BROADBAND OVER POWERLINE (BPL)
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30-01-2009, 03:36 PM


The Technology Broadband over power line (BPL) is another high speed data service available to consumers. It uses medium and low voltage power lines to carry broadband data at speeds between 500 Kbps and 3 Mbps. At these data rates BPL is equivalent to and competes with cable and DSL. Access BPL and In-home BPL are both used to deliver data to the consumer over power lines. Access BPL is used to carry data over the medium voltage and low voltage power lines to the customer?s premises. Power companies also use Access BPL to monitor power grids. In-home BPL defines the technology that is used in side the customer premises to transport data. Many devices are available now that can network your home using the electrical wiring in your house.
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05-02-2010, 06:23 PM

i want more info about this
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05-02-2010, 11:50 PM

please read
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07-07-2010, 02:19 PM

Hi,
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26-11-2010, 11:15 AM


.docx   Broadband Over Power Line.docx (Size: 803.51 KB / Downloads: 147)
Broadband Over Power Line

After years of development, technology to deliver high-speed data over the existing electric power delivery network has emerged in the marketplace. Called broadband over power line (BPL), this technology offers an alternative means of providing high-speed internet access, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), and other broadband services, using medium- and low- voltage lines to reach customers’ homes and businesses.
Broadband over Power Line (BPL), also known as Power Line Communications (PLC) is a disruptive communications technology that enables power line infrastructure landlords (electric utilities & property owners) and their system operator partners to deliver a suite of Internet Protocol (IP) based services using their existing power distribution infrastructure.
BPL transmits high frequency data signals through the same power cable network used in carrying electrical power to household/or business subscribers. In order to make use of BPL, subscribers install a modem that plugs into an ordinary electrical wall outlet and pay a subscription fee similar to those paid for other types of Internet service.

Evolution of BPL
BPL is based on PLC technology developed in 1928 by AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories, and which has been used for internal and low-speed data communication applications since that time by the electric power utilities. Based on PLC technology, some customer premises equipment (CPE) such as intercom systems, have used the embedded electrical wire to avoid the cost of special wiring. In Europe and most of the rest of the world, PLC standards allow for communications over the 220-240 volt power grid at frequencies of 30 KHz to 150 KHz. In the United States, the standards for the 120 volt power grid allow the use of frequencies above 150 KHz as well. Power utilities use the frequencies below 490 KHz for internal applications such as telemetry and monitoring and control of equipment at remote sub-stations. In the 1990s, development began on broadband over power line (BPL), which has since then been regionally standardized.
Despite the spread of broadband technology in the last few years, there are significant areas of the world that don't have access to high-speed Internet. When weighed against the relatively small number of customers Internet providers would gain, the incremental expenditures of laying cable and building the necessary infrastructure to provide DSL or cable in many areas, especially rural, is too great. But if broadband could be served through power lines, there would be no need to build a new infrastructure. Anywhere there is electricity there could be broadband. Technology to deliver high-speed data over the existing electric power delivery network is closer to reality in the marketplace. By combining the technological principles of radio, wireless networking, and modems, developers have created a way to send data over power lines and into homes at speeds between 500 kilobits and 3 megabits per second (equivalent to DSL and cable). The technology evolution in the next few years is important from a perspective of future competitive position of BPL as new networks are built and alternative technologies emerge.
Broadband access and services are delivered using a variety of technologies, network architectures and transmission methods. The most significant broadband technologies include:
•Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
•Coaxial Cable
• Satellite
DSL is a very high-speed connection to Internet that uses the same wires as a regular telephone line. A standard telephone installation in the United States consists of a pair of copper wires. This pair of copper wires has sufficient bandwidth for carrying both data and voice. Voice signals use only a fraction of the available capacity on the wires. DSL exploits this remaining capacity to carry information on the wire without affecting the line’s ability to carry voice conversations.
But there are several limitations of DSL describe below :
•The quality of connection depends upon the proximity to the provider’s central
office, closer the better
•Receiving data is faster than sending data over the internet
•DSL is not available everywhere
For millions of people, television brings news, entertainment and educational programs into their homes. Many people get their TV signal from cable television (CATV) because cable TV provides better reception and more channels.
Many people who have cable TV can now get a high-speed connection to the Internet from their cable provider. Cable modems allow subscribers to access high-speed data services over cable systems that are generally designed with hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) architecture. Cable modem service is primarily residential, but may also include some small business service.
The disadvantage of coaxial cable is that when there are heavy-access users, are
connected to the channel, you will have to share the entire bandwidth, and may see your performance degrade as a result. It is possible that, in times of heavy usage with many connected users, performance will be far below the theoretical maximums.
Satellite Internet access is ideal for rural Internet users who want broadband access. Satellite Internet does not use telephone lines or cable systems, but instead uses a satellite dish for two-way (upload and download) data communications. Upload speed is about one-tenth of the 500 kbps download speed. Cable and DSL have higher download speeds, but satellite systems are about 10 times faster than a normal modem. Two-way satellite Internet consists of approximately a two-foot by three-foot dish, two modems (uplink and downlink), and coaxial cables between dish and modem. The key installation planning requirement is a clear view to the south, since the orbiting satellites are over the equator area. And, like satellite TV, trees and heavy rains can affect reception of the Internet signals.
Architecture of BPL
Broadband over Power Lines network is overlaid on the medium-voltage and low-voltage segments of the power distribution system. High-speed backhaul connections can be brought to the BPL network at substations or elsewhere along the medium voltage circuit. An Ambient node provides connectivity between the backhaul connection and the medium voltage segment of the BPL network. High speed data travels over this medium-voltage segment to remote locations where is it transferred to the low-voltage segment or to a wireless interface for the final leg to the end user or network element being managed. A simplified view is shown is Figure
   

