BLUETOOTH V2.1 A SEMINAR REPORT
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BLUETOOTH V2.1
A SEMINAR REPORT
Submitted by
SANOOP VASUDEVAN
in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY,
KOCHI-682022
AUGUST 2008
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
KOCHI,682022
AUGUST 2008Page 2

DIVISION OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
KOCHI-682022
Bonafide
Bonafide
Bonafide
Bonafide Certificate
Certificate
Certificate
Certificate
Certified that this is a bonafide record of the seminar and presentation entitled
BLUETOOTH V2.1
Submitted by
SANOOP VASUDEVAN
of semester VII during the year 2008 in partial fulfillment
of the requirement for the
award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science And Engineering.
Ms.Remyamol K M
Dr.David Peter.S
SEMINAR GUIDE
HEAD OF THE DIVISION
CUSAT
CUSATPage 3

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset, I thank the Lord Almighty for the grace, strength and
hope to make my endeavor a success.
I also express my gratitude to Dr. David Peter, Head of the
Department and my Seminar Guide for providing me with adequate
facilities, ways and means by which I was able to complete this seminar and presentation. I
express my sincere gratitude to him for his constant support and valuable
suggestions without which the successful completion of this seminar and presentation would
not have been possible.
I thank Ms. Remyamol K M, my seminar and presentation guide for her boundless
cooperation and helps extended for this seminar and presentation. I express my immense
pleasure and thankfulness to all the teachers and staff of the Department of
Computer Science and Engineering, CUSAT for their cooperation and
support.
Last but not the least, I thank all others, and especially my classmates
and my family members who in one way or another helped me in the
successful completion of this work.Page 4

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ABSTRACT
Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range communications
technology intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed
devices while maintaining high levels of security. The key features of
Bluetooth technology are robustness, low power, and low cost. The
Bluetooth specification defines a uniform structure for a wide range of
devices to connect and communicate with each other.
Bluetooth technology has achieved global acceptance such that any
Bluetooth enabled device, almost everywhere in the world, can connect to
other Bluetooth enabled devices in proximity. Bluetooth enabled electronic
devices connect and communicate wirelessly through short-range, ad hoc
networks known as piconets. Each device can simultaneously communicate
with up to seven other devices within a single piconet. Each device can also
belong to several piconets simultaneously. Piconets are established
dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth enabled devices enter and leave
radio proximity.Page 5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS
PAGE NO
LIST OF FIGURES
V
1. INTRODUCTION
1
2. OVERVIEW OF OPERATION
3
2.1. Radio
3
2.1.1. Radio Channel
3
2.1.2.Piconet Consists of Master and Slave Devices
3
2.1.3. Frequency Hopping and Adaptive Frequency Hopping 4
2.1.4. Time Slots and Packets - Full Duplex Transmission
4
2.2. Link and Channel Management Protocols
4
2.2.1. Control Layers
4
2.2.2. Physical Links
5
2.2.3. Logical Links
5
2.2.4. Link Manager Protocol (LMP)
2.2.5. Logical Link Control And Adaptation Protocol
(L2CAP)
6
3. CORE ARCHITECTURAL BLOCKS
7
3.1. Channel manager
7
3.2. L2CAP resource manager
8
3.3. Device manager
8
3.4. Link manager
9
3.5. Baseband resource manager
9
3.6. Link controller
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3.7.RF
10
4. BLUETOOTH USAGE MODELS AND PROTOCOLS
11
4.1. File Transfer
11
4.2. Internet Bridge
12
4.3. LAN Access
13
4.4. Synchronization
14
4.5. Three-in-One Phone
14
4.6. Ultimate Headset
15
5. CHANGES FROM V2.0 + EDR TO V2.1 + EDR
17
5.1. NEW FEATURES
17
5.1.1. Erroneous Data Reporting
17
5.1.2. Encryption Pause and Resume
18
5.1.3.Extended Inquiry Response
18
5.1.4.Link Supervision Timeout Changed Event
18
5.1.5.Non-Automatically-Flushable Packet Boundary Flag
19
5.1.6.Secure Simple Pairing
19
5.1.7.Sniff Subrating
19
5.1.8.Security Mode 4
20
5.2. DEPRECATED FEATURES
17
6. BLUETOOTH SECURITY
21
7. CONCLUSION
23
8. REFERENCES
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LIST OF FIGURES
NO.
PAGE NO.
1.
Fig 3.1 “ Bluetooth Architecture
7
2.
Fig 4.1- Protocol Stack for File Transfer
Applications
12
3.
Fig 4.2- Dial-up Networking Protocol Stack
13
4. Fig 4.3-Protocol Stack of LAN Access (PPP) Usage
Model
13
5. Fig 4.4-Protocol Stack for Synchronization
14
6. Fig 4.5-Protocol Stack for Cordless Phone and
Intercom Scenarios
15
7. Fig 4.6-Ultimate Headset Protocol Stack
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1. INTRODUCTION
Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range communications system intended
to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed electronic devices. The key
features of Bluetooth wireless technology are robustness, low power,and low cost. Many
features of the core specification are optional, allowing product differentiation.
Bluetooth networking transmits data via low-power radio waves. It communicates
on a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (actually between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz, to be
exact). This frequency band has been set aside by international agreement for the use of
industrial, scientific and medical devices (ISM).
A number of devices that you may already use take advantage of this same radio-
frequency band. Baby monitors, garage-door openers and the newest generation of
cordless phones all make use of frequencies in the ISM band. Making sure that Bluetooth
and these other devices don't interfere with one another has been a crucial part of the
design process.
One of the ways Bluetooth devices avoid interfering with other systems is by sending
out very weak signals of about 1 milliwatt.By comparison, the most powerful cell phones
can transmit a signal of 3 watts. The low power limits the range of a Bluetooth device to
about 10 meters (32 feet), cutting the chances of interference between your computer
system and your portable telephone or television. Even with the low power, Bluetooth
doesn't require line of sight between communicating devices. The walls in your house
won't stop a Bluetooth signal, making the standard useful for controlling several devices
in different rooms.
Bluetooth can connect up to eight devices simultaneously. With all of those devices in
the same 10-meter (32-foot) radius, you might think they'd interfere with one another, butPage 9

