Artificial Brain
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#1
25-03-2010, 08:57 AM


The Artificial Brain
ABSTRACT
We have always been interested in the notion of consciousness fact, which is, for us, the fact that an individual endowed with a brain can think of something related to his position in the world right here right now. It is not about the continuity, or the performance, nor the profoundness of the thought, but it is about thinking of something in a knowable manner and which can be specified from a linguistic or mathematical angle, without it being an automatic and predefined response to a given situation.
By analogy to the notion lengthily investigated by philosophers, psychologists, neurobiologists, we will pose the question of artificial consciousness: how can one transpose the fact of thinking of something into the computable field, so that an artificial system, founded on computer processes, would be able to generate consciousness facts, in a viewable manner. The system will have intentions, emotions and ideas about things and events related to it-self. The system would have to have a body that it could direct and which would constrain the system. It would also have to have a history, and intentions to act and, most of all, to think. It would have to have knowledge, notably language knowledge. It would have to have emotions, intentions and finally a certain consciousness about itself.
We can name this system, by sheer semantic analogy, an artificial brain. However we will see that its architecture is quite different from living brains. The concern is transposing the effects, the movements; certainly not reproducing the components like neurons and glial cells. We should keep in mind principally one characteristic of the process of thinking unfolding in a brain: there is a complex neural, biochemical, electrical activation movement happening. This movement is coupled to a similar but of a different mode in the nervous system deployed in the whole body. This complex movement generates, by selective emergence and by reaching a particular configuration, what we call a thought about something. This thought rapidly leads to actuators or language activity and descends then in the following thought which can be similar or different. This is the very complex phenomenon that has to be transposed into the computable domain.
Hence, we should approach the sudden appearance of thoughts in brains at the level of the complex dynamics of a system building and reconfiguring recurrent and temporized flow. We can transpose this into computer processes architectures containing symbolic meaning and we should make it geometrically self-controlled. Two reasonable hypotheses are made for this transposition:
¢ analogy between the geometrical dynamics of the real brain and of the artificial brain. For one, flows are complex images, almost continuous; for the other, these are dynamical graphs which deformations are evaluated topologically.
¢ combinatory complexity reduction of the real brain in the computable domain by using symbolic and pre-language level for this approach. The basic elements are completely different; they are not of the same scale.
However, once these hypotheses made, one should not start to develop an architecture that will operate its own control from the aspects of its changing geometry. One needs to ask the proper question about consciousness fact generation. A philosopher, a couple of decades ago, M. Heidegger, asked the proper question: what brings us to think about this thing right here right now? The answer, quite elaborate, to this question will conduct to a system architecture choice that will take us away from reactive or deductive systems. The system will generate intentionally its consciousness facts, intention as P. Ricoeur understood it. There are no consciousness facts without intention to think. This settles the question, considered as a formidable, of freedom to think. One thinks of everything according to his memory and his intuition on the moment, but only if it is expressible as a thought by the system producing thoughts. Some might see something infinite in this process; however it is not our case. A finite set of component which movements occur in a finite space has only a finite number of states in which it can be. Also, as the permanence of the physical real apprehensible by the sense is very strong, the preoccupation to think by man is quite limited, in his civilizations. Let us point out that artificial systems that will think artificially will be able to communicate directly at the level of forms of the ideas, without using a language mediator, and hence, would be co-active as well as being numerous in space.
For different reasons, numerous people think that the path of artificial consciousnessâ„¢ investigation should not be taken at all. I feel differently, because, discoveries have been the very root of our existence, from fire to the mighty F-16s. The mind is a work of art moulded in mystery, and any effort to unlock its doors should be encouraged because, I am sure, that its discovery is only going to help us respect the great architect more.
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#2
25-02-2011, 09:24 AM

ABSTRACT
The history of artificial intelligence began from antiquity. Independently, philosophers have attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work led to the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940’s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain.
Among all the living creatures in the world, the human beings are considered as the most intelligent creature. The human brains are not only complex but are also marvelous organ. As part of this research British Dr.Markrum undertook a project and implimentation known as "BLUE BRAIN PROJECT". In this project and implimentation, prototypes of brains which belong to different mammals are created with the help of a super computer and researches are conducted upon them.
The researchers started the project and implimentation on the premise that the dreaded disease Alzheimer's could be cured.
Artificial brain is under research to develop software and hardware that has cognitive abilities similar to the animal or human brain. The idea plays three important roles in science:
• to understand how the human brain works.
• demonstrating that it is possible, to create a self-discovering system that has all the capabilities of a human being.
• to create strong AI (a machine as intelligent as a human being)
So the goal is to develop a self-adapting and self-learning brain. But it was impossible, due to the lack of digital surrogates for typical ‘human’ properties like fear, emotions, love, attention, etc. Both the absence of what they really are and especially how to implement them in a digital environment are the key factors, that’s why, at this moment, no artificial brain is yet available. Thus, this is the basic problem and therefore it is imperative to look closer at concepts like fear or emotions.
We already aware of human brain is made up of millions of neurons. The processing of the information is done by transferring the electric waves among the neurons. Neurons which are present around the cerebral cortex perform similar tasks to the micro processor in the computer. In order to process information, micro circuits called as NCC regenerate some millions of times across the cortex.
Scientists are trying to create these NCC micro circuits artificially which are root for working of the brain. If we create a micro circuit, then the creation of artificial brain is not impossible. The neurons in the human brain are such a complex things, as each neuron requires one single computer to analyze it. So you can think how many computers are required. The results shown by the researches are fruitful in such a way that creation of artificial brain is not that much far.
So, in the next 10 years we can create a artificial brain which thinks similar to us. But, an A.B. can impose a threat for mankind if not done correctly, with knowledge and implemented control-systems.
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14-03-2012, 11:23 AM

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#4
10-07-2012, 11:15 AM

ARTIFICIAL BRAIN



ABSTRACT

A lot of research has already been done in the field of A.I. or C.I., but when looking closer no major breakthrough has yet been accomplished in creating an Artificial Brain (A.B.)! Why? A wrong approach in the way of looking at this challenge is the answer! Imitating brain functions (like neural networks or even some emotions) help us in a lot of domains where a simple form of intelligence is needed, but as some experts in neural networks have discovered by now, something is missing (as a matter of fact a lot is missing) to go from that one point to an actual self learning system capable of real thinking in 'new' fields (like we do).
Some major companies invest heavily in artificial neurons or even build microchips by cutting tiny slices of both human and non-human brain-parts and measuring the electric charge present at that moment in the hope to achieve a major breakthrough in creating an artificial brain! The key question remains if this is the road to success and personally I am not really convinced it is!
The available processing power of computer systems (even with multiple processors per system) these days is so immense and thanks to networks, this capacity can be adjusted till virtually unlimited! Of course, computer systems are not the best host for gigantic parallel multitasking as required for super-complex neural networks like brain imitations where this capacity is the primary necessity. But instead of overcomplicating things by imitating the brain to the letter, I took a complete different approach and as you will discover in this document, it is not only simpler, better manageable and cheaper, but if developed in an experienced team it should be very well possible to have a fully functional artificial brain within a reasonable timeframe !!!! A side effect of my research is the fundamental wisdoms I discovered directly applicable in the field of human interest like psychology. Also in this area I personally have the feeling a lot is known (and sometimes made extremely complicated) but the pieces not always fall together and that is a shame since most people could (in) directly benefit from this …
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