BIOCHIPS
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31-01-2009, 12:59 AM


Biochips analyses biological materials to diagnose disease, aid in drug discovery and deliver medicine inside the human body to provide the basis for major research and commercial breakthroughs. In the near future, patients will go to a doctor?s clinic with lab on chip devices. The device will inform the doctor in real time if the patient?s ailment will respond to a drug based on his DNA. The chip will also confirm the patient?s identity, diagnose disease and even establish paternity. Human body is a wonderful machine. Using biochips, at the first sign of a physical defect or deformity, people will ?shop? around for a better and stronger organically grown heart, brain or kidney as the case may be. With biochips, mankind will be able to prolong its life, maybe forever making human beings into eternal beings.
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please give full report on biochips
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10-10-2009, 03:25 PM

The medical laboratory of the future has no windows or doors and no one goes in or out “ although that wouldn™t be possible anyway, as it is so small that it would fit into your trouser pocket. On an area the size of a credit card, it can perform tests which in the past needed several hundred square meters of laboratory space Scientists at Bayer Technology Services are developing these miniature analytical devices for Bayer HealthCare™s Diagnostics Division. These biochips “ also known as the lab-on-a-chip “ are tools designed to enable new, more individualized treatment and as such are regarded as the most promising development in medical diagnostics. Soon, typical tests could be moved from large central laboratories right into the doctor™s surgery,



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28-06-2010, 07:31 AM

please read topicideashow-to-biochips--1337 and topicideashow-to-biochips-seminar and presentation and topicideashow-to-biochips--5398 for getting all information related to Biochips an innovative technology
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Biochips

Authored by
P.KRUPA
N.NAGA MANASA
Department of Electronics & Communication
QIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY




“Biochips”-The most exciting future technology is an outcome of the fields of Computer science, Electronics & Biology. Its a new type of bio - security device to accurately track information regarding what a person is doing, and who is to accurately track information regarding what he is doing, and who is actually doing it. It’s no more required with biochips the good old idea of remembering pesky PINs, Passwords, & Social security numbers .No more matters of carrying medical records to a hospital, No more cash/credit card carrying to the market place; everything goes embedded in the chip…. Every thing goes digitalized. No more hawker tricks on the internet….! Biochip has a variety technique for secured E-money transactions on the net. The power of biochips exists in capability of locating lost children, downed soldiers, and wandering Alzheimer patients.
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16-03-2011, 09:32 AM

