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project report tiger
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15-02-2010, 07:08 AM


Monopole magnetic device and Remote Sensing Technology (RST) are used to monitor and control automobile emissions to prevent the pollution and protect the environment. Monopole magnetic device reduces the level of noxious gases in exhaust fumes of vehicles. The carbon monoxide (co) level is reduced almost zero in the vehicles. It also claims a substational reduction in hydrocarbon emission in all the vehicles. The device assumes importance in the context of increasing awareness in our country about emissions by vehicle exhaust. Remote sensing technology measures pollutant level in the vehicle's exhaust while the vehicle is traveling down the road. Unlike the conventional methods, the remote sensing devices are not physically connected to the vehicle. The paper highlights how to achieve almost zero percent pollution and prevent the environment from vehicle emission.
¢ Monopole magnetic device
¢ Remote Sensing Technology (RST)
¢ Onboard Diagnostics (OBD)
Next to buying house for most people the personal vehicle for mobility is major investment maintaining vehicles will help to protect the environment from automobile emission, pollution and get better fuel economy. Mono pole magnetic device and remote sensing technology help to prevent and control the pollution from vehicle emissions.
Emission Control By Mono Pole Magnetic Device
Mono polo magnetic devices reduce the level of noxious gases in exhaust fumes of vehicles. In addition the device is claimed to improve mileage by about 20%. The device can be easily mounted on vehicles and other engines by clipping it around the fuel pipe line.
The device magnetizes the fuel coming through the fuel line and prepares it for better combustion. As a result, the petrol or diesel crossing the device is polarized (that is, the molecules of the fuel are aligned along a particular direction). This improves the combustion characteristic of the fuel and reduces the amount of noxious gases in the exhaust.
This device is tested in a number of petrol driven cars, diesel engines, scooters, and motorbikes in collaboration with a few research labs transport operators and vehicles owners, say that the carbon monoxide (CO) level is reduced almost to zero in the vehicles. It claims a substantial reduction in hydro carbon emission in all the vehicles tested.

Position no: 1 (normal), position no: 2(clamping in the mono pole device on the fuel line)
Position no: 1 (normal), position no: 2(clamping in the mono pole device on the fuel line)
Position no: 1 (normal), position no:2 (clamping in the mono pole device on the fuel line)
Independent tests using the device ( but without any modification to the vehicle ) in a petrol - driven Premier Padmini , LML Vespa scooters (two stroke) and a Hero Honda (four stroke) bike also support the claims such as near-zero CO emissions, More than 25% reduction in hydro carbon emission and about 16% increase in mileage.

Position no: 1 (normal), position no:2 ( clamping in the mono pole device on the fuel line)
The Problem
Nitrogen oxides are one of the main pollutants emitted by vehicle engines. Once they enter into the atmosphere, they are spread over a large area by the wind. When it rains, water then combines with the nitrogen oxides to form acid rain. This has been known to damage buildings and have an adverse effect on ecological systems.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
The most effective means of tackling nitrogen oxides is to use Exhaust Gas Recirculation [EGR]. This technique directs some of the exhaust gases back into the intake of the engine. These gases have already been used by the engine and no longer contain much oxygen. By mixing the exhaust gases with fresh air, the amount of oxygen entering the engine is reduced. Since there is less oxygen to react with, fewer nitrogen oxides are formed. This can greatly reduce the amount of nitrogen oxides that a vehicle releases into the atmosphere.
The purpose of EGR system is to precisely regulate EGR flow under different operating conditions, and to override flow under condition which would comprise good engine performance. The precise amount of exhaust gas which must be mattered into the intake manifold varies significantly as engine load changes. This result in the egr operating system on a very fine line between good NOx control and good engine performance.
If too much exhaust gas is meterd, engine performance will suffer. If too much little EGR flows, the engine may knock and will not meet strict emission standards. The theoretical volume of recirculated exhaust gas is referred to as EGR ratio. As the accompanying graph shows, the EGR ratio increases as engine loading increases.
Remote sensing technology
The purpose or remote sensing device (RSD) technology is to measure pollutant levels in a vehicle's exhaust while the vehicle is traveling down the road. Unlike the conventional methods, the remote sensing devices are not physically connected to the vehicle but can be located conveniently at the roadside so that the device can virtually "see" the passing vehicles in a single lane.
The RSD systems can measure hydrocarbons (HC) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission in the exhaust stream. Commercial RSD systems employ an infrared absorption principle to measure these pollutions. These systems operate by continuously shooting a beam of infrared radiations across a roadway. As a vehicle passes the roadway intercepting the beam, the device measures the ratio in the exhaust plume behind. Taking the first measurement as the baseline, the device calculates the vehicle's CO and HC emissions rate by comparing the second measurement to the expected ratio for ideal combustion.
The whole system is computerized with software loaded to perform combustion calculations. RSD systems are also developed to measure nitrogen oxides (NO). But a beam of ultraviolet light or light from a tunnel diode laser is needed to be project and implimentationed to cross the roadway. RSD systems employ a freeze-frame video camera and equipment to digitize an image of the license plate number, so that the appropriate authorities can then identify the owners of the vehicle when the readings are beyond the passable range.
Methods to measure the speed and acceleration would enhance the utility of the device. Since these modes significantly affects the readings.
Onboard Diagnostics
Onboard computers control many of the engines control systems, such as fuel and ignition. Auto industries have to develop ways to diagnose problems generated by the new electronics hardware found under the bonnet of the vehicle. This was the original of the OBD systems, which assure proper emission control systems operation for the vehicle's lifetime by monitoring emission-related components and systems for deterioration and malfunction.