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it's unlikely. Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping that
makes it rare for more than one device to be transmitting on the same frequency at the
same time. In this technique, a device will use79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies
within a designated range, changing from one to another on a regular basis. In the case of
Bluetooth, the transmitters change frequencies 1,600 times every second, meaning that
more devices can make full use of a limited slice of the radio spectrum. Since every
Bluetooth transmitter uses spread-spectrum transmitting automatically, itâ„¢s unlikely that
two transmitters will be on the same frequency at the same time. This same technique
minimizes the risk that portable phones or baby monitors will disrupt Bluetooth devices,
since any interference on a particular frequency will last only a tiny fraction of a second.
When Bluetooth-capable devices come within range of one another, an electronic
conversation takes place to determine whether they have data to share or whether one
needs to control the other. The user doesn't have to press a button or give a command the
electronic conversation happens automatically. Once the conversation has occurred, the
devices whether they're part of a computer system or a stereo form a network. Bluetooth
systems create a personal-area network (PAN), or piconet, that may fill a room or may
encompass no more distancethan that between the cell phone on a belt-clip and the
headset on your head. Once a piconet is established, the members randomly hop
frequencies in unison so they stay in touch with one another and avoid other piconets that
may be operating in the same room.
Bluetooth Range
Most Bluetooth devices are described as 'Class 2'. These are very low power
(typically 1 milliwatt - 1/1000th of a watt) and have a range of about 10 m (33 ft).Some
devices - for example, some plug in'dongles' that can be added to to laptop computers -
are Class 1. These have range comparable to that of Wi-Fi, ie, 100 m or 330 ft.
With Bluetooth, short range is actually a benefit, because it reduces the chance of
interference between your Bluetooth devices and those belonging to other people nearby. Page 10