presented by:
P. SIRISHA
P.RENUKA


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ABSTRACT
“A single electronic card may replace everything in your wallet including. . .
. . . your cash
. . . your credit cards
. . . your ATM card
. . . your ID cards
. . . your insurance
. . . and your life
FUTURE One card, or one chip, with your life on it.”
“Biochips”-The most exciting future technology is an outcome of the fields of Computer science, Electronics & Biology. Its a new type of bio-security device to accurately track information regarding what a person is doing, and who is to accurately track information regarding what he is doing, and who is actually doing it. It’s no more required with biochips the good old idea of remembering pesky PINs, Passwords, & Social security numbers .No more matters of carrying medical records to a hospital, No more cash/credit card carrying to the market place; everything goes embedded in the chip…. Every thing goes digitalized. No more hawker tricks on the internet….! Biochip has a variety technique for secured E-money transactions on the net. The power of biochips exists in capability of locating lost children, downed soldiers, and wandering Alzheimer patients.
Our contributions to this paper lie in the aspects of
“Implementation of Glucose detector in Biochips”
“Implementation of Oxygen sensor in Biochips”
“Implementation of Blood pressure sensor in Biochips”
“Proposal of Solution for the typical theft problem faced by the
Biochips”
The four contributions have been discussed in detail with the proposed principles for implementation of the concepts.
A simple ID chip is already walking around in tens of thousands of individuals, but all of them are pets. Companies such as AVID (Norco, Calif.), Electronic ID, Inc. (Cleburne, TX.), and Electronic Identification Devices, Ltd. (Santa Barbara, Calif.) sell both the chips and the detectors. The chips are of the size of an uncooked grain of rice, small enough to be injected under the skin using a hypodermic syringe needle. They respond to a signal from the detector, held just a few feet away, by transmitting out an identification number. This number is then compared to database listings of registered pets. The Biochip tagging for humans has already started…Rush out for your tag!!!!!
INTRODUCTION
Biochips are any microprocessor chips that can be used in Biology. The biochip technology was originally developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries, it’s use now includes, over 300 zoos, over 80 government agencies in at least 20 countries, pets (everything from lizards to dogs), electronic "branding" of horses, monitoring lab animals, fisheries, endangered wildlife, automobiles, garment tracking, hazardous waste, and humans. Biochips are "silently" inching into humans. For instance, at least 6 million medical devices, such as artificial body parts (prosthetic devices), breast implants, chin implants, etc., are implanted in people each year. And most of these medical devices are carrying a "surprise" guest — a biochip. In 1993, the Food and Drug Administration passed the Safe Medical Devices Registration Act of 1993, requiring all artificial body implants to have "implanted" identification — the biochip. So, the yearly, 6 million recipients of prosthetic devices and breast implants are "biochipped". To date, over 7 million animals have been "chipped". The major biochip companies are A.V.I.D. (American Veterinary Identification Devices), Trovan Identification Systems, and Destron-Fearing Corporation.
THE BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY
The current, in use, biochip implant system is actually a fairly simple device. Today’s, biochip implant is basically a small (micro) computer chip, inserted under the skin, for identification purposes. The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader.
THE BIOCHIP IMPLANT SYSTEM CONSISTS OF TWO COMPONENTS:
PERSPECTIVE OF THE ACTUAL SIZE THE TRANSPONDER:
The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder, meaning it contains no battery or energy of its own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive biochip contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life, up to 99 years, and no maintenance. Being passive, it's inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a low-power electrical charge. The reader "reads" or "scans" the implanted biochip and receives back data (in this case an identification number) from the biochip. The communication between biochip and reader is via low-frequency radio waves.
The biochip transponder consists of four parts:
1. computer Microchip:
The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. AVID (American Veterinary Identification Devices), claims their chips, using an nnn-nnn-nnn format, has the capability of over 70 trillion unique numbers. The unique ID number is "etched" or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly. Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter. The microchip also contains the electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the ID number to the "reader".
2. Antenna Coil:
This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna "receives and sends" signals from the reader or scanner.
3. Tuning Capacitor:
The capacitor stores the small electrical charge (less than 1/1000 of a watt) sent by the reader or scanner, which activates the transponder. This "activation" allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. Because "radio waves" are utilized to communicate between the transponder and reader, the capacitor is "tuned" to the same frequency as the reader.
4. Glass Capsule:
