily suspended or even cancelled and performed again later to make room for the higher priority work. Without a grid infrastructure, such balancing decisions are difficult to prioritize and execute.
5.Management:
The goal to virtualize the resources on the grid and more uniformly handle heterogeneous systems will create new opportunities to better manage a larger, more disperse IT infrastructure. It will be easier to visualize capacity and utilization, making it easier for IT departments to control expenditures computing resources over a larger organization. The grid offers management of priorities among different project and implimentations.
7. GRID COMPUTING IMPLEMETATION
7.1 NETWORK.COM by SUN
SUN MICROSYSTEM provides an on demand grid computing, which gives its resource on a lease basis by charging some amount of money. Now it is in the growing and developing state, so for encouraging its grid computing, It is giving now a free sign-up offer with an free 20 CPU “hour scheme. It has an international access to 26 countries all over the world. Sun Microsystems (Nasdaq: JAVA) Network.com grid computing service played a key role in a new open source 3D animation film "Big Buck Bunny". Network.com provided the more than 50,000 CPU-hours of compute time needed to speed up the movie rendering process, sparing the project and implimentation the need for its own compute infrastructure. It provides application grid for 3D, Financial services, computational mathematics, general engineering, computer aided design, life sciences and many more.. It charges approximately 1$ per cpu-hour based on the kind of application and other things user is using. They are:-
Service items to be charged and accounted
User applications have different resource requirements depending on computations performed and algorithms used in solving problems. Some applications can be CPU intensive while others can be I/O intensive or a combination. For example, in CPU intensive applications it may be sufficient to charge only for CPU time whilst offering free I/O operations. This scheme cannot be applied for I/O intensive applications. Therefore, the consumption of the following resources needs to be accounted and charged
¢ CPU - User time (consumed by user App.) and System time (consumed while serving user App.)
¢ Memory- Maximum resident set size - size
¢ Amount of memory used
¢ faults
¢ Storage used
¢ Network bandwidth consumption
¢ Signals received, context switches
¢ Software and Libraries accessed (particularly required for the emerging ASP world).
Access to each of these entities can be charged individually or in combination. Combined
pricing schemes need to have a costing matrix that takes a request for multiple resources
in pricing.
Payment mechanisms
A computational economy Grid framework needs to support various payment mechanisms. They include:
¢ Prepaid “ Pay and use in which users need to buy credits in advance from GSPs(grid service provider) or Grid Bank
¢ Use and pay later
¢ Pay as you use
6.2 GARUDA: INDIA by CDAC, ERNET
GARUDA is a computational grid, a collaboration of science researchers and experimenters on a nation wide grid of computational nodes, mass storage and scientific instruments that aims to provide the technological advances required to enable data and compute intensive science for the 21st century. It provides communication fabric to provide seamless and high-speed access to resources and aggregation of resources including compute clusters, storage and scientific instrument. Access to grid resource is through the high speed fabric.
Objective-
GARUDA aims at strengthening and advancing scientific and technological excellence in the area of Grid and Peer-2-Peer technology The strategic objectives of GARUDA are to: Create a test bed for the research & engineering of technologies, architectures, standards and applications in Grid Computing. Bring together all potential research, development and user groups to develop a national initiative on Grid computing Create the foundation for the next generation grids by addressing long term research issues in grid computing It provides data management through deploying the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) from Nirvana. SRB creates and maintains a Global Namespace across multiple heterogeneous and distributed storage systems in the Grid
.
The SRB provides advanced services including transparent data load and retrieval, data replication, persistent migration, data backup and restore, and secure queries. Data security is ensured through the following mechanisms: authentication, authorization, tickets, encryption, access control lists. Program Development Environment (PDE) enables users to carry out an entire program development life cycle for the Grid.
The GARUDA PDE includes basic
program development tools such as editors and compilers; program analysis tools like debuggers and profilers; workflow environments and tools that help importing, conversion and scalability. The resource management and scheduling in GARUDA is based on a deployment of industry grade schedulers in a hierarchical architecture. At the cluster level, scheduling is achieved through Load Leveler for AIX platforms and Torque for Solaris and Linux clusters. At the Grid level, the Moab scheduler from Cluster Resources interfaces with the various cluster level schedulers to transparently map user requests onto available resources in the Grid.
GARUDA COLLABRATION
GARUDA has initiated formation of virtual community to focus on collaborative project and implimentations in specific technology/application domain. The proposed virtual communities are as follows:
Technology Communities
Grid Tools & Services
High-Speed Networking
Information Security
Application Communities
Computer Aided Engineering
Earth Sciences
High Energy Physics/Astro Physics
Life Sciences
Material Sciences / Nano Technology
Grid partners of GARUDA:-
All C-DAC centres
ERNET
All IITs and top universities
All IISC and research centres
Grid Setup at Partner Site
1. Make available a ËœUser Terminal Roomâ„¢ (Approximately 20 x 20 ft floor area)
2. Make available few dedicated user terminals with standard desktop PC configuration connected to local LAN with a gateway to head node.
3. Make available a dedicated Grid Head node compatible with the Grid Head Node at C-DAC centres as shown in Table-7.2.1
Table 7.1 config. of grid nodes at C-DAC
ANNUAL FEE- 10 LAKHS FOR ENTHUISTIC GRID PARTNER
5 LAKHS FOR ACTIVE PARTNER
Table 7.2 Other option for membership for GARUDA grid partner
C-DAC is deploying Linux Clusters at its Pune, Hyderabad & Chennai centers. The
Clusters of the Grid Partner are expected to be compatible with these resources. The
node configuration details of C-DAC clusters at these centers is as follows:
Server: Dual Xeon Class 3.6 GHz with E7525 Chipset
Cache: L2 cache 2MB
Memory: 4GB DDRII 400/533 MHz SDRAM ECC
On board 2 Nos. Gigabit Ethernet ports
On board Ultra320 SCSI with 1x73GB HDD
CDROM/DVD Drive
Redundant power supply
Support for RedHat EL-3/4-x86-64
Ethernet Switch: 24/48/64 port Gigabit switch with 2 Gbps uplink
Storage: 2-4TB of Mass Storage (SAN/NAS/DAS) 34