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2. OVERVIEW OF OPERATION
2.1. Radio
The Bluetooth RF (physical layer) operates in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4GHz.
The system employs a frequency hop transceiver to combat interference and fading, and
provides many FHSS carriers. RF operation uses a shaped, binary frequency modulation
to minimize transceiver complexity. The symbol rate is 1 Megasymbol per second (Msps)
supporting the bit rate of 1 Megabit per second (Mbps) or, with Enhanced Data Rate, a
gross air bit rate of 2 or 3Mb/s. These modes are known as Basic Rate and Enhanced
Data Rate respectively.
2.1.1. Radio Channel
During typical operation, a physical radio channel is shared by a group of devices that
are synchronized to a common clock and frequency hopping pattern.
2.1.2. Piconet Consists of Master and Slave Devices
One device provides the synchronization reference and is known as the master. All
other devices are known as slaves. A group of devices synchronized in this fashion form
a piconet. This is the fundamental form of communication for Bluetooth wireless
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2.1.3. Frequency Hopping and Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH)
Devices in a piconet use a specific frequency hopping pattern which is
algorithmically determined by certain fields in the Bluetooth specification address and
clock of the master. The basic hopping pattern is a pseudo-random ordering of the 79
frequencies in the ISM band. The hopping pattern may be adapted to exclude a portion of
the frequencies that are used by interfering devices. The adaptive hopping technique
improves Bluetooth technology co-existence with static (non-hopping) ISM systems
when these are co-located.
2.1.4. Time Slots and Packets - Full Duplex Transmission
The physical channel is sub-divided into time units known as slots. Data is
transmitted between Bluetooth enabled devices in packets that are positioned in these
slots. When circumstances permit, a number of consecutive slots may be allocated to a
single packet. Frequency hopping takes place between the transmission or reception of
packets. Bluetooth technology provides the effect of full duplex transmission through the
use of a time-division duplex (TDD) scheme.
2.2. Link and Channel Management Protocols
2.2.1. Control Layers
Above the physical channel there is a layering of links and channels and associated
control protocols. The hierarchy of channels and links from the physical channel upwards
is physical channel, physical link, logical transport, logical link and L2CAP channel. Page 12

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2.2.2. Physical Links
Within a physical channel, a physical link is formed between any two devices that
transmit packets in either direction between them. In a piconet physical channel there are
restrictions on which devices may form a physical link. There is a physical link between
each slave and the master. Physical links are not formed directly between the slaves in a
piconet.
2.2.3. Logical Links
The physical link is used as a transport for one or more logical links that support
unicast synchronous, asynchronous and isochronous traffic, and broadcast traffic. Traffic
on logical links is multiplexed onto the physical link by occupying slots assigned by a
scheduling function in the resource manager.
2.2.4. Link Manager Protocol (LMP)
A control protocol for the baseband and physical layers is carried over logical links in
addition to user data. This is the link manager protocol (LMP). Devices that are active in
a piconet have a default asynchronous connection-oriented logical transport that is used
to transport the LMP protocol signaling. For historical reasons this is known as the ACL
logical transport. The default ACL logical transport is the one that is created whenever a
device joins a piconet. Additional logical transports may be created to transport
synchronous data streams when this is required.
The link manager function uses LMP to control the operation of devices in the
piconet and provide services to manage the lower architectural layers (radio layer and Page 13

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baseband layer). The LMP protocol is only carried on the default ACL logical transport
and the default broadcast logical transport.
2.2.5. Logical Link Control And Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)
Above the baseband layer the L2CAP layer provides a channel-based abstraction to
applications and services. It carries out segmentation and reassembly of application data
and multiplexing and de-multiplexing of multiple channels over a shared logical link.
L2CAP has a protocol control channel that is carried over the default ACL logical
transport. Application data submitted to the L2CAP protocol may be carried on any
logical link that supports the L2CAP protocol. Page 14

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3. CORE ARCHITECTURAL BLOCKS
This section describes the function and responsibility of each of the blocks
Fig 3.1 “ Bluetooth Architecture
3.1. Channel manager
The channel manager is responsible for creating, managing and destroying L2CAP
channels for the transport of service protocols and application datastreams. The channel
manager uses the L2CAP protocol to interact with achannel manager on a remote (peer)Page 15