The glass capsule "houses" the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, about the size of an uncooked grain of rice. The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime glass. After assembly, the capsule is hermetically (air-tight) sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside. Because the glass is very smooth and susceptible to movement, a material such as a polypropylene polymer sheath is attached to one end of the capsule. This sheath provides a compatible surface which the bodily tissue fibers bond or interconnect, resulting in a permanent placement of the biochip.
BIOCHIP AND SYRINGE
The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple, comparable to common vaccines. Anesthesia is not required nor recommended. In dogs and cats, the biochip is usually injected behind the neck between the shoulder blades. Trovan, Ltd., markets an implant, featuring a patented "zip quill", which you simply press in, no syringe is needed. According to AVID "Once implanted, the identity tag is virtually impossible to retrieve. . . The number can never be altered."
THE READER:
The reader consists of an "exciter" coil which creates an electromagnetic field that, via radio signals, provides the necessary energy (less than 1/1000 of a watt) to "excite" or "activate" the implanted biochip. The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code or ID number sent back from the "activated" implanted biochip. This all takes place very fast, in milliseconds. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display. The reader can include a RS-232 port to attach a computer.
WORKING OF A BIOCHIP:
The reader generates a low-power, electromagnetic field, in this case via radio signals, which "activates" the implanted biochip. This "activation" enables the biochip to send the ID code back to the reader via radio signals. The reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the reader's LCD display. The reader must normally be between 2 and 12 inches near the biochip to communicate. The reader and biochip can communicate through most materials, except metal.
THE APPLICATIONS:
With a biochip tracing of a person/animal , anywhere in the world is possible:
Once the reader is connected to the internet, satellite and a centralized database is maintained about the biochipped creatures, It is always possible to trace out the personality intended.
A biochip can store and update financial, medical, demographic data, basically everything about a person:
An implanted biochip can be scanned to pay for groceries, obtain medical procedures, and conduct financial transactions. Currently, the in use, implanted biochips only store one 10 to 15 digits. If biochips are designed to accommodate with more ROM & RAM there is definitely an opportunity.
A biochip leads to a secured E-Commerce systems :
It’s a fact; the world is very quickly going to a digital or E-economy, through the Internet. It is expected that by 2008, 60% of the Business transactions will be performed through the Internet. The E-money future, however, isn't necessarily secure. The Internet wasn't built to be Fort Knox. In the wrong hands, this powerful tool can turn dangerous. Hackers have already broken into bank files that were 100% secure. A biochip is the possible solution to the "identification and security" dilemma faced by the digital economy. This type of new bio-security device is capable of accurately tracking information regarding what users are doing, and who are to accurately track information regarding what users are doing, and who is actually doing it.
Biochips really are potent in replacing passports, cash, medical records:
The really powered biochip systems can replace cash, passports, medical & other records! It’s no more required to carry wallet full cash, credit/ATM cards, passports & medical records to the market place. Payment system, authentication procedures may all be done by the means Biochips.
Medicinal implementations of Biochips : A New Era Proposed by us
Biochip as Glucose Detector :
The Biochip can be integrated with a glucose detector. The chip will allow diabetics to easily monitor the level of the sugar glucose in their blood. Diabetics currently use a skin prick and a hand-held blood test, and then medicate themselves with insulin depending on the result. The system is simple and works well, but the need to draw blood means that most diabetics don't test themselves as often as they should. Although they may get away with this in the short term, in later life those who monitored infrequently suffer from blindness, loss of circulation, and other complications. The solution is more frequent testing, using a less invasive method. The biochip will sit underneath the skin, sense the glucose level, and send the result back out by radio-frequency communication.
Proposed principle of Glucose detection:
A light-emitting diode (LED) in the biochip starts off the detection process. The light that it produces hits a fluorescent chemical: one that absorbs incoming light and re-emits it at a longer wavelength. The longer wavelength of light is then detected, and the result is sent to a control panel outside the body. Glucose is detected because the sugar reduces the amount of light that the fluorescent chemical re-emits. The more glucose there is the less light that is detected.
Biochip as Oxygen sensor :
The biochip can also be integrated with an oxygen sensor .The oxygen sensor will be useful not only to monitor breathing in intensive care units, but also to check that packages of food, or containers of semiconductors stored under nitrogen gas, remain airtight.
Proposed principal of Oxygen sensor in Biochip:
The oxygen-sensing chip sends light pulses out into the body. The light is absorbed to varying extents, depending on how much oxygen is being carried in the blood, and the chip detects the light that is left. The rushes of blood pumped by the heart are also detected, so the same chip is a pulse monitor.
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30-04-2011, 11:36 AM


