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summer project pal
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Joined: Jan 2011
10-01-2011, 10:44 PM

The Bugatti brand is one of the automotive industry's oldest masque’s, and it has astounded the public with a very loud comeback with what is the fastest production car to ever hit the blacktop.

Named after Bugatti’s famous race driver Pierre Veyron, who won Le Mans in 1939, the Bugatti Veyron has shattered all speed records by any production car ever in the history of supercars.

The state of art innovations behind remarkable styling and revolutionary mechanical engineering that made the Veyron the fastest production car in the world, are really amazing from an engineer’s point of view. Some of the innovative features are exclusive to the Veyron as they were created for the car itself.

The Veyron was formally announced as ready-to-go by Volkswagen in Monte Carlo recently. The automaker also released official images of the production, which is slightly different from the conceptual Veyron exhibited at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show.

get the ppt here:

It was Ettore Bugatti, who at the beginning of the last century, first recognized the advantages of a 16 cylinder engine and then built one. Modeled after an early airplane engine, he combined two 8-cylinder blocks into a twin engine with, for those times, an astounding 250 horse power.

In 1928, the first Bugatti racing cars with 16 cylinders rolled out of the workshops.

At the beginning of the second automobile century, it was again Bugatti, who has breathed life into 16 cylinder technology taking advantage of today’s high-tech engineering. The Veyron was designed by Hartmut Warkuss of Volkswagen rather than Giorgetto Giugiaro of ItalDesign who had handled the three prior Bugatti concepts.

Development continued throughout 2001 and Veyron was promoted to "advanced concept" status.

Substantial modifications were made to the Veyron under the guidance of former VW engineer, Bugatti Engineering head Wolfgang Schreiber. As of April 2005, the Veyron is expected to be released in the second half of 2005.

Design & Clay Model
Hundreds of sketches, drawings and conceptual presentations were worked on. Step by step the most promising concepts and ideas were filtered out and brought to the next stage of realization: to the phase of three dimensional modeling.

At first a relatively large number of Veyron models were created in small scale, until here again a clear-cut decision had to be made to move on to a more realistic model in 1:1 scale. On this model which was based on a basic construction of wood with different layers of clay permitting experiments in every conceivable direction and the final design down to the smallest detail emerged eventually.

At first a relatively large number of Veyron models were created in small scale, until here again a clear-cut decision had to be made to move on to a more realistic model in 1:1 scale. On this model which was based on a basic construction of wood with different layers of clay permitting experiments in every conceivable direction and the final design down to the smallest detail emerged eventually.
The biggest challenge in creating the Veyron was the aerodynamics. I.e., how to keep a 250-mph passenger car on the road.

Researchers had to experiment with models inside wind tunnels to study deeply about the aerodynamic behaviour of the Veyron at shattering speeds above 400 km/h.

The smallest modifications of the external form, especially at the front and rear spoilers, will be felt in terms of drag and drift behaviour.

In a wind tunnel using 1:4 model-true in every detail of the Veyron, the free stream velocity and the drift velocity of the vehicle was examined.

The aerodynamic forces increase exponentially with higher speeds. Doubling the speed from 100 km/h to 200km/h, mean, consequently, a multiplication factor of four of the aerodynamic forces.

Through increased drift forces, higher wheel loads can be achieved, meaning that a greater deal of forces may be transferred though the tires. It follows that the Veyron can attack bends at higher speeds, it has an improved braking deceleration and noticeably higher traction when accelerating out of a bend.

Free stream velocity does not fail under any circumstances and the drift remains high at all instances, ensuring excellent driving performance of the Veyron.

The optically most noticeable aerodynamic component, the tail wing, was perfected inside the wind tunnel.

Important share in the development work has been taken up by the frontal air intake openings and airflow below the vehicle.

The flat underbody between the wheel axles is advantageous for the air flow, the front spoiler serves to cause a suction effect, the so called ground effect.

The Bugatti is extremely wide for its height.

The underside of the Veyron, like an F-1 car, is streamlined and venturi-shaped to increase downforce with the floor pan shaped to act as a diffuser to generate downforce. There is also a wing in the back of the Veyron that extends automatically at high speed to increase downforce and keep the car glued to the road.
Fuel System
No conventional fuel pump could pump enough gas to saturate the 1001 horsepower engine at full throttle. The Veyron now has the world's most powerful fuel pump.

A total of 64 valves control the inlet and exhaust functions.

The fuel is injected via electro-magnetic injection valves directly into the combustion chambers on the principle of FSI (fuel stratified injection), which is highly efficient and reduces emissions. This process makes it possible to precisely define the moments at which fuel is introduced in the power stroke of each cylinder and the time needed for the petrol and air to mix.

For the perfect coordination of all the parameters of the W16 engine, Veyron utilizes a master-slave system derived from computer technology for electronic control; two independently-functioning computers per cylinder bank are managed by a central control unit.

The synergies between cubic capacity, charging, direct injection and computer control make possible an incredible torque of 1,250 Newton-metres between 2,200 and 5,500 rpm which is something no other production car in the world can offer.