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device to create these L2CAP channels and connect their endpoints to the appropriate
entities. The channel manager interacts with its local link manager to create new logical
links (if necessary)and to configure these links to provide the required quality of service
for the type of data being transported.
3.2. L2CAP resource manager
The L2CAP resource manager block is responsible for managing the ordering of
submission of PDU fragments to the baseband and some relative scheduling between
channels to ensure that L2CAP channels with QoS commitments are not denied access to
the physical channel due to Bluetooth controller resource exhaustion. This is required
because the architectural model does not assume that the Bluetooth controller has
limitless buffering, or that the HCI is a pipe of infinite bandwidth.
L2CAP Resource Managers may also carry out traffic conformance policing to ensure
that applications are submitting L2CAP SDUs within the bounds of their negotiated QoS
settings. The general Bluetooth data transport model assumes well-behaved applications,
and does not define how an implementation is expected to deal with this problem.
3.3. Device manager
The device manager is the functional block in the baseband that controls the general
behavior of the Bluetooth device. It is responsible for all operation of the Bluetooth
system that is not directly related to data transport, such as inquiring for the presence of
other nearby Bluetooth devices, connecting to other Bluetooth devices, or making the
local Bluetooth device discoverable or connectable by other devices.The device manager
requests access to the transport medium from the baseband resource controller in order to
carry out its functions.The device manager also controls local device behavior implied byPage 16

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a number of the HCI commands, such as managing the device local name, any stored link
keys, and other functionality.
3.4. Link manager
The link manager is responsible for the creation, modification and release of logical
links (and, if required, their associated logical transports), as well as the update of
parameters related to physical links between devices. The link manager achieves this by
communicating with the link manager in remote Bluetooth devices using the Link
Management Protocol (LMP.).The LM protocol allows the creation of new logical links
and logical transports between devices when required, as well as the general control of
link and transport attributes such as the enabling of encryption on the logical transport,the
adapting of transmit power on the physical link, or the adjustment of QoS settings for a
logical link.
3.5. Baseband resource manager
The baseband resource manager is responsible for all access to the radio medium. It
has two main functions. At its heart is a scheduler that grants time on the physical
channels to all of the entities that have negotiated an access contract. The other main
function is to negotiate access contracts with these entities. An access contract is
effectively a commitment to deliver a certain QoS that is required in order to provide a
user application with an expected performance.
The access contract and scheduling function must take account of any behavior
that requires use of the Bluetooth radio. This includes (for example) the normal exchange
of data between connected devices over logical links, and logical transports, as well as
the use of the radio medium to carry out inquiries,make connections, be discoverable orPage 17

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connectable, or to take readings from unused carriers during the use of adaptive
frequency hopping mode.In some cases the scheduling of a logical link results in
changing to a different physical channel from the one that was previously used. This may
be (for example) due to involvement in scatternet, a periodic inquiry function, or page
scanning. When the physical channels are not time slot aligned, then the resource
manager also accounts for the realignment time between slots on the original physical
channel and slots on the new physical channel. In some cases the slots will be naturally
aligned due to the same device clock being used as a reference for both physical
channels.
3.6. Link controller
The link controller is responsible for the encoding and decoding of Bluetooth packets
from the data payload and parameters related to the physical channel,logical transport and
logical link.The link controller carries out the link control protocol signaling (in close
conjunction with the scheduling function of the resource manager), which is used to
communicate flow control and acknowledgement and retransmission request signals. The
interpretation of these signals is a characteristic of the logical transport associated with
the baseband packet. Interpretation and control of the link control signaling is normally
associated with the resource managerâ„¢sscheduler.
3.7. RF
The RF block is responsible for transmitting and receiving packets of information on
the physical channel. A control path between the baseband and the RF block allows the
baseband block to control the timing and frequency carrier of the RF block. The RF block
transforms a stream of data to and from the physical channel and the baseband into
required formats. Page 18

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4. BLUETOOTH USAGE MODELS AND PROTOCOLS
In this chapter, the highest priority usage models identified by the SIGâ„¢s
marketing group are briefly introduced. Each usage model is accompanied by a Profile.
Profiles define the protocols and protocol features supporting a particular usage model.
Bluetooth SIG has specified the profiles for these usage models. In addition to these
profiles, there are four general profiles that are widely utilized by these usage model
oriented profiles. These are the generic access profile (GAP) [28], the serial port profile
[29], the service discovery application profile (SDAP) [30], and the generic object
exchange profile (GOEP) [31].
4.1. File Transfer
The file transfer usage model (See also the file transfer profile [32]) offers the ability
to transfer data objects from one device (e.g., PC, smart-phone, or PDA) to another.
Object types include, but are not limited to, .xls, .ppt, .wav,.jpg, and .doc files, entire
folders or directories or streaming media formats.Also, this usage model offers a
possibility to browse the contents of the folders on a remote device.In addition, simple
push and exchange operations, e.g., business card exchange are covered in the object
push profile [33], with vCard specified as the format for pushed business card content. Page 19

