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24-02-2010, 05:01 PM

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24-02-2010, 08:16 PM

Remote Sensing and geographic information system (GIS) Applications in Highway Designing
In today's Indian scenario there is a major shift in transportation system from railways towards the road sector. This has forced the Government of India to facilitate development of roads and highways. terrain analysis may be considered as the prime requisite in the planning phase for providing an insight to the engineers regarding the landform features to overcome the potential engineering problems. the spatial baseline information could be generated through terrain analysis and classification with morphogenetic approach using Remote Sensing data. Space borne Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems are the most modern tool for generating the spatial data with temporal changes and following integration and analysis of the aspatial data to result on better startegies. The Activity Flow Chart is:

Application of fuzzy logic, GIS and remote sensing to the assessment of environmental factors for extensive brackishwater aquaculture
Despite its huge potential, the application of GIS and remote sensing in spatial assessment has tended to focus on Boolean (Crisp) logic. The integration of the fuzzy logic techniques into GIS and remote sensing technology has generated more robust mapping protocols in aquaculture. The soil assessment was easily possible, the hydrological study focused on investigating important wave parameters. fuzzy-based classification methods, integrated into the image analysis, was highly effective in identifying existing and potential pond areas. The models developed in this study were shown to work well in both study sites and can be applied elsewhere.The maps produced were easily readable even by layman.

GIS and Remote Sensing in urban transportation planning

A)To draw accurate maps showing existing bus routes and bus stops in the study area.
b)To recommend modification schemes to certain routes or stops depending on the level of adequacy in both facilities
c)To evaluate the adequacy of bus routes and bus stops for the residents of the region.

The Data:
Urban planners use GIS both as a spatial database and as an analysis and modelling tool. Its applications vary according to different stages, levels, sectors, and functions of urban planning. GIS becoming an operational and affordable information system for planning. general administration, development ,building control, and plan making etc are some other applications of GIS. Mapping provides the most powerful visualisation tools in GIS. It can be used to explore the distribution of socioeconomic and environmental data, and display the results of spatial analysis and modelling exercises.

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13-05-2010, 04:05 PM

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Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre

Recognizing the need and importance of natural resources management in the country, Government of India has set-up the National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS). NNRMS is an integrated approach for management of natural resources, optimally utilizing the advantages of conventional systems and the information derived through remote sensing. Department of Space (DOS) is the nodal department in Government of India for evolution, establishment of NNRMS and all remote sensing related activities. With a view to have optimum use of space technology for national development it was felt necessary to create facilities for analyzing remote sensing data to derive planning related inputs on natural resources of our country. Towards this, DOS has established five Regional Remote Sensing Service Centers (RRSSCs) in the country for speedy operationalization of remote sensing as an integral component of natural resources inventory, monitoring and management. RRSSCs enable the use of remote sensing technology at a reasonable cost to derive necessary information on various aspects related to natural resources. These centers are located at Jodhpur (Western Region), Dehradun (Northern Region), Kharagpur (Eastern Region), Nagpur (Central Region) and Bangalore (Southern Region) and function under RRSSC, Central Management Office, ISRO Headquarters, Antariksh Bhawan, and Bangalore

Objectives and functions:
¢ Provide facilities for digital image analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) to the users
¢ Guide / assist users in application of digital image analysis techniques and
¢ Develop and demonstrate techniques in the new area of applications
¢ Train scientists of user agencies in Remote Sensing Application, digital techniques, GIS and theme based applications
¢ Provide support service to execute national project and implimentations and promote remote sensing applications

Area of activities
¢ National Missions related to natural resource management
¢ User application project and implimentations
¢ Application validation project and implimentations and Technology Development Projects under Remote Sensing Application Missions (RSAM)
¢ Software development and customization
¢ Training and education
¢ Expert advice / Consultancy towards promotion of technology in the country

Remote Sensing

Dr.Vikram Sarabhai quotes "...we must be second to none in the applications of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society."

Remote sensing is broadly defined as a science and art of collecting information about objects, area or phenomena from a distance without being in physical contact with them.
It is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real-time sensing device(s) that are wireless, or not in physical or intimate contact with the object (such as by way of aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, buoy, or ship). In practice, remote sensing is the stand-off collection through the use of a variety of devices for gathering information on a given object or area. In modern usage, the term generally refers to the use of imaging sensor technologies including but not limited to the use of instruments aboard aircraft and spacecraft, and is distinct from other imaging-related fields such as medical imaging. The term remote sensing is commonly restricted to methods that employ electromagnetic energy (such as light, heat, and microwave) as means of detecting and measuring target characteristics. Basic principle:-remote sensing to a great extent relies on the interaction of electromagnetic energy with the matter(object).it refers to the sensing of EM radiations, which is reflected, scattered or emitted from the object.

Remote sensing is broadly classified into two categories-
¢ Active remote sensing
¢ Passive remote sensing

There are various fields taken into consideration, such as:-EM radiation and the atmosphere, electromagnetic radiation-interaction mechanism, remote sensing observation platforms, sensors, digital image processing and referencing scheme.

Digital image processing:

Processing of digital data for different applications data recorded by remote sensing sensors are analog electrical signals measured in different electrical bands. These signals are then transformed on board into digital format. It has main three parts as:-
¢ Preprocessing
¢ Image enhancement
¢ Classification

Global Positioning System (GPS)

It is a systematic integration of Computer Hardware, Software and Spatial Data, for capturing, storing, displaying, updating manipulating and analyzing, in order to solve complex management problems.
The information that is associated with the location that can be used in GIS are as follows:
¢ physical objects
¢ characteristics of the land
¢ human factors
GPS is a satellite based radio navigation system. It consists of constellation of satellite transmitting signals monitored by ground stations detected by GPS receiver.
Basic principle-a transmitter high above the earth sending a high frequency radio wave a special coded signal can cover a large area and still overcome much of the noise encountered on the way to the grounds.