The desired "stratified charge effect” in Veyron is obtained in this way: the cloud of air containing sufficient fuel to form an ignitable mixture is kept to a confined volume and surrounds the spark plug at the moment of ignition. Since the fuel is delivered at a shallow angle by the injector, the cloud of fuel makes scarcely any contact with the piston crown: a so-called "air-guided" process.

After combustion, a layer of insulating air remains between the ignited mixture and the cylinder wall. This cuts the amount of heat lost to the engine block and increases the Veyron engine's operating efficiency.

In stratified charge operation, incidentally, we achieve lambda values of up to 4.0 related to the combustion chamber as a whole. This is essential if fuel consumption is to be reduced at low and medium engine speeds.

At full load, the fuel in injected synchronously with the air intake phase. This fills the combustion chamber homogeneously. Here again, this produces a definite reduction in fuel consumption together with higher power-output and torque figures than would be possible indirect fuel injection.

This has the advantages of reducing the tendency to knock as a result of direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber and the resulting internal cooling effect. In addition, the engine is capable of operating at a higher compression ratio.

The Veyron has a common rail injection system and a single-piston injection pump. Unlike Audi engines with fuel injection into the intake port, in Veyron each cylinder head has four instead of five valves per cylinder. This is essential in order to provide space for the injector in the combustion chamber.

A two-stage intake pipe is used, with two length settings for use at higher and lower engine speeds. A continuously variable electro-hydraulic camshaft varies the inlet and outlet valve opening times as required. Compared with an engine with the same output and indirect injection, a fuel saving of up to 15 percent is thus possible.
Cooling System
For its 1000 hp propulsion power, the Veyron’s system demands approximately 2000 hp to be additionally generated as heat energy during combustion. I.e. the total energy of the amount of fuel burnt excluding that converted into mechanical energy. It is of great priority to carry away and dispose this unwanted heat as in any other engine.

To do this, the Bugatti engine has two water circuits.

The larger of the two has a capacity of 40 liters of cooling water. It has three coolers in the front section of the car, to keep the engine at operating temperature. The most visually prominent, very large air inlets are provided at the front end. Those are, to ensure optimum cooling of the engine and the brakes.

The second circuit, called the low-temperature system, has a separate water pump and contains 15 liters of cooling water. These are used to cool, by up to 130 degrees, the charged air, heated during compression in the turbochargers, in two heat exchangers mounted on the cylinder heads, and hence act as two intercoolers.

The cooled, charged air then passes through two “air manifolds” into the combustion chamber, which it then leaves as exhaust gas at approximately 1,000 degrees. It then passes through the turbines of the exhaust gas turbochargers. This causes the exhaust gas to expand, so that it is cooled by up to about 150 degrees, is then cleaned in the catalyzer and exhausted.
After the engine is shut off, the spoiler lifts horizontally to about 20cm to help warm air escape the engine bay.

There are two snorkel-like devices, one on either side of the engine, on the roof of the car. The Veyron uses these to manage airflow. The Veyron has many reasons for managing airflow:

At maximum power, the engine is consuming 45,000 liters of air per minute.

At maximum power, the engine is burning 1.33 gallons of gasoline per minute and needs to dissipate all of that heat through its radiators.

When stopping, the brakes need to dissipate heat –- especially important when rapidly accelerating and braking on twisty road courses.

To supply air to the air conditioning system.

The engine of the Veyron sits behind the driver, so roof-mounted snorkels, the rear-deck vents and side-mounted scoops bring air to the engine and rear brakes.
Unique cooling system for extreme fade-resistant brake system
Unique dynamic pressure cooling system is employed to achieve the greatest possible dynamic pressure and therefore make use of high volumes of air.

The cooling air stream enters a duct located in the best possible position in the front of the car. On the way to the brakes, the air also cools the front differential of the four-wheel drive and the battery as it flows past.

The air stream then flows from the centre of the vehicle towards the carbon discs and pads. Just before the air flows around both of these it meets a unique component which guarantees the stability never before achieved in this type of brake system: a Frost swivel bearing (Flow Rotating System) with a special air duct with a tapering spiral and allows for a large amount of air flow in a narrow space.

The air flows into the swivel bearing and into the increasingly small space, accelerates with a swirl towards the rotating brake discs and is then released back into the open air through the turbine shaped vanes inside the discs as a turbulent current.

A side stream is also directed through small ducts in the stainless steel crowns of the disc on the surface of the disc and through an air outlet in the swivel bearing directly onto the caliper and the pads.

Titanium exhaust has four tailpipes: two in the central outlet, two in the diffusers.

On the exhaust side of the Veyron’s engine we can see one of the fundamental elements needed for efficient exhaust emission control, the exhaust gas recirculation system.

This operates more efficiently than previous systems, and diverts up to 30 percent of the exhaust gas back to the engine's combustion chambers.

Two catalytic converters are provided for exhaust emission control: a multi-stage three-way converter, and a NOx storage-type converter.

