AN ENERGY EFFICIENT ERROR CORRECTION SCHEME FOR IEEE 802.15.4 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
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06-10-2010, 12:19 PM




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Introduction

Sensors integrated into structures, machinery, and the environment, coupled with the efficient delivery of sensed information, could provide tremendous benefits to society. Potential benefits include: fewer catastrophic failures, conservation of natural resources, improved manufacturing productivity, improved emergency response, and enhanced homeland security [1]. However, barriers to the widespread use of sensors in structures and machines remain. Bundles of lead wires and fiber optic “tails” are subject to breakage and connector failures. Long wire bundles represent a significant installation and long term maintenance cost, limiting the number of sensors that may be deployed, and therefore reducing the overall quality of the data reported. Wireless sensing networks can eliminate these costs, easing installation and eliminating connectors. The ideal wireless sensor is networked and scalable, consumes very little power, is smart and software programmable, capable of fast data acquisition, reliable and accurate over the long term, costs little to purchase and install, and requires no real maintenance. Selecting the optimum sensors and wireless communications link requires knowledge of the application and problem definition. Battery life, sensor update rates, and size are all major design considerations. Examples of low data rate sensors include temperature, humidity, and peak strain captured passively. Examples of high data rate sensors include strain, acceleration, and vibration. Recent advances have resulted in the ability to integrate sensors, radio communications, and digital electronics into a single integrated circuit (IC) package. This capability is enabling networks of very low cost sensors that are able to communicate with each other using low power wireless data routing protocols. A wireless sensor network (WSN) generally consists of a base station (or “gateway”) that can communicate with a number of wireless sensors via a radio link. Data is collected at the wireless sensor node, compressed, and transmitted to the gateway directly or, if required, uses other wireless sensor nodes to forward data to the gateway. The transmitted data is then presented to the system by the gateway connection. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief technical introduction to wireless sensor networks and present a few applications in which wireless sensor networks are enabling.
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