The diagram below (Inductive Coupling Injection Technique) shows how the BPL injector converts the IP data traffic into an RF signal in a signal cable. The signal is then injected into the MV or LV cable by induction using ferrite cores. This is known as “inductive coupling” and can be done without switching off power. An alternative injection technique, known as “conductive coupling” connects the signal cable directly to the electricity cables but requires the power to be switched off during connection for safety reasons.
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05-04-2011, 07:11 PM

hiiiiiiiiiii, i need infrmation about BPL ..........PLZ ANYBDY TELL ME ABOUT BPL..........THNX
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24-08-2011, 10:35 AM


.ppt   BPL.ppt (Size: 1.47 MB / Downloads: 91)
INTRODUCTION TO BPL
Despite the spread of broadband technology in the last few years, there are significant areas of the world that don't have access to high-speed Internet. When weighed against the relatively small number of customers Internet providers would gain, the incremental expenditures of laying cable and building the necessary infrastructure to provide DSL or cable in many areas, especially rural , is too great. But if broadband could be served through power lines, there would be no need to build a new infrastructure. Anywhere there is electricity there could be broadband.
BROADBAND ACCESS ALTERNATIVES
Broadband access and services are delivered using a variety of technologies, network architectures and transmission methods. The most significant broadband technologies include:
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Fiber Technologies
Coaxial Cable
Wireless
BPL (Broadband Over Power Lines)
WHAT IS BPL?
Broadband over Power Line (BPL) is a technology that allows voice and Internet data to be transmitted over utility power lines.
Access BPL is a technology that provides broadband access over medium voltage power lines.
Medium voltage power lines are the electric lines that you see at the top of electric utility poles beside the roadways in areas that do not have underground electric service.
COMPONENTS OF BPL
BPL modems use silicon chips designed to send signals over electric power lines, much like cable and DSL modems use silicon chips designed to send signals over cable and telephone lines. Advances in processing power have enabled new BPL modem chips to overcome difficulties in sending communications signals over the electric power lines.
2. Inductive couplers
These are used to connect BPL modems to the medium voltage power lines. An inductive coupler transfers the communications signal onto the power line by wrapping around the line, without directly connecting to the line. A major challenge is how to deliver the signal from the medium voltage line to the low voltage line that enters your house, because the transformer that lowers the electric power from several thousands volts down to 220/110 is a potential barrier to the broadband signal
3.Router
It is a device that acts as an interface between two networks and provides network management functions.
4.Repeater
It is a physical-layer hardware device used on a network to extend the length, topology , or interconnectivity of the physical medium beyond that imposed by a single segment.
5.Concentrator/Injector
It is a device that aggregates the end-user CPE data onto the MV (medium voltage) grid. Injectors are tied to the Internet backbone via fiber of T1 lines and interface to the MV power lines feeding the BPL service area.
6.Extractors
These provide the interface between the MV power lines carrying BPL signals and the households within the service area. BPL extractors are usually located at each LV distribution transformer feeding a group of homes.
FAILURE SCENARIOS
Signal Attenuation by Passive Devices
Signal Attenuation by Active Devices
Interference
CONCLUSION
This technology is generally based on many economical applications as rural areas are going to set their infrastructure for using internet & this technology is providing them better infrastructure than any other technology & also economical.
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19-01-2012, 11:43 AM