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Fig 4.1- Protocol Stack for File Transfer Applications
In Figure 4.1, the required protocol stack presented for this usage model is presented. The
figure does not show the LMP, Baseband, and Radio layers although those are used
underneath .
4.2. Internet Bridge
In this usage model, mobile phone or cordless modem acts as modem to the PC,
providing dial-up networking [8] and fax [9] capabilities without need for physical
connection to the PC. The dial-up networking scenario of this usage model needs a two-
piece protocol stack (in addition to the SDP branch), which is shown in Figure 4.2. The
AT-commands are needed to control the mobile phone or modem and another stack (E.g.,
PPP over RFCOMM) to transfer payload data. The fax scenario has a similar protocol
stack but PPP and the networking protocols above PPP are not used and the application
software sends a facsimile directly over RFCOMM. Page 20

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Fig 4.2- Dial-up Networking Protocol Stack
4.3. LAN Access
In this usage model (See also the LAN access profile [26]), multiple data
terminals (DTs) use a LAN access point (LAP) as a wireless connection to a Local Area
Network (LAN). Once connected, the DTs operate as if it they were connected to the
LAN via dialup networking. The DT can access all of the services provided by the LAN.
The protocol stack is nearly identical to the protocol stack in the Internet bridge usage
model except that the ATcommands are not used. The protocol stack is represented in
Figure 4.3.
Fig 4.3-Protocol Stack of LAN Access (PPP) Usage ModelPage 21

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4.4. Synchronization
The synchronization usage model [34] provides a device-to-device (phone,PDA,
computer, etc.) synchronization of the PIM (personal information management)
information, typically phonebook, calendar, message, and note information.
Synchronization requires business card, calendar and task information to be transferred
and processed by computers, cellular phones and PDAs utilizing a common protocol and
format. The protocol stack for this usage model is presented in Figure 4.4.
Fig 4.4-Protocol Stack for Synchronization
In the figure, the synchronization application block represents either an IrMC client or an
IrMC server software.
4.5. Three-in-One Phone
Telephone handsets built to this profile may connect to three different service
providers. First, telephones may act as cordless phones connecting to the public switched
telephone network (PSTN) at home or the office and incurring a fixed line charge. This
scenario [35] includes making calls via a voice basestation, making direct calls between Page 22

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two terminals via the basestation and accessing supplementary services provided by an
external network. Second,telephones can connect directly to other telephones for the
purpose of acting as a walkie-talkie or handset extension. Referred to as the intercom
scenario[36], the connection incurs no additional charge. Third, the telephone may act as
a cellular phone connecting to the cellular infrastructure and incurring cellular charges.
The cordless and intercom scenarios use the same protocol stack, which is shown in
Figure 4.5.
Fig 4.5-Protocol Stack for Cordless Phone and Intercom Scenarios
The audio stream is directly connected to the Baseband protocol indicated by the
L2CAP bypassing audio arrow.
4.6. Ultimate Headset
The headset can be wirelessly connected for the purpose of acting as a remote deviceâ„¢s
audio input and output interface. The headset increases the userâ„¢s freedom of movement
while maintaining call privacy. A common example is a scenario where a headset is used
with either a cellular handset,cordless handset, or personal computer for audio input and
output. The protocol stack for this usage model is depicted in Figure 8 [7]. The audio Page 23

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stream is directly connected to the Baseband protocol indicated by the L2CAP bypassing
audio arrow. The headset must be able to send AT-commands and receive result codes.
This ability allows the headset to answer incoming calls and then terminate them without
physically manipulating the telephone handset.
Fig 4.6-Ultimate Headset Protocol StackPage 24

