BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACE
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“No technology is superior if it tends to overrule human faculty. In fact, it should be other way around”
Imagine that you are somewhere else and you have to control a machine which is in a remote area, where human can’t withstand for a long time. In such a condition we can move to this BRAIN -MACHINE INTERFACE. It is similar to robotics but it is not exactly a robot. In the robot the interface has a sensor with controller but here the interface with human and machine. In the present wheel chair movements are done according to the patient by controlling the joystick with only up, reverse, left and right movements are possible. But if the patient is a paralyzed person, then it is a critical for the patient to take movements. Such a condition can be recovered by this approach. The main objective of this paper is to interface the human and machine, by doing this several objects can be controlled. This paper enumerates how Human and Machine can be interfaced and researches undergone on recovery of paralyzed person in their mind.
The core of this paper is that to operate machines from a remote area . In the given BMI DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS the brain is connected to client interface node through a neural interface nodes . The client interface node connected to a BMI SERVER which controls remote ROBOTS through a host control.
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31-03-2011, 10:07 AM
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A brain-machine interface is a communication link between a functioning human brain and the outside world.
It has the ability to send and receive signals from the brain.It uses brain activity to command ,control and communicate with the world directly through brain integration with peripheral devices and systems.
BMI transforms mental decisions or reactions into control signals by analyzing the bioelectrical brain activity.
BMI study is to provide a way for people with damaged sensory/motor functions to use their brain to control artificial devices and restore lost capabilities
BMI is a communication system,which enables the user to control special computer application by using only his or her thoughts.It will allow human brain to accept and control a mechanical device as a part of the body.
Data can flow from brain to the outside machinery,or to brain from the outside machinery.
Cyberkinetics Inc,a leader in neurotechnology has developed the first implantable BMI that can reliably interpret brain signals and reads decisions made in the brain to develop a fast, reliable connection between the brain of severely disabled person to a personal computer.
How signals are generated ?
Measuring the electrical activity using EEG ?
The average human brain weights around 1400 Grams.
The living tissues in human body can be considered as a power station generating multiple electrical signals with two internal sources,namely muscles and nerves.
The brain is composed of million of neurons and work together and signals that control our bodies.
When the neuron activates there is voltage change across the cell.When the action is done, the command generates from the frontal lobe.[Brain___Cerebral Cortex______Hemisphere____Frontal lobe]
When we imagine ourselves doing something, small signals generate from different areas of the brain.
These signalls are measurable and different in magnitude and frequency.
A neuron depolarizes to generate an impluse this action causes small changes in the electric field around the neuron.
The principle behind this interface is the bioelectrical activity of nerves and muscles.
Measuring the electric activity using EEG
Electroencephalography is a method used in measuring the electrical activity of the brain.
The brain generates rythmical potentials which originate in the individual neurons of the brain these potentials get summated as millions of cell discharge synchronously and appear as a surface wave form, the recording of which is Electroencephologram.
When a neuron is exposed to a stimulus above certain threshold , a nerve impluse seen as a change in membrane potential, is generated which spreads in the cell result in the depolarization of the cell.
The EEG signal can be picked up with electrodes either from scalp or directly from the cerebral cortex.
Neurons in our brain communicate with each other by electrical impulses, this creates an electrical field which travel though the cortex, the skull and the scalp.
The EEG is measured from the surface of the scalp by measuring potential difference.
The peak-to-peak amplitude of the waves that can be picked up from the scalp is normally 100 MV or less.
The normal EEG frequency content ranges from 0.5 to 50 HZ.
Frequency of the EEG range is taken based on mainly Alpha and Beta.
BMI PROCESS PRACTICALLY
RECORDING EEG WITH ELECTRODES
Electrodes are small plates, which provide the electrical contact between the skin and the EEG recording apparatus.
Transforming the ionic current on the skin to the electrical current in the wires.
Electrolyte gel is applied between the electrode and the skin in order to provide good electrical contact.
It provides better living , more features, more advancement in technologies etc.
Linking up in this way would allow for computer intelligence to be hooked more directly into brain.
Linking people via chip implants to super intelligent machines seems to a natural progression-creating in effect, super humans.
Getting the right codes out for the desired action .
Permanent brain damage.
Virus attack may occur to brain causing ill effect.
Extensive training is required.
A great deal of efforts in neuroscience, robotics, and computer science are today spent by many research groups to develop BMI.
Concept of BMI have been used for a large number of applications in various fields.
Till now research is going on largely on monkeys and rats.