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21-04-2012, 11:01 AM


Broadband over Power Line



BPL continues to gain support in Australia. The Federal Government has recently directed considerable funding in order to improve broadband infrastructure in regional Australia. A portion of that funding will be targeted to new broadband delivery models such as BPL. On the other hand, a wide range of radiocommunications users including land mobile, aviation, broadcasting, law enforcement, emergency services and defence have expressed their concerns about the interference potential of BPL

Tasmanian energy provider Aurora Energy is in the final stages of a commercial trial.
By demonstrating economic viability of their model, Aurora aims to encourage energy providers on Australia’s mainland to also adopt BPL technology.

Aurora has recently acquired a Telecommunications Carrier Licence and is about to move from the commercial trial stage to a more widespread rollout of BPL in Tasmania.

Other utilities on mainland Australia have evaluated BPL technology in a number of small trials both for broadband delivery and power distribution network monitoring and control.

In Australia no BPL emission limits exist other than generic EMC limits, which the WIA (and many others) believe are unsuitable for regulating emissions from BPL enabled power lines.

The regulator, the Australian Communications and Media Authority, ACMA, embarked on a public consultation process with stakeholders during the year. The WIA has been an active participant in ACMA’s (formerly the ACA) previous work to provide a framework for trials of BPL systems. ACMA has recently notified the WIA of a forthcoming review of the BPL trial guidelines and has invited the WIA’s participation in this process. The WIA is an important stakeholder in this debate and is taken seriously by ACMA, as are others.




However, the Guidelines do not apply when the BPL provider is operating under a Telecommunications Carrier Licence, or when the BPL system has moved beyond the trial stage. Therefore, Aurora Energy will no longer be bound by the BPL Trial Guidelines, including the requirements for notification of the BPL trial to licensed radiocommunications users.

Legislative interference provisions such as s.197 of the Australian Radiocommunications Act 1992 will still apply.

The WIA concludes that the government, through ACMA, is not keen to introduce regulation which may impede the development alternative broadband technologies such as BPL.

Radiocommunications users find themselves in a very difficult position where the regulator is not keen to act and the legislation is somewhat weak.

In any case, the WIA believes premature regulation in Australia would most likely be favourable to BPL, would add legitimacy to and encourage more investment in the technology, and would probably be to our disadvantage. However this is a strategy is based on the assumption that newly emerging technical and economic information concerning BPL will continue to be largely negative, and if not our position may change at any time.

The WIA believes the success or failure of BPL in Australia will be largely determined by market forces. Recently announced expansion plans and pricing strategies of existing Telco’s are making life difficult for new entrants into the broadband market. Truly portable wireless broadband services are expected to take a growing share of the Australian broadband market, (and a growing share of spectrum).

Many believe the window of opportunity for BPL is closing, and the market for BPL could be limited to regional towns, city fringe areas, and niche markets, (where the major Telco’s are not so strong). It’s no accident that Tasmania, a State lagging in broadband access, was selected for the first BPL commercial trial.

The WIA continues to educate as many people as possible about the negative aspects of the technology at every opportunity, backed up by technical evaluation of active BPL trials. The WIA believes its opposition to BPL in Australia has been effective in highlighting technological risk, and in some cases may have delayed further investment.

Tasmanian amateurs have been particularly effective in measuring the interference from BPL trials in Tasmania and have clearly demonstrating that 200Mbps DS2 technology still has very significant interference emission. The interference potential of BPL is now clearly understood by all stakeholders and the regulator.

The WIA expects greater numbers of radio amateurs may be adversely affected by BPL interference, and that those radio amateurs will wish to lodge interference complaints with ACMA and the BPL trial operators.

However, ACMA advise that they have already investigated a number of complaints from radio amateurs of BPL interference which were found to be from non-BPL related sources. This is of concern to the WIA as wrongly based interference complaints from radio amateurs could be very damaging to our position.

The WIA believes that the responsiveness to, and efficiency in handling of, BPL interference complaints lodged by radio amateurs will be improved if complaints undergo a technical and administrative review process prior to being lodged with ACMA and the BPL trial operator.