There are three segments in it-
¢ space segment
¢ control segment
¢ user segment

Applications of GPS-
¢ precision farming
¢ personal navigation
¢ off shore drilling
¢ fishing and boating
¢ communications and surveying
¢ military uses
¢ satellite image rectification
¢ locating the site of wrecks
¢ forest and resource management
¢ tracking dangerous materials and vehicles
¢ life saving
Geographical Information System (GIS)

An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data (spatial and non spatial)and people designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information.


A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, querying, analyzing and displaying geographic data. Maps have been used for thousands of years, but it is only within the last few decades that the technology has existed to combine maps with computer graphics and databases to create geographic information systems or GIS. What distinguishes GIS from other forms of information systems, such as databases and spreadsheets, is that GIS deals with spatial information. GIS has the capability to relate layers of data for the same points in space, combining, analyzing and, finally, mapping out the results. Spatial information uses location, within a coordinate system, as its reference
base. The most common representation of spatial information is a map on which the location of any point could be given using latitude and longitude, or local grid references.

GIS can handle complex network problems, such as road network analysis. There are, of course, other types of network analysis, involving stream networks. For example, GIS could be used to model the flow of water through a river system, to plan a flood warning system, to plan sewer and water pipe lines etc. In broad terms, a Geographic Information System could be defined as a set of principles and techniques employed to achieve one (or both) of the following objectives: Finding suitable locations that have the relevant attributes. For example, finding a suitable location where an airport, a commercial forest or a retail outlet can be established. This is usually achieved through the use of Boolean (logical) operations.
Querying the geographical attributes of a specified location. For example, examining the roads in a particular locality, to check road density or find the shortest path, and so on. This is often achieved by 'clicking' onto the location or object of interest, and examining the contents of the database for that location or object.

Three Views of a GIS-

A GIS is most often associated with a map. A map, however, is only one way you can work with geographic data in a GIS, and only one type of product generated by a GIS. A GIS can provide a great deal more problem-solving capabilities than using a simple mapping program or adding data to an online mapping tool (creating a "mash-up"). A GIS can be viewed in three ways:
2. The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views that show features and feature relationships on the earth's surface. Maps of the underlying geographic information can be

1. The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of the world”a geographic database (geodatabase). It is an "Information System for Geography." Fundamentally, a GIS is based on a structured database that describes the world in geographic terms. Learn more.

constructed and used as "windows into the database" to support queries, analysis, and editing of the information. Learn more.

3. The Model View: A GIS is a set of information transformation tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing datasets. These geoprocessing functions take information from existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived datasets. Learn more.

Potential pesticide
use on permeable

Example of a model or process flow, with datasets, functions, and results.
By combining data and applying some analytic rules, you can create a model that helps answer the question you have posed. In the example below, GPS and GIS were used to accurately model the expected location and distribution of debris for the Space Shuttle Columbia, which broke up upon re-entry over eastern Texas on February 1, 2003. Learn more about this project and implimentation.

Together, these three views are critical parts of an intelligent GIS and are used at varying levels in all GIS applications. Learn more about the technology.

¢ Maximize the efficiency of planning and decision making
¢ Provide efficient means for data distribution and handling
¢ Elimination of redundant data base-minimize duplication
¢ Capacity to integrate information from many sources
¢ Complex analysis/query involving geographical reference data to generate new information.
¢ GIS provides us with an answer for location, condition, trends, patterns and modeling.

GIS components-
¢ Hardware
¢ Software
¢ Expertise
¢ Spatial information
¢ Non spatial information

Representation of spatial information:
Geographical features are depicted on map by Point, Line, and Polygon\area. Representation of non spatial (attribute) information:
Consists of textural description on the properties associated with geographical entities. Attributes are stored as a set of numbers and characters in the form of a table. Many attribute data files can be linked together through the use of common identifier code.
Organizing map data-map features are logically organized into a set of layers or themes of information. Some of the most common considerations for organizing layers are-
¢ feature type-typically layers are organized so that points, line sand polygon are stored in separate layers
¢ logical group-features are organized logically by what they represent
¢ intended use-application specific

Data models-

Geographical variations are infinitely complex and must be represented in terms of discrete objects. Conversions of real world geographical variations into discrete objects are done through data models. It represents the linkage between the real world domain of geographic data and computer representation of these features .it is of two types-
¢ raster data model
¢ vector data model


At their core, CAD and GIS are complementary technologies that have evolved largely independently but in parallel over the past 30 years. CAD data can be used as GIS content. ArcGIS now offers better tools for organization of CAD data and a larger, more useful set of symbols for representing CAD information. In addition, ArcGIS provides a commonly accepted framework for georeferencing CAD data so it can be used in many types of applications and by a wider range of professionals.
The ArcGIS for AutoCAD plug-in provides GIS content to CAD users via an elegant services-based approach to interoperability, where designers and draftspersons can access and use GIS Web services delivered by ArcGIS Server without leaving the CAD environment. It can be used inside AutoCAD and other CAD software.

The major difference between GIS s/w and CAD mapping s/w is a provision of capabilities for transforming the original special data in order to be able to answer particular queries.

