Assessment of Skill Enhancement Programme
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Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
MBA-V year-1st sem
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES,
In today’s environment of increased accountability, the training evaluation Process is a critical component of an organization's training programme. Trainers & the Organizers conducting the program are accountable for ensuring that trainees transfer their knowledge to their work performance.
Present days training evaluation is related to assisting the organization to improve its business performance.
Evaluation of Training programme can no longer be considered as
Perfunctory task with little analysis and usefulness, instead should be Considered as a thoughtful process forming the base line for further progress And must help in justifying the investment in terms of time, money and Energy. To be effective, evaluation should be included as a part of training Programme, and not something to be thought of at the end of training.
Hence a plan of evaluation should precede training & not follow it.
Carrying out training, without the appropriate evaluation is akin to Releasing a product without conducting a quality check.
Most of the research in India on training evaluation focuses only on one Tool of participants reaction immediately after the program. It is very Important to asses the effectiveness of the program based on the learning And its subsequent impact on the Organization Improvement.
Therefore , major thrust is given in this research by checking & cross Checking the actual learning derived from Skill Enhancement Program Apart from its general feeling and reaction of the participants and its Transfer to the job.
The research also considered the Organizational and social factors which.Help/hinder transfer of learning.
NEED FOR TRAINING
Training is required on account of the following reasons:-
1. Job requirement:- Employees selected for a job might lack the qualifications required to perform the job effectively. New and inexperienced employees require detail instruction for effective performance on the job . In some cases the past experience, attitudes and behavior patterns of experienced personnel might be inappropriate to the new organization. New employees need to be provided orientation training to make them familiar with the job and the organization .
2. Technological changes:- Technology is changing very fast. Now automation and mechanization are being increasingly applied in offices and services sectors. Increasing use of fast changing techniques requires training of new technology. No organization can take advantage of latest technology without a well trained personnel. New jobs require new skills. Thus, both new and old employees require training.
3. Organizational viability:- In order to survive and grow an organization must continually adopt itself to the changing environment . With increasing economic liberalization and globalization in India, business firms are experiencing expansion, growth and diversification. In order to face international competition the firms must upgrade their capabilities. Existing employees need refresher training to keep them abreast of new knowledge. Training programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent obsolescence of skills. An organization can build up a second line of command through training in order to meet its future needs for human resources. Trained staff is the most valuable asset of a company.
4. Internal mobility:- Training becomes necessary when an employee moves from one job to another due to promotion and transfer. Employees chosen for higher level jobs need to be trained before they are asked to perform the higher responsibilities. Training is widely used to prepare employees for higher level jobs.
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
A well planned and well executive training program can provide the following advantages:-
1. Higher Productivity:- Training helps to improve the level of performance. Trained employees perform better by using better method of work. Improvements in manpower productivity in developed nations can be attributed in no small measure to their educational and industrial training programmes.
2. Better Quality of Work:- In formal training the best methods are standardized and taught to employees. Uniformity of work methods and procedures helps to improve the quality of products or service. Trained employees are less likely to make operational mistakes.
3. Less Learning Period :- A systematic training programme helps to reduce the time and cost involved in learning. Employees can more quickly reach the acceptable level of performance. They need not waste their time and efforts in learning through trial and error.
4. Cost reduction :- Trained employees make more economical use of materials and machinery. Reduction in wastage and spoilage together with increase in productivity help to minimize cost of operations per unit. Maintenance cost is also reduced due to fewer machine breakdowns and better handling of equipments. Plant capacity can be put to the optimum use.
5. Reduced supervision :- Well trained employees tend to be self reliant and motivated . They need less guidance and control. Therefore supervisory burden is reduced and the span of supervision can be enlarged.
6. Low Accident rate :- Trained personnel adopt the right work methods and make use of the prescribed safety devices. Therefore the frequency of accidents is reduced. Health and safety of employees can be improved.