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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Most of us won’t like the idea of implanting a biochip in our body that identifies us uniquely and can be used to track our location. That would be a major loss of privacy. But there is a flip side to this! Such biochips could help agencies to locate lost children, downed soldiers and wandering Alzheimer’s patients.
The human body is the next big target of chipmakers. It won’t be long before biochip implants will come to the rescue of sick, or those who are handicapped in someway. Large amount of money and research has already gone into this area of technology.
Anyway, such implants have already experimented with. A few US companies are selling both chips and their detectors. The chips are of size of an uncooked grain of rice, small enough to be injected under the skin using a syringe needle. They respond to a signal from the detector, held just a few feet away, by transmitting an identification number. This number is then compared with the database listings of register pets.
Daniel Man, a plastic surgeon in private practice in Florida, holds the patent on a more powerful device: a chip that would enable lost humans to be tracked by satellite.
Fig 1.1:Biochip inserted in human hand
Chapter 2
BIOCHIP DEFINITION

A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (micro arrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to get higher throughput and speed. Typically, a biochip’s surface area is not longer than a fingernail. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operation in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological operations, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds.
A genetic biochip is designed to “freeze” into place the structures of many short strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the basic chemical instruction that determines the characteristics of an organism. Effectively, it is used as a kind of “test tube” for real chemical samples.
A specifically designed microscope can determine where the sample hybridized with DNA strands in the biochip. Biochips helped to dramatically increase the speed of the identification of the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, in the world wide research collaboration known as the Human Genome Project. The microchip is described as a sort of “word search” function that can quickly sequence DNA.
In addition to genetic applications, the biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research. Biochips can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. Motorola, Hitachi, IBM, Texas Instruments have entered into the biochip business.
Fig 2.1 Biochip
Chapter 3
STRUCTURE AND WORKING OF AN ALREADY IMPLANTED SYSTEM

The biochip implants system consists of two components: a transponder and a reader or scanner. The transponder is the actual biochip implant. The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader. The reading range or activation range, between reader and biochip is small, normally between 2 and 12 inches.
3.1 The Transponder
The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder, meaning it contains no battery or energy of its own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery.
Because the passive contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life up to 99 years, and no maintenance. Being passive, it is inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a low-power electrical charge.
The reader reads or scans the implanted biochip and receives back data (in this case an identification number) from the biochips. The communication between biochip and reader is via low-frequency radio waves.
Since the communication is via very low frequency radio waves it is nit at all harmful to the human body.
The biochip-transponder consists of four parts; computer microchip, antenna coil, capacitor and the glass capsule.
Fig 3.1: Components of Biochip
3.2 Computer Microchips
The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. AVID (American Veterinary Identification Devices), claims their chips, using a nnn-nnn-nnn format, has the capability of over 70 trillion unique numbers. The unique ID number is “etched” or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly. Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter. The microchip also contains the electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the ID number to the “reader”.
3.3 Antenna Coil
This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner.
3.4 Tuning Capacitor
The capacitor stores the small electrical charge (less than 1/1000 of a watt) sent by the reader or scanner, which activates the transponder. This “activation” allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. Because “radio waves” are utilized to communicate between the transponder and reader, the capacitor is tuned to the same frequency as the reader.
Fig:3.2 Biochip & Syringe
3.5 Glass Capsule
The glass capsule “houses” the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, about the size of an uncooked grain of rice. The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime glass.
After assembly, the capsule is hermetically (air-tight) sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside. Because the glass is very smooth and susceptible to movement, a material such as a polypropylene polymer sheath is attached to one end of the capsule. This sheath provides a compatible surface which the boldly tissue fibers bond or interconnect, resulting in a permanent placement of the biochip.
The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple, comparable to common vaccines. Anesthesia is not required nor recommended. In dogs and cats, the biochip is usually injected behind the neck between the shoulder blades.
Fig3.3 reader or scanner
3.6 The Reader
The reader consists of an “exciter coil” which creates an electromagnetic field that, via radio signals, provides the necessary energy (less than 1/1000 of a watt) to “excite” or “activate” the implanted biochip. The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code or ID number sent back from the “activated” implanted biochip. This all takes place very fast, in milliseconds. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display. The reader can include a RS-232 port to attach a computer.
3.7 Cost
Biochips are not cheap, though the price is falling rapidly. A year ago, human biochips cost $2,000 per unit. Currently human biochips cost $1,000, while chips for mice, yeast, and fruit flies cost around $400 to $500. The price for human biochips will probably drop to $500 this year. Once all the human genes are well characterized and all functional human SNPs are known, manufacture of the chips could conceivably be standardized. Then, prices for biochips, like the prices for computer memory chips, would fall through the floor.
3.8 Working
The reader generates a low-power, electromagnetic field, in this case via radio signals, which “activates” the implanted biochip. This “activation” enables the biochip to send the ID code back to the reader via radio signals. The reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the reader’s LCD display. The reader must normally be between 2 and 12 inches near the biochip to communicate. The reader and biochip can communicate through most materials, except metal.
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14-07-2011, 02:57 PM