GIS database design concepts

As in normal database activity, GIS database also needs to be properly designed to cater to the needs of specific application. The design should define a comprehensive framework of database. Identification of essential and correct data elements, updation procedures etc. Generally the design of database include -

1. Conceptual design: It is independent of s/w and h/w and defines the application needs and the
end objective of GIS database.
-specifying the ultimate use of GIS database, i.e., management activity -defining the level of database -spacial elements of database -non special elements of database -sources of special and non special data

2. Logical design: It pertains to the logical definition of the database and is specific to a GIS
package. IT includes-
-defining the co-ordinate system of the database -defining special framework -defining attribute codes and their description -spacial database normalization

3. Physical design: It is based on experience and pertains to-
-disc space requirement
-load of database
-access and speed requirement
-platform related aspects

The main applications of GIS are-
¢ Facility management and utility services
¢ Telecom planning and management
¢ Power distribution planning and management
¢ Location planning and suitability analysis
¢ Assets management
¢ Urban planning

¢ Water shed management
¢ Water shed and resources sector
¢ Environmental impact assessment
¢ Agriculture resources management

The three main applications of GIS which have been undertaken in detail are-

Among the above three mentioned applications we aim a deeper and a detailed study of the application of GIS in the distribution and transmission in power plants.

Concerning the population growth and development of industrial and agricultural sections, the electric power demand is increasing continuously. Therefore, it is necessary to forecast the load of the electric network and expand the power system for supplying reliable electrical energy. A power plant as a power generating station is one of the essential infrastructures of the electric network. The construction of new power plants is an important part of the electric network expansion. The suitability of selected site for power plant affects the amount of generated energy, power plant's productivity, cost of power generation and transmission (loss of energy), economical development and environment. Therefore, in site selection process for a power plant it is necessary to carefully consider not only the technical issues, but also its impact on natural environment, economy and near local communities. Since most of the related data to site selection of power plants are geospatial, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) allows for the consideration and combination of various data about geology, topography, water resources, roads, available electric network, fuel supply, land use, etc. Electric facilities have obvious features: their number is large and they are geographically related. The number of pipelines can reach about 40 types. Most pipelines are under ground and constitute very complicated networks. During the construction and development of a power station, these networks are changed at different extents. It is clumsy to modify paper maps, and paper maps easily become obsolete and are easily damaged. In addition, when the power station needs new buildings or needs maintenance work to pipelines, the worker should know their geographical distribution. These problems can be solved efficiently using GIS. In the facility management of power stations, facility maintenance management is a very important part, including heavy repair, routine maintenance, and facility defect management. At present, there has been mature management software for equipment maintenance and repair. Integrating these with GIS can enhance visual and graphical effects. Because of the large amount of equipment and the complexity of the pipeline network, the management requirements for administrators are very high. Applying GIS and network technology to power stations can implement centralized and graphical management of pipelines, equipment, workshops, and geographical related information and can provide data sharing, modern management methods, and decision-making support .

There are 2 general areas where GIS is mainly used in the establishment of power plants: -Assessing land suitability
Available land may be rocky, heavily sloped, earthquake prone, polluted, or have some other factor that might limit its use for a power plant. Planners use GIS to capture features that potentially impact land suitability. In this way they can compare one parcel against another on a variety of characteristics. E.g. one site may be near a vegetated wet land, while another may have soils that are not suitable for a power plant. Analysts can also build terrain models in GIS to provide insight into the contours of the available sites and the surrounding areas. They may discover that mountains surround a flat piece of land, causing problems with access. Yet another factor planners take into consideration is the impact on the air and water quality. Depending on the type of the plant to be built, this may be a significant factor in determining site suitability.

Considering the proximity
Every power plant needs to be located near resources to deliver the electricity. If everything else about the site is ideal except its distance from transmission, then the cost of delivering the power may be prohibitive. Nuclear plants must have an adequate roadway network to transport sensitive fuel. Hydroelectric plants must be on waterways. Natural gas plants must be near pipelines. Coal plants must be near trucks, trains, and boats. Plant operations must have access to qualified people to work in plants. Planners use GIS to locate plants close to resources needed for plant operations.

Sites for plants with special considerations

Coal-fired plants

The major spatial issue in finding a good location for a coal-fired generating plant is its proximity to coal. If it is not close to a major source, then the plant must be near a transportation network adequate to deliver large volumes of coal. Operators can use GIS to view coal sourcing options near the site.
However, not all coal is the same. Some coal has higher sulphur content, heating potential, and ash makeup. High sulphur coal is more expensive to clean than low sulphur coal. So that spatial analysis for coal plants includes analyzing the closest, most economical source of the right kind of coal. Two major cost components of a coal-fired plant are the coal handling and pollution- control facilities. If the coal plant is close to a source with high-sulphur content, the operator will have to consider the higher cost of pollution control equipment. Using GIS to model various scenarios, operators can distill an enormous number of factors to just a few.

Hydroelectric plants

Finding a good location for a hydroelectric power plant naturally involves finding a fast-flowing waterway. That's the easy part. These plants can have enormous environmental impact on the wildlife, watershed, and neighboring communities. Hydro plant operators use GIS to visualize & minimize those impacts. GIS is also an essential tool used to relicense existing plants. In this process, hydroelectric plant operators use GIS to monitor the ongoing impact of the plant on the surroundings and communicate that impact to the licensing authorities.

School of electrical engineering Wind power plants
Even though wind energy is environmentally friendly, it has some serious drawbacks. Wind is variable. So unlike coal, oil, gas or nuclear base-load power plants, utilities cannot count on energy all the time. Wind farms are expensive to build and difficult to properly locate. They can harm birds. They are loud. They can visually obtrusive. To justify the cost of wind turbines, the atmospheric conditions must be strong and constant.

