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25-04-2010, 01:05 PM

.docx   BIOMETRIC SMART CARD POLLING SYSTEM12.docx (Size: 63.96 KB / Downloads: 163)

- A Project Report

Prepared By ,
N.SIVAKUMAR (Reg.No:10406199)
M.VAZHVANDI (Reg.No:10406205)
Guided By ,
Ms.K.Vadivukkarasi Assistant Professor (O.G) RTOS and CAN

Now-a-days, the technologies in electronics has brought modernization and as intervention to face human difficulty. Especially when considering the currently used voting system has flaws in system by means of Security, Casting Vote anywhere, and also manpower involved in counting the votes. This motivated as to design Voting System which incorporates technologies like Biometric and RFID Reader to get a interface with user.

The main objective of our project and implimentation is to render user interface system with easy way of voting system and also in addition to that it provides safe and secured system thus by preventing unauthorized person to cast the vote. The project and implimentation involves finger print sensor to authenticate user , RFID card to identify user and display information to user using LCD display. The information about user casting the vote is stored in EEPROM and also to retrieve the data for processing the votes. The entire process of communication between the each devices is done by microcontroller which does manipulation data which is fed into it. The main theme of this project and implimentation is to use existing ATM as voting machines with secured voting system.

Each ATM machine will additionally be fitted with a finger print sensor and RFID reader. During the voting period the user has to place RFID card near the reader, the micro controller will identify and display the information about the user using LCD , and ask him to authenticate the user by placing his finger in the finger print sensor. A list will be displayed in the LCD, indicating the number of candidates contesting in the poll. The user has to cast his vote by pressing corresponding number of a candidate. After the voting the LCD will display the successful casting of vote. When ever the user try to cast the second time, the LCD will display a warning message informing that the vote is already casted.

RFID tags, along with sensors and microprocessors are transforming everyday objects into those that are smart and interactive. When you add the Internet into the mix, what you get is Silent Commerce, with objects communicating directly and monetary transactions taking place. RFID tags allow you to scan and keep track of items from the factory to the consumer; identify merchandise authenticity; traces items of inventory; helps to prevent theft and piracy; and act to monitor product environmental conditions
RFID Consisted of:
Magnetic Coil
RF Receiver
Serial output

Card Consisted of:
RF Antenna
RF Transmiter

RFID Module and Principle of working:

RFID Reader Module, are also called as interrogators. They convert radio waves returned from the RFID tag into a form that can be passed on to Controllers, which can make use of it. RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. RFID systems use many different frequencies, but the most common and widely used & supported by our Reader is 125kHz frequency range.
An RFID system consists of two separate components: a tag and a reader. Tags are analogous to barcode labels, and come in different shapes and sizes. The tag contains an antenna connected to a small microchip containing up to two kilobytes of data. The reader, or scanner, functions similarly to a barcode scanner; however, while a barcode scanner uses a laser beam to scan the barcode, an RFID scanner uses electromagnetic waves. To transmit these waves, the scanner uses an antenna that transmits a signal, communicating with the tags antenna. The tags antenna receives data from the scanner and transmits its particular chip information to the .The data on the chip is usually stored in one of two types of memory. The most common is Read-Only Memory (ROM); as its name suggests, read-only memory cannot be altered once programmed onto the chip during the manufacturing process. The second type of memory is Read/Write Memory; though it is also programmed during the manufacturing process, it can later be altered by certain devices.
The RFID tag consists of a powered or non powered microchip and an antenna. The three different types of tag. Passive tags are the simplest, smallest and cheapest version of an RFID tag as they do not contain a built-in power source and consequently cannot initiate communication with a reader. As the available power from the reader field diminishes rapidly with distance, passive tags have practical read ranges that vary up to 10 mm to above 5 mm. Semi-passive tags have built-in batteries and do not require energy from the reader field to power the microchip. This allows them to function with much lower signal power levels and act over greater distances.
Serial communication
It is the process of transmitting data bits one by one serially, i.e. only one line is used for serial communication. For e.g. 8051 is a 8 bit MC, if 8 bits of data is transmitted at a time in 8 line it is called parallel communication. If the 8 bits are transmitted one bit at time in one line it is called serial communication. UART is a device used for converting parallel to serial and vice versa.