7.3 WORLD COMMUNITY GRID: IBM
It is a computational grid, where distributed unused processes are donated by many users through web which is used in the favor of mankind research. World Community Grid's mission is to create the largest public computing grid benefiting humanity. Its work is built on the belief that technological innovation combined with visionary scientific research and large-scale volunteerism can change our world for the better. Its success depends on individuals - like us - collectively contributing our unused computer time to this not-for-profit endeavor. In its own word Donate the time your computer is turned on, but is idle, to project and implimentations that benefit humanity! We provide the secure software that does it all for free, and you become part of a community that is helping to change the world. Once you install the software, you will be participating in World Community Grid. When idle, userâ„¢s computer computer will request data on a specific project and implimentation from World Community Grid's server. It will then perform computations on this data, send the results back to the server, and ask the server for a new piece of work. Each computation that computer performs provides scientists with critical information that accelerates the pace of research. It is currently working in the research area of nutrition rice for world, cancer conquer, dengue drugs, human protein folfing, fighting AIDS, Genome comparison. Fig. 7.5 User setting his percentage donation of resource World Community Grid has a network of dedicated 396 partners, each bringing their special expertise and contribution. Around 250 thousand users over 500 thousand user are now the member of world community grid and are donating their cpu-cycles. These businesses, associations, foundations, government agencies, and universities have been instrumental in the development and operation of World Community Grid. They also have been encouraging their employees, members, grantees, students and faculty to contribute their unused PC time.Each user can set his own profile so that on the state of idle state what percentage of his processor will be usable by world community grid. He can set activation of world community grid donation on some particular fixed time or set his profile that whenever system get idle and screensaver of the computer gets activated, server at world community grid senses its idleness and uses its corresponding idle process.
8. CONCLUSION
Advantages
1. Creation of virtual super computers by a network of heterogenous machines which can perform extraordinarily very large task with no extra price of money.
2. If Super Computers are coupled together, a very very vast and efficient but no more impossible SUPER COMPUTER GRID can be easily created.
3. All are loosely coupled, heterogamous and geographically dispersed systems. It uses only unused resources in a network donated by user called CPU scavenging.
4. It removes fixed connections between applications, servers, DB, machines and makes them dynamic oriented and error free with easy recovery.
5. It also makes use of old systems of slow speed and gives them a good efficiency, so will make them in use in modern day of FAST computer world.
6. Like LHC, the $9 billion Large Hadrons Collider project and implimentation there are many a project and implimentations and research area which ca be successfully completed.
7. Now, Supercomputers can be yours, with grid computing.



9. REFERENCES
Berman, Fox, Hey Grid computing ,willey series in parallel and distributed
computing.
Viktors berstis Redbooks paper, IBM
computerworldaction/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&a
rticleId=326228&intsrc=news_ts_head
garudaindia
gridbus
gridforum
lhcathome.cern.ch/
networkcategory.html#
worldcommunitygrid.org
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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26-06-2012, 05:56 PM

Grid Computing



.docx   Grid Computing.docx (Size: 14.28 KB / Downloads: 57)
Abstract

The last decade has seen a substantial increase in commodity computer and network performance, mainly as a result of faster hardware and more sophisticated software. Nevertheless, there are still problems, in the fields of science, engineering, and business, which cannot be effectively dealt with using the current generation of supercomputers. In fact, due to their size and complexity, these problems are often very numerically and/or data intensive and consequently require a variety of heterogeneous resources that are not available on a single machine. A number of teams have conducted experimental studies on the cooperative use of geographically distributed resources unified to act as a single powerful computer. This new approach is known by several names, such as metacomputing, scalable computing, global computing, Internet computing, and more recently Grid computing.
The early efforts in Grid computing started as a project and implimentation to link supercomputing sites, but have now grown far beyond their original intent. In fact, many applications can benefit from the Grid infrastructure, including collaborative engineering, data exploration, high-throughput computing, and of course distributed supercomputing. Moreover, due to the rapid growth of the Internet and Web, there has been a rising interest in Web-based distributed computing, and many project and implimentations have been started and aim to exploit the Web as an infrastructure for running coarse-grained distributed and parallel applications. In this context, the Web has the capability to be a platform for parallel and collaborative work as well as a key technology to create a pervasive and ubiquitous Grid-based infrastructure.
This paper aims to present the state-of-the-art of Grid computing and attempts to survey the major international efforts in developing this emerging technology.

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