Attitudes and job satisfaction
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Attitudes and job satisfaction
Components of attitude:
Cognitive component (way things are)
Affective component (emotional segment)
Behavioral component (Intention to behave in a certain manner)
Cognitive dissonance: Incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes
Major job attitudes
Affective commitment (emotional attachment)
Continuance commitment (Perceived economic value of remaining with an organization)
Normative commitment (obligation to remain with an organization)
Perceived organizational support
Employee engagement and job engagement
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“Job satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates”.
-Robert L. Kahn
“Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job: the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.”
Job satisfaction defines as “The amount of over all positive affect (or feeling) that individuals have toward their jobs.”
-Hugh J. Arnold and Daniel C.
“Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction.”
Andrew J DuBrins,
The practice of supervision,
Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. In modern society the needs and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. When the people are ever increasing and ever changing, when the peoples needs are not fulfilled they become dissatisfied. Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Job satisfaction of industrial workers us very important for the industry to function successfully. Apart from managerial and technical aspects, employers can be considered as backbone of any industrial development. To utilize their contribution they should be provided with good working conditions to boost their job satisfaction.
Any business cab achieve success and peace only when the problem of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of workers are felt understood and solved, problem of efficiency absenteeism labour turnover require a social skill of understanding human problems and dealing with them scientific investigation serves the purpose to solve the human problems in the industry.
b) The work itself.
d) The work group.
e) Working condition.
Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling so many needs. Money facilities the obtaining of food, shelter, and clothing and provides the means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. More over, pay can serve as symbol of achievement and a source of recognition. Employees often see pay as a reflection of organization. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on job satisfaction as direct wages.
THE WORK ITSELF
Along with pay, the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how satisfied employees are with their jobs. By and large, workers want jobs that are challenging; they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. The two most important aspect of the work itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place.
In general, job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. Jobs with too little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and ‘burnout’.
Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. A promotion to a higher level in an organization typically involves positive changes I supervision, job content and pay. Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom, more challenging work assignments and high salary.
Two dimensions of supervisor style:
1. Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them.
2. The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making, employee who participates in decision that affect their job, display a much higher level of satisfaction with supervisor an the overall work situation.
Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The working groups also serve as a social support system of employees. People often used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a source of comfort.
The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort. The working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of work. If people are require to work long hours and / or overtime, they will have very little felt for their families, friends and recreation outside work.
Determinants of job satisfaction:
While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that: all individuals do no derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus, all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are.
1. Individual factors:
Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual’s level of education, age and other factors.
Level of education: Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peter’s principle which suggests that every individual tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly.
Age: Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising upto certain stage, and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this.
When individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to drive from their work. These assumptions make them more satisfied. However, when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. At the last, particularly at the fag end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome.
Other factors: Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favourable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the workplace. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction. Personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.
Nature of job: Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job content.
Occupation level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory workers are least satisfied.
Job content: Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. A higher content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a routine and repetitive lesser satisfaction; the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.
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- Dog eat dog . . . everyone fighting to get ahead
- No one appreciates your contributions
- Too much work . . . not enough help
- Deadlines are unrealistic
- Longer hours . . . additional work
- Budget Constraints
- Competition is eating us alive
- Poor management / direction
- Job insecurity
GENETIC: My Grandparents did it to me. (Inherited traits)
PSYCHIC: My Parents did it to me. (Upbringing)
ENVIRONMENTAL: My Spouse, my Boss, the Company, the Economy, etc.. is doing this to me. (Surroundings)
Life’s Little Question
“Are some people just born positive thinkers
. . . or is it their CHOICE?”
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Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
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After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
Contrast the three components of an attitude.
Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.
Compare and contrast the major job attitudes.
Define job satisfaction and show how it can be measured.
Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.
Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction.
Show whether there are cultural differences in job satisfaction.
Cognition – the description of the way things are .
Sets the affective component
Affect – the emotional segment of an attitude
I hate my supervisor
Behavior – intention to behave in a certain way
Quit the job
These components are closely related
Attitudes are important for their behavioral component
Behavior follows attitude
Attitude follows behavior? Research by Leon Festinger
Ex: Quality of Indian Jeans..
These illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously – Attitude following behavior
Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes?
Leon Festinger – No, the reverse is sometimes true!
Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency
Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization
Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:
Importance of elements
Degree of individual influence
Rewards involved in dissonance
What are the Major Job Attitudes?
A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth
Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy
Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
Affective – emotional attachment to organization
Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying
Normative – moral or ethical obligations
Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees.
Less important now than in the past – now perhaps more of an occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than a given employer.