Wind farm planners can use GIS to spot the most favorable source of wind energy. Planners also need to incorporate into the analysis the location of the bird habitat. A viable wid farm needs wide expanses of land. To be effective, wind turbine towers should be spaced fairly far apart. Rotor blades can be more than 60 feet long. A A 400 megawatt (MW) wind farmcould have upto 200 wind turbines spaced 90 to 120feet apart. So planning a wind farm, or even a single wind turbine, is a complex spatial problem that GIS can help solve.

Solar power plants

Solar energy has the smallest enviornmental impact of all the common sources of energy. It is silent and completely clean. However, building a solar generator is very expensive. Its unlikely that utilities can afford to build large scale central station solar generating facilities anytime soon.
Until costs decrease and power densities increase, distributed solar generating systems are a more likely application of the technology. Utilities focus on finding the many locations where solar energy plants can supplement the total electric production within a region. Examples includes areas where the cost of increasing the electric transmission or distribution capacity is considered high, areas with significant new construction (oppourtunities to install solar panels on roofs), remote areas, areas with poor reliability, and sparse outposts.

With GIS, users can show solar densities that exist throughout the region at any given time. They can combine the solar potential and the energy demands to find the optimal and most economical location to use solar energy.

Suppose a utility needs to provide 25 megawatts of power to a new, combined residential/commercial development and the distribution system is only able to provide 10 megawatts. The utility could arrange with the developer to install solar energy roofing tiles & share the cost of tiles with the developer. Since many countries offer substantial subsidies for solar energy, that actual cost of the solar systems could be much lower than the installation cost. While the solar energy produced by these solar roof tiles is probably not adequate to supply all the electrictity for the building, it could supplement the energy supply when customer usage is the highest during hot sunny weather. So, in this particular example, the application of solar energy may be economical. Once installed, the solar systems would generate local electricity while not placing demands on the already stretched distribution systems. In effect, the solar systems reduce the peak demand within the application region.
Using GIS, utilities bring three data sources together:-
1. The locations of significant new or potential development with sufficient rooftop space to allow adequate solar generation.
2. Electrical demand profiles and load project and implimentationions by area showing utility distribution deficiencies.
3. Solar energy potential
GIS users can produce a visual analysis of polygons or surfaces that show the relative merit of a
particular region for the application of the solar energy. The spatial analysis function of GIS can
assess economic advantages of solar energy that otherwise may be overlooked.
Nuclear Plants
Finding the best location for a nuclear plant has all the complexities of locating a coal plant with added public safety sensitivities. Population densities and evacuation routing are significant factors. GIS users can handle this problem through routing and logistics extensions.

While looking for the best locations, utilities need to consider evacuation plans should an accident occur. This involves a complete spatial analysis of the surrounding communities. Utilities need to determine optimal routes for emergency vehicles. They must examine possible contamination areas and create evacuation scenarios. Utilities must update evacuation plans regularly. Creating evacuation scenarios in GIS provides an ongoing framework for testing the plans against the real-life conditions.

Geothermal power plants
Geothermal plants produce electricity by extracting heat from deep within the earth. The plant converts the heat to electricity by a variety of means, but commonly by conventional turbines. The heat from the earth's core is essentially limitless so the United States and other governments consider geothermal energy production renewable. While there are ample geothermal resources worldwide, getting to them is a considerable challenge. GIS is an essential tool to guide developers to the optimum location for a geothermal plant. The effectiveness of the plant depends on the underground structures that permit heat to flow to the surface. In some cases there are clues, such as geysers, that tell explorers structures are nearby. Mapping this activity in GIS can provide some insight into possible development sites.
GIS is a valuable tool to map the geological aspects of the earth to find ideal geothermal plant locations. Oil producers use a similar process to find locations to drill wells. GIS can assess the economics of various sites. In addition to finding the right geology for a geothermal plant, the spatial assessment takes in factors such as groundwater protection, proximity to transmission, transportation and labors sources. Since geothermal plants are often near tourist attractions, like geysers, they are difficult to permit. GIS can be ideal tool to help to help developers with the permitting process.

The usage of GIS in the establishment of a thermal power plant is given below-

The required conditions for the establishment of thermal power plants are comprehensively studied and conceptual model of power plant sitting is designed. Later, conventional models for integrating factor maps have been investigated. For experimental test, the factor maps of studied area have been prepared and integrated. Finally the suitable locations for the construction of power plant are selected using GIS.
1. Introduction

Electrical energy is an important factor in all aspects of development, including industry, agriculture, environment, and socio-economy in general. To respond to the increase in the demand for electrical energy effectively, it is necessary to predict the electricity consumption for the coming years and to plan for the necessary development in the electricity production and transmission network. Power plants as the sources of electricity supply are the most important part of the network.
As the first step of network development, existing power plants should be improved and new plants
should be established. The construction of a power plant is usually very expensive and time-
consuming and has intensive effects on the environment and on all aspects of both people life and
socio-economic area.
The most important parameters that should be first defined are the type of the power plant, its capacity and the most suitable location for it. The location of a power plant has significant effects on the efficiency of electricity generation, the price of electricity production and transmission, its environmental impact etc. therefore the selection of the location for a new power plant should be done very carefully and based on the analysis of many different factors. Many of these factors are essentially spatial, and the data about them are from different sources and in different scales. Therefore GIS along with appropriate models and spatial analysis method should be used to define the suitability of different locations for the construction of power plants.