Biochips analyses biological materials to diagnose disease, aid in drug discovery and deliver medicine inside the human body to provide the basis for major research and commercial breakthroughs. In the near future, patients will go to a doctor’s clinic with lab on chip devices. The device will inform the doctor in real time if the patient’s ailment will respond to a drug based on his DNA. The chip will also confirm the patient’s identity, diagnose disease and even establish paternity. Human body is a wonderful machine. Using biochips, at the first sign of a physical defect or deformity, people will “shop” around for a better and stronger organically grown heart, brain or kidney as the case may be. With biochips, mankind will be able to prolong its life, maybe forever making human beings into eternal beings.
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12-08-2011, 09:28 PM

plz post info as i am giving seminar and presentation on biochip.
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26-02-2012, 03:53 PM

this is nice... pls give me full report and ppt... urgently
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to get information about the topic BIOCHIPS full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-biochips-seminar and presentation

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BIO CHIPS



.ppt   BIO-CHIPS.ppt (Size: 883.5 KB / Downloads: 28)

INTRODUCTION

BIO-CHIP” Technology was originally developed in 1983for monitoring fisheries, by “STEPHEN FODOR”.

According to Bio-technologists “the packing of traditionally bulky sensing tools into smaller & smaller spaces onto so-called “BIO-CHIPS”

The major BIO-CHIP companies are:
1. American Veterinary Identification Devices (A.V.I.D)
2. Trovan Identification Systems
3. Destron-Fearing Corporation


BIO-CHIP TECHNOLGY


Bio + Chip=BIO-CHIP
Bio=any Biological entity (Ex: protein, DNA)
Chip=Computer Chip
Bio-chip=mate between Biological entity & Computer
Today’s, BIO-CHIP implant is basically a small (micro) computer chip, inserted under skin, for identification purposes.
The BIO-CHIP system is Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID) system, using low frequency radio signals to communicate between bio-chip & reader.
The BIO-CHIP IMPLANT SYSTEM consists of two components, namely
1.The Transponder.
2.The Reader.


COMPUTER MICRO-CHIP

The Microchip stores a unique identification number of 10 to 15 digits long with “nnn-nnn-nnn” format (given by A.V.I.D).

The unique ID number is “etched” or “encoded” via a laser onto the surface of micro-chip before assembly


ANTENNA COIL:

Antenna Coil is a tiny primitive radio antenna which “receives and sends” signals from the reader or scanner.


TUNING CAPACITOR:
The Capacitor stores the small electrical charge (less than 1/1000 W) sent by reader or scanner.
This “activation” allows the transponder to send back the ID number encode in computer chip.


GLASS CAPSULE:
Capsule is made of bio-compatible material such as soda lime glass and hermetically (air-tight) sealed & covered with Polypropylene polymer.







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Biochips


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Introduction


Biochips invented 9 years ago by gene scientist Stephen Fodor.
Collection of miniaturized test sites of living entities (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput, speed, accuracy and smaller size.

Components Of Biochip

The implantable biochip
Passive Biochip: No Batteries
Composed of
Microchip
Antenna coil
Tuning capacitor
Glass Capsule


In What Way They Work?


Transmits a small signal
Charges the tuning capacitor
ID number transmitted by the transponder
This number is then compared with a database listing of registered pets.


Advantages Of Biochips


TO RESCUE THE SICK.
TO FIND LOST PEOPLE.
TO IDENTIFY PERSON UNIQUELY.
IN MONITORING HEALTH CONDITION OF
INDIVIDUALS IN WHICH THEY ARE
SPECIFICALLY EMPLOYED.
THEY CAN PERFORM THOUSANDS OF
BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS ,OPERATIONS
IN FEW SECONDS.


Disadvantages Of Biochips


THEY RAISE CRITICAL ISSUES OF PERSONAL PRIVACY.
THEY MARK THE END OF HUMAN FREEDOM AND DIGNITY.
THEY MAY NOT BE SUPPORTED BY LARGE % OF PEOPLE.
THERE IS A DANGER OF TURNING EVERY MAN, WOMEN, AND CHILD INTO A CONTROLLED SLAVE.
THEY CAN BE IMPLANTED INTO ONES BODY WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE.







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