ADVANCED EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN
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projectsofme
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18-12-2010, 04:37 PM



.ppt   ADVANCED EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN.ppt (Size: 2.32 MB / Downloads: 1,323)
This article is presented by:
SUMIT KUMAR
CIVIL ENGG.
HALDIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ADVANCED EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN


Contents
Introduction
seismology
What is earthquake
What causes earthquake
Zone of earthquake
How earthquake causes damage
Construction method
Protection against earthquake damage
Dampers & earthquake resistant expansion joint
Engineering structure
conclusion







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17-08-2012, 02:41 PM

GENERAL CONCEPTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN



.pdf   1GENERAL CONCEPTS.pdf (Size: 365.91 KB / Downloads: 213)

INTRODUCTION

Experience in past earthquakes has demonstrated
that many common buildings
and typical methods of construction lack
basic resistance to earthquake forces. In
most cases this resistance can be achieved
by following simple, inexpensive principles
of good building construction practice.
Adherence to these simple rules will
not prevent all damage in moderate or large
earthquakes, but life threatening collapses
should be prevented, and damage limited
to repairable proportions.

Importance of building

The importance of the building should be a
factor in grading it for strengthening
purposes,and the following buildings are
suggested as specially important:
IMPORTANT – Hospitals, clinics, communication
buildings, fire and police stations,
water supply facilities, cinemas, theatres
and meeting halls, schools, dormitories,
cultural treasures such as museums,
monuments and temples, etc.

Combination of
parameters


For defining the categories of buildings for
seismic strengthening purposes, four categories
I to IV are defined in Table 3.1. in
which category I will require maximum
strengthening and category IV the least inputs.
The general planning and designing
principles are, however, equally applicable
to them.

Fire resistance

It is not unusual during earthquakes that
due to snapping of electrical fittings short
circuiting takes place, or gas pipes may
develop leaks and catch fire. Fire could also
be started due to kerosene lamps and
kitchen fires. The fire hazard sometimes
could even be more serious than the earthquake
damage. The buildings should therefore
preferably be constructed of fire resistant
materials.

STRUCTURAL FRAMING

There are basically two types structural
framing possible to withstand gravity and
seismic load, viz. bearing wall construction
and framed construction.

Ductility

Formally, ductility refers to the ratio of the
displacement just prior to ultimate displacement
or collapse to the displacement
at first damage or yield. Some materials are
inherently ductile, such as steel, wrought
iron and wood. Other materials are not
ductile (this is termed brittle), such as cast
iron, plain masonry, adobe or concrete, that
is, they break suddenly, without warning.
Brittle materials can be made ductile, usually
by the addition of modest amounts of
ductile materials, Such as wood elements
in adobe construction, or steel reinforcing
in masonry and concrete constructions.

FOUNDATIONS

For the purpose of making a building truly
earthquake resistant, it will be necessary to
choose an appropriate foundation type for
it. Since loads from typical low height
buildings will be light, providing the required
bearing area will not usually be a
problem. The depth of footing in the soil
should go below the zone of deep freezing
in cold countries and below the level of
shrinkage cracks in clayey soils. For choosing
the type of footing from the earthquake
angle, the soils may be grouped as Firm and
Soft (see Section 3.2.3) avoiding the weak
soil unless compacted and brought to Soft
or Firm condition.

Firm soil

In firm soil conditions, any type of footing
(individual or strip type) can be used. It
should of course have a firm base of lime or
cement concrete with requisite width over
which the construction of the footing may
start. It will be desirable to connect the individual
reinforced concrete column
footings in Zone A by means of RC beams
just below plinth level intersecting at right
angles.
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