2. Important factors in site selection for power plants

In general, both the construction and operation of a power plant requires the existence of some conditions such as water resources and stable soil type. Still there are other criteria that although not required for the power plant, yet should be considered because they will be affected by either the construction or operation of the plants such as population centers and protected areas. The following list covers most of the factors that should be studied and considered in selection of proper sites for power plant construction:
¢ Transportation network: Easy and enough access to transportation network is required in both power plant construction and operation periods.
¢ Gas pipe network: Vicinity to the gas pipes reduces the required expenses.
¢ Power transmission network: To transfer the generated electricity to the consumers, the plant should be connected to electrical transmission system. Therefore the nearness to the electric network can play a role.
¢ Geology and soil type: The power plant should be built in an area with soil and rock layers that could stand the weight and vibrations of the power plant.
¢ Earthquake and geological faults: Even weak and small earthquakes can damage many parts of a power plant intensively. Therefore the site should be away enough from the faults and previous earthquake areas.
¢ Topography: It is proved that high elevation has a negative effect on production efficiency of gas turbines. In addition, changing of a sloping area into a flat site for the construction of
the power plant needs extra budget. Therefore, the parameters of elevation and slope should be considered.
¢ Rivers and floodways: obviously, the power plant should have a reasonable distance from permanent and seasonal rivers and floodways.
¢ Water resources: For the construction and operating of power plant different volumes of water are required. This could be supplied from either rivers or underground water resources. Therefore having enough water supplies in defined vicinity can be a factor in the selection of the site.
¢ Environmental resources: Operation of a power plant has important impacts on environment. Therefore, priority will be given to the locations that are far enough from national parks, wildlife, protected areas, etc.
¢ Population centers: For the same reasons as above, the site should have an enough distance from population centers.
¢ Need for power: In general, the site should be near the areas that there is more need for generation capacity, to decrease the amount of power loss and transmission expenses.
¢ Climate: Parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed affect the productivity of a power plant and always should be taken into account.
¢ Land cover: Some land cover types such as forests, orchard, agricultural land, pasture are sensitive to the pollutions caused by a power plant. The effect of the power plant on such land cover types surrounding it should be counted for.
¢ Area size: Before any other consideration, the minimum area size required for the construction of power plant should be defined.
¢ Distance from airports: Usually, a power plant has high towers and chimneys and large volumes of gas. Consequently for security reasons, they should be away from airports.
¢ Archeological and historical sites: Usually historical building .. .are fragile and at same time very valuable. Therefore the vibration caused by power plant can damage them, and a defined distance should be considered.

3. Data collection and classification of parameters

We initially consider the study area, size and the diversity parameters. This comprehensive study of selection parameters and all required spatial features are defined and categorized into three main classes of physical, environmental and socio economic features. The three main classes have 13 smaller classes. The classification is presented in table 1.
4. Spatial data analysis

The above mentioned features were represented in different layers and from these layers two different types of maps were generated, according to the essence of the related factor and its effect on the suitability of the site:
¢ Limitation maps:
Such a map defines the area that cannot be used for the power plant because of a limiting factor. Such a map is binary map, in which the areas with limiting condition (not suitable) are given the value of zero and the allowed (suitable) areas are given the value of one. For example, the area with slope bigger than 10% is represented with zero value (not-suitable) and the areas with less slope are represented as suitable (value one).

¢ Factor maps:

Figure 1. Limitation map of slope
Some of the parameters do not affect the suitability of a location in absolute manner (e.g. making it absolutely unsuitable), yet has a positive or negative effect on the suitability. The effect of such parameters can be modeled by giving them appropriate weights. For example, areas can be given different weights according to their distances from existing gas pipe lines (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Factor map of Gas pipe line

5. Data integration and selection of suitable locations

The integration of the data (resulted maps) was carried out in two stages:
1) Limitation maps are overlaid using the Boolean Operation where input maps can be integrated by using logical operators such as AND, OR, XOR and NOT (Bonham Carter and G.F., 1991).
2) Factor maps are integrated with the index overlay method using following Equation:
6. Conclusion and discussion

Although such methods have been used in many GIS project and implimentations, the finalization of this work has shown the following results:
GIS systems provide us with a rich collection of spatial analytical capabilities. In addition, usually a variety of spatial data might be available. Yet, none of these guide us to a proper spatial decision. Yet there is a strong need for clear thinking, good planning and selection of implemental approaches.

The most difficult and yet most important part in such project and implimentations is the proper selection and evaluation of parameters and criteria. The manipulation and analysis of the data is much more straightforward.
The accuracy of selection is directly related to the properness of the weights given to the parameters.

We have an example of establishment of a thermal power plant in GIS:-
In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a decision-making tool to target potential power plant sites in Fars province, Southern part of Iran. The aims of the study are to identify suitable areas to install a thermal power plant (TPP), as the base study for the future investigations and development. Recent legislations have increased the role of GIS in sitting studies in Iran therefore this tries to illustrate not only factors that are considered in sitting studies, but also the role of GIS to locating some reliable sites with reasonable cost and minimal environmental impacts.


Mobiles have made the world come closer for communication. Each and every part of the country requires mobile network coverage because of mobiles usability. There is a need of good and continuous network services from the mobile companies. Therefore there is need for a suitable site selection to set up more towers that can provide good coverage. Here we use GIS as a tool that can work effectively and efficiently, be used for site suitability analysis to set up more towers with minimum time and cost in a particular area. Based on the requirements of the companies the model is developed to prioritize the area of interest. It will also help to simulate different scenarios by varying height of the towers at different locations. The suitable sites can be identified very quickly and easily. All this work and information will surely help various telecommunication companies to densify their communication network and provide a good and uninterrupted service.