Recently the WIA introduced a BPL Interference Advisory Service for all Australian amateurs. The service is to be provided by and funded by the WIA, available to all Australian radio amateurs, providing validation of interference as likely coming from a BPL source, and assistance in preparing and lodging an effective interference complaint. The service will be accessed via the WIA website.

The WIA believes that it is likely that access BPL will be introduced into Australia in some medium to low population density areas. Where it is introduced it will likely be an unwanted feature for many years. It is possible that the greatest threat from BPL to Australian radio amateurs may come from niche markets or in-house BPL applications such as Home Plug, wide area security systems, high rise building broadband distribution, etc, rather than wide scale access BPL.

The WIA would particularly like to acknowledge the work of the ARRL and their Ed Hare, W1RFI.
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30-07-2012, 04:50 PM

Broadband over Power Lines


.pdf   internet through transmition line.pdf (Size: 921.38 KB / Downloads: 49)

Abstract

Over the past few years advances in signal processing technology have enabled the advent of modem chips that are able to overcome the transmission difficulties associated with sending communications signals over electrical power lines. In the United States, this capability has been termed “Broadband over Power Lines” or BPL. There are two predominant types of BPL communications configurations: Access BPL and In-Home BPL. Access BPL is comprised of injectors (used to inject High Frequency (HF) signals onto medium or low voltage power lines), extractors (used to retrieve these signals) and repeaters (used to regenerate signals to prevent attenuation losses). In addition to taking advantage of the power line infrastructure, In-Home BPL modems utilize the existing house wiring to provision a Local Area Network (LAN) that can be used throughout the home. One of the largest commercial markets for BPL is the ability to provide Internet Services by means of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols, which can support voice, data, and video services. Another significant benefit of BPL is the ability to employ “intelligent” power line networks that make use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)i devices, dynamic provisioning, and other forms of modernized electrical power networks.

Introduction

The National Communications System (NCS) was established through a Presidential Memorandum signed by President John Kennedy on August 21, 1963. The memorandum assigned the NCS the responsibility of providing necessary communications for the Federal Government under national emergency conditions by linking together, improving, and expanding the communication capabilities of the various agencies.
In April 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed Executive Order (E.O.) 12472, Assignment of National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NS/EP) Telecommunications Functions,ii which broadened the mission and focus. Since that time, the NCS has been assisting the President and the Executive Office of the President (EOP) in exercising wartime and non-wartime emergency telecommunications and in coordinating the planning for, and provisioning of, NS/EP communications for the Federal Government under all circumstances. In this regard, the Office of the Manager, the NCS (OMNCS) continually seeks to improve the Federal Government's ability to respond to the telecommunications requirements to support national security and emergency situations. Among these responsibilities, the NCS seeks to ensure that a national telecommunications infrastructure is developed that “is capable of satisfying priority telecommunications requirements under all circumstances.” The OMNCS is the appropriate body to communicate NS/EP requirements to standards bodies and participate in related standards activities.

BPL Overview

In the past few years, the availability of much faster digital signal-processing capabilities and the development of sophisticated modulation, encoding, and error correction schemes have allowed the introduction of new, low-power designs for carrier current devices. These new designs can overcome earlier technical bandwidth limitations caused by the inherent noise and impedance mismatches that are common on commercial power lines. The new designs include the use of spread spectrum or multiple carrier techniques that employ highly adaptive algorithms to effectively counter the noise on the line. They also include the use of “turbo code” (TC) techniques such as concatenated Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction (FEC) and convolutional coding employing the Viterbi algorithm, which can provide decibel (dB) gains that approach Shannon’s famous channel capacity law1.
BPL Access and In-home technologies currently suffer from the absence of recognized international and, in most cases, national standards. Consequently, there is relatively little detailed public technical information available on BPL systems, reflecting their proprietary state. BPL manufacturers today maintain a secretive posture with respect to the technical details of their equipment. Although the US does follow the electrical power standards set by the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC), each power company has wide flexibility in how their own transmission facilities are implemented. Thus it is difficult to render accurate generalizations about even the underlying power structure that facilitates BPL. This will improve over the next few years after a number of current standardization efforts, discussed later, are concluded.