Position no: 1 (normal), position no:2 ( clamping in the mono pole device on the fuel line)
Position no: 1 (normal), position no:2 ( clamping in the mono pole device on the fuel line)
The fuel saving is in contrast to the use of catalytic converter which reduces mileage and pickup. But the new magnetic device also reduces knocking at slower than normal speeds enabling smooth travel. Above all the device is being sold at a lower price to the catalytic converter.
The continued use of monopole device would clean the fuel injector and jet and inverse the mileage and reduce the need to be - carbonize the engine. The life of the magnet is about 20 years.
Advantages of the device:
¢ It improves mileage and pickup
¢ Its cost is low compared with catalytic converter
¢ The new magnetic device reduces knocking at normal speeds enabling smooth travel.
Today's vehicles are largely controlled electronically. Sensors and actuators sense the operation of specific components and actuate the signals to perform needed feed - back adjustments to components like fuel injectors to maintain optimal engine control. On-board computer known as engine control unit or power train control module controls all the systems. With proper software, the onboard computer is capable of monitoring all the sensors and Actuators and determining whether they are working as intended. It can also detect a malfunction or deterioration of the sensors and actuators, usually well before aware of the problems through a loss in vehicle performance or derivability.
An illuminated dashboard light informs the driver of the need for service as soon as possible, not of the need to stop the vehicle immediately. Under certain conditions, the dashboard lights will blink of flash. This indicates a rather severe level if engine misfires. When this occurs, the driver should reduce speed and seek service as soon as possible. Severe engine misfires over only a short period of time can seriously damage the emission control system components, especially the catalytic converter, which is most expensive to replace.
OBD's unlike RSD's can detect evaporative emissions and alert the drivers, For example, if the petrol tank cap is not tightened properly after fitments the OBD system can detect the vapour leak and alert the driver. Many after market fitments can work with OBD if the manufactures of these parts ensure that it is properly fitted to sensitize the OBD system. Computerized diagnostic technologies can work in unison with remote sensing systems and enhance the value of the emission control systems.
It is relevant to consider whether the sophisticated technologies are relevant to our national needs at present. The speed with which emission norms are tightened in India, the urge to accelerate the road and traffic infra-structure facilities and awareness to ensure high quality fuel supply indicate that our industries must not lag behind provision of these high-tech systems to our hi-tech vehicles.
The very objectives of these systems are to ensure proper inspection and maintenance program of motor vehicles. Bulk of the auto emissions can be reduced by proper maintenance and the sophisticated RSD and OBD technologies.
Alternative fuel:
¢ Methanol ,ethanol,bio-diesel and CNG(compressed Natural Gas)
¢ Substituting lead in petrol by octane boosters would increase the octane value and reduce emissions of toxic substance such as benzene, toluene and xylene.
Smoker test:
Two standard method are used for smoke test
Filter method:
This method specifies the quantity of exhaust gases drawn through a filter element. The degrees of discoloration then provide an indication of the amount of particulate contained in exhaust gas.
Absorption method:
In this method, the opacity of the exhaust gas is indicated by the degree to which it blocks the passage of beam of light that shine through it.
The euro norms are meant for regulating vehicular emissions in Europe. The norms are expected in terms of the weight of pollutions such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon(HC),oxides of nitrogen(NOx) and particulate matter emitted per kilometer of vehicular run with load. These ceilings have been fixed for various categories of vehicles. for instance, there are emission level for petrol-driven and diesel-driven vehicles based on the capacity of engines. The pollution measurement under engine idiling conditions without application of load on the vehicles does not reflect the exact quantum of various pollution emitted by the vehicles in reality.
In any internal combustion engines, as the speed or acceleration is increased, the time allowed for combustion of the fuel is varied than the idling condition. This variation is different in a carburetor engine and in a fuel injection petrol or diesel engine. In a carburetor engine, the CO will be maximum at idling speed. In a diesel engine, the smoke will be maximum upon sudden acceleration. The Euro norms adopt certain specified driving cycle related with time Vs speed. During these cycles of operation of the engine the mass of each exhaust gas components is evaluated. This mass is computed from the measured concentrations of each Pollutant in the known exhaust gas volume.
Case study :
According to study, 97% of buses and trucks exit excessive pollutants, three-wheelers contribute about 88%, privately owned two-wheelers about 51%, and only about 12% of private cars were found to be polluting. Today Ëœunleaded petrolâ„¢ supplied today in our country has a lead content of 0.13% .This is 2.5 times higher than the international standard which stands at 0.05%.The California Air Resources Board indicate that excessive exposure of diesel exhaust causes CANCER. This means Delhi could have 3000 or more causes of cancer.
Studies have also revealed that a stationary vehicle, with its engine switched on emits seven times more smoke than a vehicle moving smoothly on the road.
Emission from ECVs, LEVs and ULEVs
Year Type of vehicle No of annual sales in millions Emissions
1989 ECV 1.8 360
1996 LEV 3.5 220
2000 ULEV 5.5 70
ECV- Emission control vehicles
LEV- Low Emission Vehicles
ULEV-Ultra Low Emission vehicles
Some guidelines:
ENGINE OIL “ Replace engine oil at regular intervals (every 5,000km).Use the specific grade of oil recommended by the manufacturer depending on the type of the vehicle-either petrol or diesel.
Filters: oil filters, fuel filters and air filters of branded quality should be used and replaced at intervals.
Engine should be tuned properly.
In the case of diesel engines see that the fuel injection pump works properly.
Get your emission level checked regularly
Independent test using the Monopole magnetic device in a Hero Honda, LML Vespa and Padmini car bike yields the following result
¢ CO emission reduced to zero level in the exhaust of vehicle
¢ 25% reduction in hydrocarbon emission
¢ 16% increase in mileage
¢ NP2, SO2, CO2, emissions reduced to Minimum level in the exhaust of the vehicles.
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22-04-2011, 12:16 PM