A network is a line coverage that is topology based and consists of connected linear features. A communication network, in its simplest form, is a set of equipment and facilities that provides as service: the transfer of information between the users located at various geographical points. Internet or inter network is no exception to this, which involves the interconnection of multiple networks into a single large area network. Toady GIS is used extensively to plan, build and operate communication networks and associated services. GIS can handle complex network problems, such as road network analysis. There are, of course, other types of network analysis, involving stream networks. For example, GIS could be used to model the flow of water through a river system, to plan a flood warning system.

Telecom sector is bound to grow by 44% in the next few year as rightly mentioned by honorable Finance minister. There are many opportunities in the field of service providing, infrastructure development etc. More companies are entering into this field, so competition is increasing every day. As competition between various service providers grows the customer is benefited since he gets to choose from a wide range of services available in the market. However, for cost effective coverage of the area, suitable site location for a telecommunication tower is important.

1. Locate proper site for setting up Telecommunication tower by comparing and analyzing different view shed from different observer point.
2. Find effective solutions for area coverage by the mobile network with minimum number of towers in an area.
3. Serve people with cost effective and uninterrupted communication service.

¢ Wireless GIS has been maturing quickly over the past few years, as the wireless telecommunications industry has grown, hardware manufacturers have increasingly integrated wireless technologies ” such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth ” into handheld devices, and software vendors have improved data compression tools and released development platforms intended specifically for this market
¢ The use of Wi-Fi hot spots requires handheld devices to switch frequently between operating on-line and off-line ” storing data locally and accessing the network whenever they are in range of a hot spot ” so they are being designed to operate in this "store and forward" mode.
¢ For applications that require continuous coverage, such as automatic vehicle location (AVL), cell phone connections are the means of choice, especially now that many handsets incorporate a GPS receiver, thus obviating the need to connect a separate device.
¢ During major disasters ” such as the 9/11 attacks or Hurricane Katrina ” many cell phone towers are destroyed and the remaining ones are overwhelmed due to the spike in cell phone calls from a panicked public. Ensuring that emergency personnel still have access to wireless applications during disasters is one reason that a growing number of cities are installing broadband municipal mesh networks.
¢ In remote areas, businesses that can benefit greatly from field data transmission ” most notably, oil and gas companies ” are steadily developing their own wide area networks, often in partnership with other companies operating in the same area.
¢ Public and private wireless GPS reference networks are enabling field technicians with handheld devices to collect data and features with engineering-grade accuracy.
¢ The integration of cell phones and GPS receivers is "the most exciting part" of wireless GIS right now, because it has made AVL affordable even for operators of very small fleets ” whereas before it was the exclusive purview of large companies that could afford to set up their own networks. He predicts that the number of applications will grow rapidly in the next three years.
¢ Application of wireless GIS is mostly for emergency response, road operation, permitting, and code compliance.
¢ In remote areas not served by a wireless infrastructure, some large companies are willing to make the investment to build their own network ” for the sake of voice communication, safety, and data management. This is partly because the costs have come down and partly because companies have realized the value of having their own infrastructure.
¢ Because communication with the towers requires line-of-sight, GIS is used to generate predictive view sheds and help decide where to place the towers. While cell phone companies want to blanket an area, he explains, his company is only interested in the most efficient way to cover its installations. Additionally, wells are now equipped with automated sensors ” such as pressure gauges ” that transmit data to the towers. This way, instead of visiting every single well every few days, maintenance workers can prioritize the few that have problems
¢ One of the most exciting developments for wireless GIS is the establishment of real-time networks of GPS reference stations by state departments of transportation and private vendors,. There are now more than 50 of these networks in the United States and, they all have the capability of giving centimeter-level, mapping-grade solutions, without the need to purchase survey-grade GPS receivers to use as base stations. Now, for half the cost you can have ten times the accuracy obtainable just a few years ago.
¢ The implication for GIS is that data collected by a technician in the field, using simple drop-down menus, can now be used in engineering applications. Of course, he points out, technicians must be aware of things that can trip them up, such as standing next to a building or under a thick tree canopy. Another problem is that, because voice communications usually take priority over data communications, in some areas where there is cell phone service it is hard or impossible to send data over those networks.
¢ Since few wireless networks have the bandwidth and speed to efficiently transmit large image files, background images for use in the field are typically compressed, optimized, and stored on flash memory cards. Alternatively, in response to queries from the field, maps are created on servers and optimized for mobile users to download.
¢ Finally, the added bonuses of access to a wireless network ” such as the ability to read e¬mail and send images from digital cameras ” all contribute to productivity gains.
¢ ("We don't support ongoing operations... What are you doing that's new?"). The result is a lot of wasted capital and not much learning (the private sector seems to get the latter part a bit better).
¢ All of this stems from not judging properly the business requirement to keep something going. Green Info's been doing its work for ten years now, with a staff of nine and helping more than 100 groups a year ” all on a fee-for-service basis, as we judged at the beginning that there would be no ongoing public funding for what we were doing (if there were, it would almost be so categorical ” read "trendy" ” as to force us to constantly dance to the money's tune).
¢ In the last five years, the other two major non-profit GIS centers (NYPIRG's CMAP and CommEn Space in Seattle) have both closed down, leaving us and a smattering of very small groups elsewhere. Some universities try to do public support, but student cycles and their inability to generally do production work limit their usefulness (although they're often good at research).
¢ Rather than start with the "wouldn't it be great..." thinking, it might be useful to ask, what does it take to maintain a group of three or more GIS people who might provide public support (less than three means they simply can't cover all that has to be covered and handle when one of them goes, which will inevitably happen). After all, it's really not about good ideas (which are all around) or technology (which is easy) ” it's about having
specific, good people who can make such an effort successful over time. Start with that element, and then see what kind of business can succeed.