Power Line Infrastructure

BPL is designed to take advantage of the in-place electrical power grid, which varies among countries around the world. In the United States, the three-phase alternating current (A/C) electrical power grid is a three-tiered hierarchical system that is comprised of: (1) high voltage (HV); (2) medium voltage (MV); and (3) low voltage (LV) transmission lines. HV lines connect electricity generation stations to distribution stations. HV lines carry in the order of hundreds of kilovolts over distances that are tens of kilometers. MV lines connect the distribution stations to pole-mounted transformers. MV lines typically carry in the order of double-digit kilovolts over distances of a few kilometers. LV lines connect pole-mounted transformers to individual businesses and homes. LV lines carry only a few hundred volts over distances of a few hundred meters. In the US, each transformer supports only a few (e.g., 1-8) customers.

Power Line Characteristics


The use of power line cables for HF data transmission presents a number of technically difficult challenges. In addition to large attenuation, the power line cable network is one of the most electrically contaminated environments. Power line networks have been assembled with a variety of materials and cross sections are joined almost at random. This means that the inductive reactance along the wire itself will render a wide range of characteristic impedances at different points in the network. Further, the power line network terminal impedance varies both at different communication signal frequencies and with the time of day as the network’s electrical load pattern varies. Atmospheric conditions, such as temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, lightning, sunspots, and the distance above ground all have an effect. Power-transmission-line engineering is a highly specialized field.
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07-09-2012, 11:39 AM

Broadband over Power Lines


.docx   Broadband over Power Lines abstract.docx (Size: 11.05 KB / Downloads: 21)

Abstract:

This paper describes the current broadband over power-line or BPL system. For many years now researchers and electric companies have tried to find a reliable method for passing data over the power lines. The one key advantage of doing this is that power lines are running to nearly every home. This would enable people in rural areas to obtain broadband access, which they previously couldn’t from services such as cable modems and DSL lines.
Broadband over the power lines sounds promising but there is a significant problem of interference with this technology. BPL emits radiation from the power lines at an unlicensed frequency of 4MHz to 30MHz and this is the same frequency in which amateur radio is broadcast at, creating interference. This issue will be addressed along with the advantages and disadvantages of the technology.
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03-01-2013, 11:47 AM

BROADBAND OVER POWERLINE (BPL)


.docx   BROADBAND.docx (Size: 803.51 KB / Downloads: 26)

INTRODUCTION

After years of development, technology to deliver high-speed data over the existing electric power delivery network has emerged in the marketplace. Called broadband over power line (BPL), this technology offers an alternative means of providing high-speed internet access, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), and other broadband services, using medium- and low- voltage lines to reach customers’ homes and businesses.
Broadband over Power Line (BPL), also known as Power Line Communications (PLC) is a disruptive communications technology that enables power line infrastructure landlords (electric utilities & property owners) and their system operator partners to deliver a suite of Internet Protocol (IP) based services using their existing power distribution infrastructure.
BPL transmits high frequency data signals through the same power cable network used in carrying electrical power to household/or business subscribers. In order to make use of BPL, subscribers install a modem that plugs into an ordinary electrical wall outlet and pay a subscription fee similar to those paid for other types of Internet service.

Evolution of BPL

BPL is based on PLC technology developed in 1928 by AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories, and which has been used for internal and low-speed data communication applications since that time by the electric power utilities. Based on PLC technology, some customer premises equipment (CPE) such as intercom systems, have used the embedded electrical wire to avoid the cost of special wiring. In Europe and most of the rest of the world, PLC standards allow for communications over the 220-240 volt power grid at frequencies of 30 KHz to 150 KHz. In the United States, the standards for the 120 volt power grid allow the use of frequencies above 150 KHz as well. Power utilities use the frequencies below 490 KHz for internal applications such as telemetry and monitoring and control of equipment at remote sub-stations. In the 1990s, development began on broadband over power line (BPL), which has since then been regionally standardized.

Architecture of BPL

Broadband over Power Lines network is overlaid on the medium-voltage and low-voltage segments of the power distribution system. High-speed backhaul connections can be brought to the BPL network at substations or elsewhere along the medium voltage circuit. An Ambient node provides connectivity between the backhaul connection and the medium voltage segment of the BPL network. High speed data travels over this medium-voltage segment to remote locations where is it transferred to the low-voltage segment or to a wireless interface for the final leg to the end user or network element being managed. A simplified view is shown is Figure 1.2.