8051 MC has two lines for performing serial communication. TXD pin for transmitting data and RXD pin for receiving data. Serial communication can be used to communicate with computer, GSM MODEM, GPS etc. Serial communication is performed for long distance communication with cheap cost.

8051 MC operates on TTL logic that is 0 to 5v; so in order to communicate with other serial devices it should also be compatible in voltage that is 0 to 5v. A GSM modem & GPS are TTL compatible devices so they can be directly interfaced with 8051 MC. Serial communications with computer cannot be directly performed since a computer operates on different voltage logic called RS232 (RS- Recommended Standard). It has operating voltage of -3 to “25 to logic 1 and +3 to +25 for logic 0 and the port used for communication is called serial port. If we connect a 8051 directly to the serial port it may damage our MC so in order for making voltage compatibility we are using a voltage converter IC called MAX232. It converts RS232 logic to TTL logic and vice versa. It operates on +5v.
In order to obtain high voltage for RS 232 logic, voltage doublers circuits are used. The capacitors are used for voltage doubling.
In order to transmit data to PC, RXD pin of MC is connected to pin number 10 or 11 of max 232 IC, the output pin 7 or 14 is connected RX, pin2 of the serial port and vice versa for transmitting. The connector used for connecting serial data bus to the computer is called ËœDB9â„¢ connector (DB- data Bus). We are using a connection called null modem connection in which only three pins are used such as RXD [Pin2], TXD [pin3] & GND [pin5].
LCD stands for liquid crystal display, it is a output device used for displaying alphanumeric characters. It is a 16-pin device, which is, separated in to 8 data lines, 3 control lines, 2 power supply lines, 2 lines for back light and last line for contrast adjusting. LCD as a in built memory which is used to store data which as to be displayed which can also be read back. The LCD is differentiated based on lines present, for e.g. 1X16, 2X16, 4X16 etc. The 1X16 means that the LCD as 1 line with 16 characters can be displayed and similarly for other displays.
A LCD has two registers named command register and data register. The data register is used to display data in LCD, for e.g. to display data one in LCD the dataâ„¢s should be written in the data register. There are different types of commands like Ëœclear screen, cursor blink, start data from first line, start data from second line (each command is represented by its own hex code) etc., which should be written in the command register. In order to display the data one, itâ„¢s corresponding ASCII values should be written in the data register.
Control lines:

VCC & led+
8 data lines
3 control lines pin
Pin Description:
PIN Symbol Level I/O function Function(4-bit mode) Function(8-bit mode)
1 Vss - - Powersuppiy(gnd) Powersuppiy(gnd)
2 VCC - - Powersuppiy(+5V) Powersuppiy(+5V)
3 vee - - Contract adjust Contract adjust
4 Rs 0/1 I 0=instruction 1 = data 0=instruction 1 = data
5 R/W 0/1 I 0 = Write to 1=Read from LCD 0 = Write to 1=Read from LCD
6 E 1 - 0 I Enable signal Enable signal
7 D0 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 0 (LSB)
8 D2 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 1
9 D3 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 2
10 D4 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 3
11 D5 0/1 I/O Data bus line 0 (LSB) and 4 Data bus line 4
12 D6 0/1 I/O Data bus line 1 and 5 Data bus line 5
13 D7 0/1 I/O Data bus line 2 and 6 Data bus line 6
14 D8 0/1 I/O Data bus line 3 and 7 (MSB) Data bus line 7
A LCD has only one data bus for both data and command. So in order to differentiate between data and register a control line called RS (register select) is used. If RS is given the value ˜1™ the data is given to the LCD, else if RS is given ˜0™ the command is given to the LCD.
R/W (read/write) is a control line, which is used to inform LCD that a data is written to or read from LCD. For example if R/W is given the value ˜1™ it means that the data is read from LCD and if R/W is ˜0™
then the data is written to the LCD. E(enable) is a control line, which is used to inform LCD that a data or command is present in the data bus of LCD.
ATM is the most exciting development in communications ever. Its development is a risk that offers big rewards; ATM has the potential to be the technology that provides huge bandwidths at low cost if the hurdles can be overcome.
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