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5. CHANGES FROM V2.0 + EDR TO V2.1 + EDR
5.1 NEW FEATURES
Several new features are introduced in Bluetooth Core Specification 2.1 +EDR. The
major areas of improvement are:
¢
Erroneous Data Reporting
¢
Encryption Pause and Resume
¢
Extended Inquiry Response
¢
Link Supervision Timeout Changed Event
¢
Non-Automatically-Flushable Packet Boundary Flag
¢
Secure Simple Pairing
¢
Sniff Subrating
¢
Security Mode 4
5.2. DEPRECATED FEATURES
No features were deprecated in v2.1 + EDR.
5.1.1. ERRONEOUS DATA REPORTING
The Erroneous Data Reporting configuration parameter shall be used for SCO and
eSCO connections only. This parameter determines if the Controller is required to
provide data to the Host for every (e)SCO interval, with the Packet Status Flag in HCI
Synchronous Data Packets set according to demand. Page 25

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5.1.2. ENCRYPTION PAUSE AND RESUME
The Encryption Key Refresh Complete event is used to indicate to the Host that the
encryption key was refreshed on the given Connection Handle any time encryption is
paused and then resumed. The Controller shall send this event when the encryption key
has been refreshed due to encryption being started or resumed If the Encryption Key
Refresh Complete event was generated due to an encryption pause and resume operation
embedded within a change connection link key procedure, the Encryption Key Refresh
Complete event shall be sent prior to the Change Connection Link Key Complete event.If
the Encryption Key Refresh Complete event was generated due to an encryption pause
and resume operation embedded within a role switch procedure,the Encryption Key
Refresh Complete event shall be sent prior to the Role Change event.
5.1.3. EXTENDED INQUIRY RESPONSE
The Extended Inquiry Response provides information about the local device in
response to inquiry from remote devices. The configuration parameter has two parts, a
significant part followed by a non-significant part. The non-significant part contains only
zero octets. The length of the extended inquiry response configuration parameter is 240
octets.
5.1.4. Link Supervision Timeout Changed Event
The Link Supervision Timeout Changed event is used to notify the slave's Host when
the Link Supervision Timeout parameter is changed in the slave Controller. This event
shall only be sent to the Host by the slave controller upon receiving an LMP supervision
timeout PDU from the master. Page 26

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Note: the Connection Handle used for this command shall be the ACL connection of the
appropriate device.
5.1.5. SECURE SIMPLE PAIRING
The Secure Simple Pairing security functions and procedures are described in this
section. In addition, a cryptographic analysis of each procedure is provided.
There are five phases of Secure Simple Pairing:
Phase 1: Public key exchange
Phase 2: Authentication Stage 1
Phase 3: Authentication Stage 2
Phase 4: Link key calculation
Phase 5: LMP Authentication and Encryption
5.1.6. Sniff Subrating
Sniff subrating provides a mechanism for further reducing the active duty cycle
,thereby enhancing the power-saving capability of sniff mode. Sniff subrating allows a
Host to create a guaranteed access-like connection by specifying maximum transmit and
receive latencies. This allows the basebands to optimize the low power performance
without having to exit and re-enter sniff mode using Link Manager commands .
5.1.7. Security mode 4 (service level enforced security)
A Bluetooth device in security mode 4 shall classify the security requirements of its
services using at least the following attributes (in order of decreasing security)Tongueage 27

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Authenticated link key required
Unauthenticated link key required
No security required
An authenticated link key is a link key where either the numeric comparison ,out-of-
band or passkey entry simple pairing association models were used. An authenticated link
key has protection against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. To ensure that an
authenticated link key is created during the Simple Pairing procedure, the Authentication
Requirements parameter should be set to one of the MITM Protection Required options.
An unauthenticated link key is a link key where the just works Secure Simple Pairing
association model was used. An unauthenticated link key does not have protection
against MITM attacks. When both devices support Secure Simple Pairing, GAP shall
default to requiring an unauthenticated link key and enabling encryption. A profile or
protocol may define services that require more security (e.g. an authenticated link key)or
no security.
To allow an unauthenticated link key to be created during the Simple Pairing
procedure, the Authentication Requirements parameter may be set to one of the MITM
Protection Not Required options. When the device is in Bondable Mode, it shall enable
Secure Simple Pairing mode prior to entering Connectable Mode or establishing a link .A
Bluetooth device in security mode 4 shall respond to authentication requests during link
establishment when the remote device is in security mode 3 for backwards compatibility
reasons. A Bluetooth device in security mode 4 enforces its security requirements before
it attempts to access services offered by a remote device and before it grants access to
services it offers to remote devices. Page 28