Working of BPL

In order to provide data communication, the initial BPL systems coupled radio frequency (RF) data signals into the existing electric power lines. The high frequency data signals are transmitted through the same power lines that carry low frequency electricity to the household or business. This enables both signals to coexist on the same wire.
From the specific technological perspective, the basic idea of BPL technology is to modulate a radio signal with data and send it through power lines in a band of frequencies which are not used for supplying electricity. The frequencies used and the encoding scheme have a significant influence on the efficiency and the speed of BPL service. The encoding scheme which is used by most of the BPL providers is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM is a technique used for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a radio wave. OFDM splits the radio signals into multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted at different frequencies to the receiver. The transmission of data by OFDM along several of the carrier frequencies simultaneously increases speed and reliability. Data loss occurs when electrical distribution is interrupted by electrical devices turned on and off. OFDM uses small packets to deliver data within the home, losing only small amounts of data rather than the whole signal.

End to End Access BPL

End-to-end Access BPL systems use either a combination of MV and LV power lines or LV power lines only. These systems represent the classical architectures for Access BPL. In this case the BPL signal is injected onto and carried by the MV power line. The BPL signal is then transferred to the LV power line via couplers or through the LV transformer and delivered directly to the end-user. In the case of LV only BPL systems, the BPL signal is injected onto the LV power line at the transformer or the utility meter.

Hybrid Access BPL

Hybrid systems use a combination of power lines and wireless transmission. For example, a hybrid system may inject a BPL signal onto an MV power line and use a special extractor to translate the signal into a wireless channel which is delivered to the end-user.

IN-HOUSE BPL

In-house BPL systems utilize electric power lines not owned, operated or controlled by an electricity service provider, such as the electric wiring in a privately owned building. Broadband devices are connected to the in-building wiring and use electrical sockets as access points
The only thing that the user has to do is plug the modem into the socket and connect it to the computer.
In-House BPL makes use of indoor adapters to transmit data signals over existing interior electric wires within a home, and to connect the data signals to various appliances.

TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPEMENTS

Because of low speed, low functionality and high development cost, BPL technology was never seriously considered as a communication medium, even though it has been operational since the 1930s. Historically, BPL was not only a control mechanism for electrical utilities, but also was originally designed to send simple commands over power lines at such low frequencies as 100-180 kHz. Such a mechanism makes both remote monitoring and diagnostics possible even over long distances. More recently, BPL has been used in “smart homes”. Smart homes can provide such automated applications as entry, entertainment, and comfort systems, and can be networked and controlled from a central location. A simple form of BPL also provides the basis for intercom systems.
In the mid 1980s, experiments on higher frequencies were carried out to analyze the technological characteristics of the electric power grid as a medium for data transfer. Frequencies especially in the range of 5-500 kHz were tested. In these tests, both the signal to noise levels and the attenuation of the signal by the power grid were important topics for measurements. These tests were undertaken both in Europe and in the United States.

Technological complexity and its challenges

The introduction of BPL technologies around the world has not been received with universal, unbridled enthusiasm due largely to interference concerns. The interference characteristics associated with BPL can be divided into two broad categories: (1) conducted and (2) radiated. In the FCC Report & Order 04-245, Access BPL systems are exempted from the conducted emissions limits in FCC Part 15 rules because measuring the conducted emissions presents a safety hazard due to the 1-40 kilovolt energy on the power lines. Instead, the FCC has focused on compliance with established radiated emission requirements.

Technological Issue

Power lines were not designed for data transmission, but were originally created to deliver power at 50 to 60 Hz. Broadband data can be transmitted at different frequencies, over the same wires, however, in order to enable high-speed and long-distance transmission of data on power lines several technological obstacles have to be overcome. These include data interference or electrical signal interference, the distance over which data can travel while still providing good quality, and the lack of international standards and specifications. The technological issues of BPL in this section deal with how BPL should be implemented to minimize interference with other services such as amateur radio frequencies and international standardization efforts for BPL technology to increase reliability, interoperability, and security of broadband transmission over power lines.

CONCLUSION

As it is emerging technology, the next few years will decide whether BPL can compete in the broadband market.
BPL offers a method of broadband access for those living in isolated areas, who have no other viable means of broadband access. Therefore, it seems plausible that when BPL will become available in rural areas, it will be a moderate success. However, this success is unlikely to be long-term, since telecommunications companies are already contemplating rolling out FTTH (Fiber to the Home) connections to all of their customers sometime in the future. Therefore, it appears that BPL will be little more than a stopgap solution.
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