Mobile GIS technology extends GIS beyond the office and allows organizations to make accurate, real-time business decisions and collaborate in both field and office environments. Mobile GIS products and services are essential to the success of many GIS mapping applications and enable an organization to expand its enterprise GIS into the field. Various industries and field-workers use mobile GIS technology to help complete both complex project and implimentations and routine tasks. Mobile GIS is the expansion of a geographic information system (GIS) from the office into the field. A mobile GIS enables field-based personnel to capture, store, and update, manipulate, analyze, and display geographic information. Mobile GIS integrates one or more of the following technologies:
¢ Mobile devices
¢ Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
¢ Wireless communications for Internet GIS access
Traditionally, the processes of field data collection and editing have been time consuming and error prone. Geographic data has traveled into the field in the form of paper maps. Field edits were performed using sketches and notes on paper maps and forms. Once back in the office, these field edits were deciphered and manually entered into the GIS database. The result has been that GIS data has often not been as up-to-date or accurate as it could have been.

Server GIS Trends

GIS technology has long been valued for enhancing communication and collaboration in decision making, effectively managing resources and assets, enhancing the efficiency of workflows, improving the accessibility of information, and generally offering tangible cost saving to organizations both large and small. In an effort to deliver geospatial information and functionality throughout an enterprise, organizations are choosing to extend their traditional desktop GIS implementations with innovative server-based GIS solutions that provide content and capabilities via Web services.

GISDATA has an extensive experience on providing solutions to Enterprise GIS users to connect to central GIS servers using traditional, advanced GIS desktops as well as Web browsers, focused applications, mobile computing devices, and digital appliances. One of the most distinguishing qualities of GISDATA company lies in the ability to provide advanced integration on all levels of GIS application, from desktop over server to mobile with clients hardware & software infrastructure through effective solutions.

Server-Based GIS Technology
ArcGIS Server GIS is used for many kinds of centrally hosted GIS computing. The server-based GIS technology trend is growing. GIS software can be centralized in application servers to deliver GIS capabilities to large numbers of users over networks. Enterprise GIS users connect to central GIS servers using traditional desktop GIS as well as Web browsers, mobile computing devices, and digital appliances. Comprehensive GIS capabilities must be provided to support a broad range of server GIS requirements. For example, ArcGIS Server GIS can be used for:
¢ Managing large GIS databases
¢ Internet delivery of geographic information
¢ Hosting central GIS Web portals for information discovery and use
¢ Centrally hosting GIS functions that are accessed by many users in an organization
¢ Back-office processing of enterprise GIS databases
¢ Distributed GIS computing (such as distributed GIS data management and analysis)
¢ Internet delivery of comprehensive GIS functionality

ESRI GIS servers are IT compliant and interoperate well with other enterprise software (such as Web servers, DBMSs, and enterprise application frameworks including Java J2EE and Microsoft .NET). This enables the integration of GIS with numerous information system technologies and computing standards.

Our project and implimentation experiences and achievements have been described in the above project and implimentation report where a detailed case study has been studied & reviewed on the applications of GIS used in various sectors namely in the three following different utility sectors:
¢ Application of GIS in telecommunications.
¢ Applications of GIS in distribution and transmission of power plants.
¢ Software and hardware applications.

¢ Google search engine
¢ Wikipedia
¢ Yahoo search engine
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18-05-2010, 05:04 PM

.pptx   PRESENTATION ON APPLICATION OF GIS IN UTILITY SECTORS.pptx (Size: 535.41 KB / Downloads: 72)


Electrical Engineering


It is a systematic integration of computer hardware, Software and spatial data , for capturing, displaying,updating,manipulating and analyzing,in order to solve complex management problems.
The information associated with the location used in GIS are :
Physical objects
Characteristics of the land
Human factors
GPS is a satellite based radio navigation system.It consits of constillation of satellite transmitting signals monitored by ground stations detected by GPS reciever.
There are three segements
Space segement
Control segement
User segement

Geographical Information System (GIS)

A G.I.S is a computer system for capturing,storing, querying,analyzing and displaying geographic data.

Maps have been combined with computer graphics and database to create GIS.

There are three views of GIS:

The Database View
The Map View
The Model View

Main Objectives Of GIS are:

Find suitable locations that have the relevant attributes.
Querrying the geographical attributes of specified locations.

The main application of GIS are
Facility management and Utility
Transmission and distribution of
Power Plants.
Power distribution Planning and
Assets management
Urban planning
Water shed management
Water shed and resources sector
Environmental impact assessment.
Agriculture resources management.


There are two general areas where GIS is mainly used in the establishment of power plants:

1.Assessing land suitability

2.Considering the proximity


1.Coal-fired plants
Its proximity to coal.
Near a transportation network.
It can view coal sourcing options near the site.
Analyzing the closest,most economical source of the right kind of coal.

2.Hydro Electric Plants

Finding a good location.
Finding a fast-flowing waterway.
Impact on the wildlife,watershed,and neighboring communities.
It is also use to relicense the existing plants.

3.Wind Power Plants

Wind is variable so plants should be located properly.
The atmospheric condition must be strong and constant.
GIS can be used to spot the most favorable sources.
No nearby location of the bird habitat.
Needs wide expanses of land.

