Active Filters
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seminar surveyer
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#1
12-10-2010, 10:53 AM


Abstract

A filter is a system that processes a signal in some desired fashion.
A continuous-time signal or continuous signal of x(t) is a function of the continuous variable t. A continuous-time signal is often called an analog signal.
A discrete-time signal or discrete signal x(kT) is defined only at discrete instances t=kT, where k is an integer and T is the uniform spacing or period between samples


.ppt   active filters.ppt (Size: 816 KB / Downloads: 134)

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project girl
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Posts: 10,114
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#2
10-11-2012, 10:49 AM

Active Filter


.ppt   Active Filter.ppt (Size: 798 KB / Downloads: 100)

Passive Filters

made up of passive components - resistors, capacitors and inductors
no amplifying elements (- transistors, op-amps, etc)
no signal gain
1st order - design is simple (just use standard equations to find resonant frequency of the circuit)
2nd order - complex equations
require no power supplies
not restricted by the bandwidth limitations of the op-amps
can be used at very high frequencies
can handle larger current or voltage levels than active devices
buffer amplifiers might be required

Passive elements : Inductor BIG PROBLEM!

high accuracy (1% or 2%), small physical size, or large inductance values are required ??
standard values of inductors are not very closely spaced
difficult to find an off-the-shelf inductor within 10 percent of any arbitrary value
adjustable inductors are used
tuning such inductors to the required values is time-consuming and expensive for larger quantities of filters
inductors are often prohibitively expensive

Active Filter

no inductors
made up of op-amps, resistors and capacitors
provides virtually any arbitrary gain
generally easier to design
high input impedance prevents excessive loading of the driving source
low output impedance prevents the filter from being affected by the load
at high frequencies is limited by the gain-bandwidth of the op-amps
easy to adjust over a wide frequency range without altering the desired response
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