.pptx   Automotive emission control systems.pptx (Size: 84.75 KB / Downloads: 113)
Automotive Emission Control Systems
SI Engine Emissions

There are three main types/ sources from which pollutants are emitted from the SI Engines
Crank Case : where the piston blow-by fumes and oil mist are vented to the atmosphere
The fuel system: where Evaporative emissions from the carburettor or petrol injection air intake and fuel tank are vented out to the atmosphere
The Exhaust system : where the products of incomplete combustion are expelled from the tail pipe into the atmosphere.
Crank Case Emissions
The piston and its rings are designed to form a gas tight seal between the sliding piston and the Cylinder walls
However, in practice there is always a certain amount of gases escaping leaking through the piston rings. These gases may be unburnt hydrocarbons, products of combustion, CO2, H2O, or CO. this phenomenon is known as Blow-by.
The blow-by increases with the engine speed, and particularly, when the cylinder walls wear out, it becomes more noticeable in the upper speed range
Crank Case Emissions
The blow- by takes place through the piston ring gap, between the piston ring and grooves, and also when the shape of the piston does not match with that of the cylinder(near the TDC)
It reduces the engine compression ratio and Power Developed
It may lead to a high concentration of the unburnt gases in the crank case, leading to the chances of explosion
The air fuel mixture (fully or partially burnt), contaminate the lubricating oil.
Crank Case Emissions
Since it is impossible to eliminate the blowby completely, the crank case, and camshaft case is deliberately connected, to carry the blow by fumes.
The removal of blow by gases and the vapour fumes from the crank case is obtained by creating a partial depression at the outlet location so that high pressure blow-by is attracted by lower pressure region of crank case, where the gases are expelled
Crank Case Emissions
Following are the two methods of creating extraction depression.
The road draught crank case ventilation system
The induction manifold vacuum positive crankcase ventilation system.
Evaporative Emissions
Evaporative emissions account for about 15 to 25% of total hydrocarbon emission from gasoline
The two main sources are
Fuel tank,
Fuel Tank: the main factors governing the tank emissions are
fuel volatility and the
ambient temperature.
Tank design and location – affects the temperature
Evaporative Emissions
Carburettor: two categories:
Running Losses
Parking losses
Exhaust Emissions
Hydrocarbons: The emission amount of HC (due to incomplete combustion) is closely related to :
Design variables(induction system, combustion chamber design)
Operating variables(A/F ratio, speed, load)
Mode of operation(idling, running, accelerating)
Exhaust Emissions
Factors affecting the HC Emissions
Surface-volume ratio
Wall quenching
Incomplete Combustion: when the air fuel ratio is rich or lean, the flame propagation is affected giving HC emissions. The incomplete combustion may be due to:
Low charge temperatures
Too rich or too lean mixtures
Poor condition of ignition systems
Non uniform fuel in the mixture supplied to the engine
Residual gas in the cylinder.
Spark plug timing
Compression ratio
Exhaust Emissions
Carbon Monoxide (CO) :
Incomplete oxidation of CO to CO2
Improper air fuel ratio: (ideal 15)
More CO Percentage during engine idling, and reduced emissions at high speeds
Emissions are lowest during acceleration and at steady speeds