4. Solar Power Plants

Smallest environmental impact,silent and clean but an expensive source.
Smallest environmental impact,silent and clean but an expensive source.
Areas with siginificant new construction can provide opportunitnies to install solar pannels on roofs.
With GIS,users can show solar densities that exit throughout tha region.
An economical location is required to use solar energy.

5.Nuclear Power Plants

Public safety sensitivities.
Population densities and evacuation routing or scenarios.
Spatial analysis of the surrounding communities.
Optimal routes for emergency vehicles.
Possible contamination areas.
Testing the plans against real life conditions.
Regular updation of evacuation plans.

6.Geothermal Power Plants

Optimum location required.
GIS can also access the economics of various sites.
It depends on the underground structure that permits heat to flow to the surface.
It helps in mapping the geological aspects of the earth to find ideal geothermal plant location
Factors taken into consideration are groundwater protection, proximity to transmission, transportation and labour sources.


Transportation network
Gas pipe network
Power transmission
Geology and soil type
Earthquake and geological faults
Rivers and floodways
Water resources
Environmental resources
Pollution centers
Need for power
Land cover
Area size
Distance from airports
Archeological and historical sites

1.Physical environment

Geological and soil type

2.Biological Environment

Land cover and land use
Water bodies
Population centers
Protected environment

3.Socio- economic environment

Electrical consumption points
Fuel supply
Water supply
Power transmission
Power generation


Limitation Maps
Factor Maps
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04-10-2010, 01:10 PM

.docx   MAP MY INDIA.docx (Size: 595.48 KB / Downloads: 59)


In current scenario, the road speed limit stored in map data has been used for optimum route calculation purposes. In the peak hour, the vehicle speed would be less compared to the speed at the noon time or late evening. Thus, the real time scenario shows speed of the vehicle depends on the time. Hence, the optimum route between two or more places would not be same both in the peak and non-peak hour. The current/available system does not have an intelligent mechanism to consider the traffic congestions instantaneously and to identify the optimum route at that time.The total traffic composition of this heritage city is somewhat different from other contemporary cities of the country. The traffic composition is overwhelmingly marked by presence of large number of light category vehicles who do not occupy much space on the road. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used in identification of the locations which are the most critical sites from the point of view of traffic congestion and highly used by tourists and visitors. Here GIS was used as a tool for the identification of congested sections. Major localities and sub localities in the central Agra portion are very much congested and given the condition there has been a lot of problem for a person to find out possible ways to reach at the desired destination in the peak times when markets are open.
Thus persons having any kind of health problem if a call for an ambulance is not certain about the time in which the ambulance will reach its place. This paper involves these localities and the sub localities to work as a barrier for the navigator of the ambulances which will take into consideration these localities of the central portion as a barrier and will choose an alternate route for going inside the locality. This will be done with the help of creating a zone of localities where there will be congestion and if the road which is chosen by the navigator will fall in that area it will choose another alternate route.
Future Prospect: --
• Some of the locations than also are not accessible during daytime so for this purpose there has to be suitable areas nearby the localities for ambulance warehouses which will help in not only time distance manner but also for the hospitals to take advantage of that. The location where we have got the problem can call to the hospital, and the hospital will make use of these warehouses according to their need and the requirement of the patient.

• Intelligent Vehicle tracking system (IVTS) has brought one of the most important technological advances in today’s communication field. Now one doesn’t have to leave a place to know where a particular vehicle is at a given period of time. The automatic vehicle locating system with the help of a tinny electronic device and tracking software can detect the real-time location of a vehicle by using the conventional cell phone network and Gprs/Internet. GPS Vehicle tracking system is used for different purposes like Services and delivery solutions, petrochemical or oil and gas solution, bus and other public transport solution, shipping and marine, govt. and military etc. In all these fields it increased the efficiency of the organization by constantly monitoring the fleet and management in terms of timely dispatch and delivery. The use of the system brings down the management cost by –
 Efficient usage of the vehicle reduces fleet expenses (2) Reduce vehicle-operating cost.
 Increased driver’s productivity
 Reduced fuel expenses
 Actual documentation of the route with stopping time
 Reduce time spent on unnecessary location.
The report that are generated by IVTS includes daily activity with actual km traveled, Speed, Speed violation, Start & Stop time, Engine running time ,Engine Idling time, Total stop and parking time with locations, Territory violation ,Weekend operation, Door, Petrol lid and any other sensor related reports, Attendance report for drivers etc.
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23-12-2010, 02:47 PM

Prepared by:Madhavan.J.

.ppt   Applications of GIS to Water Resources Engineering.ppt (Size: 3.84 MB / Downloads: 56)

Geographic Information Systems
The Problem
To analyze hydrologic processes in a non-uniform landscape.

Non-uniformity of the terrain involves the topography, land use and soils, and consequently affects the hydrologic properties of the flow paths.
The Solutions
Soil Water Balance

Flow Routing Methods

Soil Water Balance Model
Soil Water Balance Model
Global Data
Monthly Surplus – Niger Basin
Monthly Surplus – Niger Basin
Soil Water Balance

Flow Routing Methods

Flow Routing Models


Source to sink
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12-03-2013, 07:03 PM


I would like to gain some opinion regarding on my final year project and implimentation. Kindly, I would like to propose a project and implimentation on integration of remote sensing with the GIS. So, I would like to done the flood management project and implimentation and analysis of the problems of flood that rapidly occur at the entire places. Therefore, kindly could you share some information basically on my propose project and implimentation and give some opinion to my email as soon as possible. Thank you very much.


Arifah Kader, Malaysia.

Email :
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13-03-2013, 09:30 AM

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