Atomic battery
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Balasaheb
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05-02-2010, 05:01 PM


dxfgvfd
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santosh789
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28-09-2010, 10:26 PM

please send me more or full seminar and presentation report link
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seminar project
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16-04-2011, 01:14 PM

hi you can refer this page to get the details on atomic-battery

topicideashow-to-the-atomic-battery
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23-07-2012, 11:46 AM

Atomic Battery



.docx   future of atomic battery.docx (Size: 19.52 KB / Downloads: 24)
The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery, and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device, which uses the emissions from a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.
Like nuclear reactors, they generate electricity from atomic energy, but differ in that they do not use a chain reaction. Compared to other batteries they are very costly, but have extremely long life and high energy density, and so they are mainly used as power sources for equipment that must operate unattended for long time, such as spacecraft and automated scientific stations in remote parts of the world.
Batteries can power anything from small sensors to large systems. While scientists are finding ways to make them smaller but even more powerful, problems can arise when these batteries are much larger and heavier than the devices themselves. To provide enough power, it needs certain methods with high energy density. The radioisotope battery can provide power density that is six orders of magnitude higher than chemical batteries.
Batteries using the energy of radioisotope decay to provide long-lived power (10-20 years) are being developed internationally.
Conversion techniques can be grouped into two types: thermal and non-thermal. The thermal converters (whose output power is a function of a temperature differential) include thermoelectric and thermionic generators. The non-thermal converters (whose output power is not a function of a temperature difference) extract a fraction of the incident energy as it is degraded into heat rather than using thermal energy to run electrons in a cycle. Atomic batteries usually have an efficiency of 0.1-5 per cent. High efficiency betavoltaics have 6-8 per cent.

THERMAL CONVERTERS THERMIONIC CONVERTER

A thermionic converter consists of a hot electrode which thermionically emits electrons over a space charge barrier to a cooler electrode, producing a useful power output. Caesium vapor is used to optimize the electrode work functions and provide an ion supply (by surface contact ionization) to neutralize the electron space charge.

NON-THERMAL CONVERTERS

Non-thermal converters extract a fraction of the nuclear energy as it is degraded into heat. Their outputs are not functions of temperature differences as are thermoelectric and thermionic converters. Non-thermal generators can be grouped into three classes.
Direct charging generators Betavoltaics Optoelectric DIRECT CHARGING GENERATORS In the first type, the primary generators consist of a capacitor which is charged by the current of charged particles from a radioactive layer deposited on one of the electrodes. Spacing can be either vacuum or dielectric. Negatively charged beta particles or positively charged alpha particles, positrons or fission fragments may be utilized. Although this form of nuclear-electric generator dates back to 1913, few applications have been found in the past for the extremely low currents and inconveniently high voltages provided by direct charging generators. Oscillator/transformer systems are employed to reduce the voltages, then rectifiers are used to transform the AC power back to direct current.
Betavoltaics are generators of electrical current, in effect a form of battery, which use energy from a radioactive source emitting beta particles (electrons). A common source used is the hydrogen isotope, tritium. Unlike most nuclear power sources, which use nuclear radiation to generate heat, which then generates electricity (thermoelectric and thermionic sources), betavoltaics use a non-thermal conversion process. Betavoltaics are particularly well suited to low-power electrical applications where long life of the energy source is needed such as implantable medical devices or military and space applications.
An optolectric nuclear battery has also been proposed by researchers of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. A beta-emitter (such as technetium-99) would stimulate an excimer mixture, and the light would power a photocell. The battery would consist of an excimer mixture of argon/xenon in a pressure vessel with an internal mirrored surface, finely-divided Tc-99, and an intermittent ultrasonic stirrer, illuminating a photocell with a band gap tuned for the excimer. The advantage of this design is that precision electrode assemblies are not needed, and most beta particles escape the finely-divided bulk material to contribute to the battery's net power.
Nuclear batteries are known as "radioisotopes batteries". Laptop battery which is through the semiconductor transducer isotopes in the decay process will continue to release heat with a heat-rays into electricity manufactured made. Nuclear batteries have been successfully used to power spacecraft, heart pacemakers power and some special military applications.

ACTUAL DESIGNING OF HYPERION URANIUM HYDRIDE NUCLEAR BATTERY

The Hyperion Power Generation Nuclear Battery is a self contained, automated, liquid metal nuclear reactor.
Each battery provides 70 MW thermal energy or 25 MW electric energy via steam turbine for seven to ten years. This amount of energy provides electricity for 20,000 average American-style homes or the industrial or infrastructure equivalent. Each module will cost $25 to $30 million. This works out to a cost of $1000-1200/KW, but the company has quoted $1400/Kw. A couple of delivery dates starting in 2013 are available. 2012 has been targeted as the time when the first units will be deployed.
Big companies previously examined the patent for this reactor and the primary initial application which would be providing cheaper and more effective heat for oil extraction. Over 2 trillion barrels of oil is available in Canada and the United states in the form of oil shale or oil sand.
Hyperion offers a 70 per cent reduction in operating costs (based on costs for field-generation of steam in oil-shale recovery operations), from $11 per million BTU for natural gas to $3 per million BTU for Hyperion. The possibility of mass production, operation and standardization of design, allows for significant savings. They expect an initial market of 4000 units, which would provide 100GW of power. This is equal to the current nuclear power generated in the USA. There will be 10-40 times less nuclear waste.
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