Exhaust Emissions
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
NO, NO2 are generally formed at higher temperature.
Max NOx levels are found at 10 % higher mixture than stochiometric. Then it decreases because of lower temperature attained
Factors affecting NOx emissions
A/F ratio
Angle of advance
It is also observed that NOx increases with increasing manifold pressure, compression ratio, and engine load
Evaporative Loss Control Device(ELCD)
This device consists of a
Adsorbent chamber
Purge control valve, actuated by exhaust back pressure
Pressure control valve
Cleaning the exhaust gas
After Burner:
A device which consists of a chamber and an ignition device., present after the exhaust manifold
Cleaning the exhaust gas
Exhaust manifold reactor:
Fresh air, mixed with the high temperature Hydrocarbons react to complete the oxidation this system consists of an oxidation zone/ reaction zone very near to the exhaust manifold. It consists of an air pump, which pumps the filtered air. The degree of oxidation depends on the temperature of the exhaust , time and mixing provided
Cleaning the exhaust gas
Catalytic Converter:
It is a device, which induces oxidation reactions in the presence of catalyst.
It consists of two separate elements: one for NOx and the other for CO/HC emission.
Secondary air is injected ahead of first element.
Controlling the Air-Fuel mixture
Reduction of emissions can be obtained by operating the engine with leaner air:fuel ratio.
This can be achieved by modifying the carburettor
The leaner mixtures may be operated for idling and cruise operation.
This requires the increase in idle speeds to prevent stalling and rough idle, usually associated with leaner mixtures.
Controlling the Air-Fuel mixture
The fuel distribution can be improved by
better manifold design,
inlet air heating,
raising of coolant temperature
Use of electronic fuel injection system
Controlling the Combustion Process
Use of leaner air-fuel mixtures: (as stated above)
Retarding the ignition timing:
This reduces the NOx , as it decreases the maximum temperatures.
Reduces HC emissions by causing higher exhaust temperatures
Results in greater requirement of cooling, and loss in power
However, normal spark advance during acceleration may be provided.
Controlling the Combustion Process
Modification of Combustion chamber design:
To avoid flame quenching zones, where otherwise, the combustion may be incomplete which results in high HC emissions.
This includes:
Reduction in surface to volume ratio
Reduced squish area
Reduced deal space around the piston ring
Reduced distance of top surface of piston from the top piston ring
Controlling the Combustion Process
Lower compression ratio:
Reduces the quenching space and area, thus reducing the HC emissions
Reduces NOx emissions due to lower maximum temperatures
However it also results in loss of power and fuel economy
Controlling the Combustion Process
Reduced valve overlap:
Valve overlap results in escaping out of fresh charge directly out of the exhaust valve as it enters thro the inlet valve.
This reduction in valve overlap reduces HC emissions
Controlling the Combustion Process
Induction system modification: The hydrocarbon loss, and their emission can be reduced by accurate metering of fuel and air at the induction system/carburetor.
Inlet air heating
Use of carburetors having closer carburetion tolerances
Special type of carburetors like ‘high speed carburetors’ and ‘multi choke carburetors’


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