7. High Morale :- Proper training can develop positive attitudes among employees. Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to a rise in the earnings and job security of employees. Training reduces employee grievances because opportunities for internal promotion are available to well trained personnel.
Research is defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement . It is the persuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The systematic approach concerning generalization and formulation of theory is research.
“ Research comprises defining and redefining problems , formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting ,organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine
whether they fit the formulating hypothesis’’ ----- CLIFFORD WODDY
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings :-
1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.
2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group.
3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else.
4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.
In this the researcher has used the following objectives:
1. To ascertain the effectiveness of training.
2. To know the learning implementation.
3. To know the satisfaction level of training.
TYPE OF RESEARCH
The basic types of research are as follows:
1. Descriptive vs Analytical :- Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of the descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite often use the term Ex-post facto research for descriptive research studies. The main characteristics of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and co relational methods.
In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
2. Applied vs fundamental :- Research can either be applied research or fundamental research .Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial / business organization, research aimed at certain conclusions facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research .
whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research .
3. Quantitative vs Qualitative :- Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.
Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon . i.e, phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. For instance, when we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behaviour, we quite often talk of ‘ Motivation Research’ , an important type of qualitative research. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose. Qualitative research is specially important in the behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behaviour.
4. Conceptual vs Empirical :- Conceptual research is that related to some abstract ideas or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.
On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. We can also call it as experimental type of
research . in such a research, the researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess as to the probable results. He then works to get enough facts ( data) to prove or disprove his hypothesis . He then sets up experimental designs which he thinks will manipulate the persons or the materials concerned so as to bring forth the desired information.
5. Some Other Types of Research :- All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research , or the environment in which is research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor. From the view point of time, we can think of research either as one-time research or longitudinal research . In former case the research is confined to a single time period, whereas in the latter case the research is carried on over several time periods. Research can be field setting research or laboratory research or simulation research , depending upon the environment in which it is to be carried out. Research can as well be understood as clinical or diagnostic research. Such research follow case- study methods or in depth approaches to reach the basic causal relations. The research may be exploratory or it may be formalized. The objective of exploratory research is the development of hypothesis rather than their testing, whereas formalized research studies are those with substantial structure and with specific hypothesis to be tested. Historical research is that which utilizes historical sources like documents, remains,etc to study events or ideas of the past, including the philosophy of persons and groups at any remote point of time.
There are two basic approaches to research :-
1. Quantitative Approach
a) Inferential Approach
b) Experimental Approach
c) Simulation Approach
a) Inferential Approach :- The purpose of inferential approach to research is
to form a data base from which to infer characteristics or relationship of
population. This usually means survey research where a sample of
population is studied (questioned or observed ) to determine its
characteristics, and it is then inferred that the population has the same
b) Experimental approach :- It is characterised by much greater control over
the research environment and in this case some variables are manipulated
to observe their effect on other variables.
c) Simulation approach :- It involves the construction of an artificial
environment within which relevant information and data can be
generated. This permits an observation of the dynamic behaviour of a
system under controlled conditions.
2) Qualitative approach :- It is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviour . Research in such situation is a function of researcher’s insights and impressions. Such an approach to research generates results either in non- quantitative form or in the form which are not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis.
Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Operations research and market research, along with motivational research, are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions. Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing, production and sales. Operation research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost minimization or of profit maximization or what can be termed as optimization problems. Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods / techniques but also the methodology. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square, how to apply particular research techniques, but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why. Researchers also need to understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not.
The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. Thus when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Why a research study has been undertaken, how the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has
been adopted, why particular technique of analyzing data has been used and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.
Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. The design decisions happen to be in respect of:
1.) What is the study about?
2.) Why is the study being made?
3.) Where will the study be carried out?
4.) What type of data is required?
5.) Where can the required data be found?
6.) What periods of time will the study include?
7.) What will be the sample design?
8.) What techniques of data collection will be used?
9.) How will the data be analysed?
10.) In what style will the report be prepared?