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6. BLUETOOTH SECURITY
In any wireless networking setup, security is a concern. Devices can easily grab radio
waves out of the air, so people who send sensitive information over a wireless connection
need to take precautions to make sure those signals aren't intercepted. Bluetooth
technology is no different -- it's wireless and therefore susceptible to spying and remote
access, just like WiFi is susceptible if the network isn't secure. With Bluetooth, though,
theautomatic nature of the connection, which is a huge benefit in terms of time and effort,
is also a benefit to people looking to send you data without your permission.
Bluetooth offers several security modes, and device manufacturers determine which
mode to include in a Bluetooth-enabled gadget. In almost all cases, Bluetooth users can
establish "trusted devices" that can exchange data without asking permission. When any
other device tries to establish a connection to the user's gadget, the user has to decide to
allow it. Service-level security and device-level security work together to protect
Bluetooth devices from unauthorized data transmission. Security methods include
authorization and identification procedures that limit the use of Bluetooth services to the
registered user and require that users make a conscious decision to open a file or accept a
data transfer. As long as these measures are enabled on the user's phone or other device,
unauthorized access is unlikely. A user can also simply switch his Bluetooth mode to
"non-discoverable" and avoid connecting with other Bluetooth devices entirely. If a user
makes use of the Bluetooth network primarily for synching devices at home, this might
be a good way to avoid any chance of a security breach while in public. Page 29

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Still, early cell-phone virus writers have taken advantage of Bluetooth's automated
connection process to send out infected files. However, since most cell phones use a
secure Bluetooth connection that requires authorization and authentication before
accepting data from an unknown device, the infected file typically doesn't get very far.
When the virus arrives in the user's cell phone, the user has to agree to open it and then
agree to install it. This has, so far,stopped most cell-phone viruses from doing much
damage. See How Cell-phone Viruses Work to learn more.
Other problems like "bluejacking ," "bluebugging" and "Car Whisperer" have turned
up as Bluetooth-specific security issues.
Bluejacking involves Bluetooth users sending a business card (just a text message,
really) to other Bluetooth users within a 10-meter (32-foot) radius. If the user doesn't
realize what the message is, he might allow the contact tobe added to his address book,
and the contact can send him messages that might be automatically opened because
they're coming from a known contact.
Bluebugging is more of a problem, because it allows hackers to remotely access a
user's phone and use its features, including placing calls and sending text messages, and
the user doesn't realize it's happening.
The Car Whisperer is a piece of software that allows hackers to send audio to and
receive audio from a Bluetooth-enabled car stereo. Like a computer security hole, these
vulnerabilities are an inevitable result of technological innovation, and device
manufacturers are releasing firmware upgrades that address new problems as they arise. Page 30

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7. CONCLUSION
Bluetooth has become a revelation in the field of mobile phones. Almost all mobile
companies are launching their new models incorporating a Bluetooth device. It has also
become an inextricable tool in the field of networking as it provides superior security. It
is used for data transfer, lan access, internet bridge, synchronization and are included in
several headsets.
Vast researches are done in the field of Bluetooth. Bluetooth special interest group are
planning to incorporate Ultra Wide Band Radio Technology into Bluetooth which will
enable very fast data transfer rates for Bluetooth devices. They are also planning to build
low energy and ultra small version to incorporate Bluetooth devices in wrist watches. The
day wont be far when every mobiles, pcâ„¢s, watches will contain a Bluetooth device
integrated in it. Page 31

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8. REFERENCES
1. BLUETOOTH CORE SPECIFICATION v2.1+EDR
2. BLUETOOTH PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE v1.0
3. bluetoothBluetooth/Technology/
4. en.wikipediawiki/Bluetooth
5. electronics.howstuffworksbluetooth.htm
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