An Acknowledgement-Based Approach for the Detection of routing misbehavior in MANETs
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05-08-2009, 05:30 PM


Due toopen structure and scarcely available battery-based energy,node misbehaviors may exist.One such routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to forward data packets.Here,we propose the 2ACK scheme that serves as an add-on technique for routing schemes to detect routing misbehavior and to mitigate their adverse effects.

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15-11-2012, 12:41 PM

An Acknowledgment-based Approach for the Detection of Routing Misbehavior in MANETs

.doc   An Acknowledgment-based Approach.doc (Size: 695 KB / Downloads: 19)


We study routing misbehavior in MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) in this paper. In general,
routing protocols for MANETs are designed based on the assumption that all participating nodes are fully cooperative. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node misbehaviors may exist. One such routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to forward data packets. In this paper, we propose the 2ACK scheme that serves as an add-on technique for routing schemes to detect routing misbehavior and to mitigate their adverse effect. The main idea of the 2ACK scheme is to send two-hop acknowledgment packets in the opposite direction of the routing path. In order to reduce additional routing overhead, only a fraction of the received data packets are acknowledged in the 2ACK scheme. Analytical and simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme.


A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes (hosts) which commu-
nicate with each other via wireless links either directly or relying on other nodes as routers.
The operation of MANETs does not depend on pre-existing infrastructure or base stations. Network
nodes in MANETs are free to move randomly. Therefore, the network topology of a MANET
may change rapidly and unpredictably. All network activities, such as discovering the topology
and delivering data packets, have to be executed by the nodes themselves, either individually or
collectively. Depending on its application, the structure of a MANET may vary from a small,
static network that is highly power-constrained to a large-scale, mobile, highly dynamic network.

What Can Java Do?

Probably the most well-known Java programs are Java applets. An applet is a Java program that adheres to certain conventions that allow it to run within a Java-enabled browser.
However, Java is not just for writing cute, entertaining applets for the World Wide Web ("Web"). Java is a general-purpose, high-level programming language and a powerful software platform. Using the generous Java API, we can write many types of programs.
The most common types of programs are probably applets and applications, where a Java application is a standalone program that runs directly on the Java platform.
How does the Java API support all of these kinds of programs? With packages of software components that provide a wide range of functionality.


Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie developed UNIX in concert with the C language at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, in 1969. In 1978, Bill Joy was leading a project and implimentation at Cal Berkeley to add many new features to UNIX, such as virtual memory and full-screen display capabilities. By early 1984, just as Bill was leaving to found Sun Microsystems, he shipped 4.2BSD, commonly known as Berkeley UNIX.
4.2BSD came with a fast file system, reliable signals, interprocess communication, and, most important, networking. The networking support first found in 4.2 eventually became the de facto standard for the Internet. Berkeley’s implementation of TCP/IP remains the primary standard for communications with the Internet. The socket paradigm for interprocess and network communication has also been widely adopted outside of Berkeley.


A network socket is a lot like an electrical socket. Various plugs around the network have a standard way of delivering their payload. Anything that understands the standard protocol can “plug in” to the socket and communicate.
Internet protocol (IP) is a low-level routing protocol that breaks data into small packets and sends them to an address across a network, which does not guarantee to deliver said packets to the destination.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a higher-level protocol that manages to reliably transmit data. A third protocol, User Datagram Protocol (UDP), sits next to TCP and can be used directly to support fast, connectionless, unreliable transport of packets.


A server is anything that has some resource that can be shared. There are compute servers, which provide computing power; print servers, which manage a collection of printers; disk servers, which provide networked disk space; and web servers, which store web pages. A client is simply any other entity that wants to gain access to a particular server.
In Berkeley sockets, the notion of a socket allows as single computer to serve many different clients at once, as well as serving many different types of information. This feat is managed by the introduction of a port, which is a numbered socket on a particular machine. A server process is said to “listen” to a port until a client connects to it. A server is allowed to accept multiple clients connected to the same port number, although each session is unique. To mange multiple client connections, a server process must be multithreaded or have some other means of multiplexing the simultaneous I/O.


TCP/IP sockets are used to implement reliable, bidirectional, persistent, point-to-point, stream-based connections between hosts on the Internet. A socket can be used to connect Java’s I/O system to other programs that may reside either on the local machine or on any other machine on the Internet.There are two kinds of TCP sockets in Java. One is for servers, and the other is for clients. The ServerSocket class is designed to be a “listener,” which waits for clients to connect before doing anything. The Socket class is designed to connect to server sockets and initiate protocol exchanges.

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