The NOx storage converter has been specially designed to suit the needs of a direct injection engine, and has a NOx sensor installed at the discharge end. It is a well-known fact that the conventional three-way catalytic converter is unable to break down oxides of nitrogen sufficiently in the engine's lean-burn phase; for this, the composition of the exhaust gas must be stoichiometric.
The storage-type converter is controlled by a mapped operating characteristic and by temperature. When the converter is saturated, the engine's mixture is enriched for a short time. This raises the temperature of the exhaust gas, so that the barium molecules in the converter release the oxides of nitrogen, which are then converted into nitrogen. The frequency of this enrichment depends of course on the engine's operating conditions, but normally averages only a few seconds in each minute of operation.
Tyres & Wheels
To safely and reliably accelerate to speeds above 400km/h, the Veyron makes use of custom-designed Michelin tyres, which utilize, what has been termed, the PAX system.

They also have a special pressure monitoring system and run-flat capability, so that even in the event of a high-speed puncture, things won't go all pear shaped. The car can be driven for more than 200 km in the event of pressure loss - at 80 km/h.

The system consists of four interdependent elements: wheel (rim), tyre, support ring and pressure loss or run-flat indicator.

The principle feature of the Pax System is the way the tyre is anchored on the rim. The Pax System achieves a secure seat of the tyre bead on the rim with the help of a wedge shaped rubber element inside the casing that clamps into the rim. Any force working on the tyre only drives the wedge more firmly between rim and bead wire, thus ensuring the secure seat of the tyre on the wheel independently of the pressure inside the tyre. The tyres have a special rubber compound and tread pattern designed to expel heat quickly.

The inner and outer nominal diameters of the Pax System wheel differ from one another, thus making fitting the tyre and support ring easier. On the tyre changer they are pushed on the rim from outside like conventional tyres and pressed on.

The larger inner diameter of the wheel allows more space for brake system and axle construction. The construction principle allows shorter sidewalls consisting of the flexing zone only, eliminating the superfluous bead area. Therefore the tyres do not have the conventional balloon-like shape and the section and contact area are optimized accordingly.

Because of the construction of the rim of the sidewalls of the tyre are of different heights so the Pax System tyre has an outer and inner side and is therefore irreversible.

The Pax System support ring which carries the weight of the vehicle when no pressure remains in the tyre, consists of a rubber element with a thickness of several centimeters and a width of almost the same as the tread. The support ring rests directly on the rim. In the event of a tyre puncture or burst, the ring acts like a secondary solid tyre, and maintains the balance of the vehicle. It acts as a backup tyre, so that the driver can easily drive away to a service station for a tyre change.

A pressure loss or run-flat indicator has been developed which uses pin-point reinforcements of the support ring to create special rolling frequencies in the tyre. Sensors pick up vibrations in the support ring, and the central computer of the vehicle sets off the puncture warning in the cockpit.

An ESP® (Electronic Stability Program) aided hydraulic braking system, addition of the airbrake, an aerodynamic rear-wing braking function which is deployed above speeds of 200 km/h, gives the vehicle deceleration values which cannot be experienced in any other car in series production.
Unique cross-drilled and turbine vented carbon rotors draw in cooling air. Each caliper has eight titanium pistons. Veyron attains a maximum deceleration of 1.3 g on road tyres. Prototypes have been subjected to repeated 1.0 g braking from 194 to 50 mph without fade.
The carbon disc brakes have eight-piston monobloc brake caliper weighs 5.7 kilograms, and is reinforced with a centre fin and has four brake pads. Its pistons are made of titanium and are fitted with a stainless steel crown and ceramic heat shield. The grooves in the discs for air cooling are not straight but have a turbine-shaped structure so that they are able to draw in cooling air while the vehicle is in motion.
Aerodynamic Braking
Airbrake applied above speeds of 200 km/h uses the aerodynamics of the rear wing. The rear wing functions as an airbrake, optimizing braking performance at speeds above 200 km/h. The wing is then angled at 70 degrees in less than 0.4 seconds from the pedal push.
Firstly: the rear axle downforce is increased, therefore improving the distribution of the brake force between the front and rear axles.
Secondly: air resistance is increased, which produces a parachute-like action as in a fighter plane during landing
The airbrake alone produces a maximum deceleration of 0.6 g at high speeds. It is activated via the brake pedal. The wheel brakes themselves achieve – with standard tyres on appropriate road surfaces – deceleration values of around 1.3 g. With full brake application at 400 km/h, the Veyron would come to a standstill in considerably less than 10 seconds.
ESP® assisted braking
ESP holds Veyron on a steady course.
During understeering the front wheels turn outward; ESP automatically applies the brake to the left rear wheel.
When the rear end breaks away during oversteering (right), ESP brakes the right front wheel. ESP works quite nicely during braking also.
During full force braking inside the ABS regime when no additional force can be applied without saturation, ESP will then invert, and momentarily reduce the brake force on the other three wheels, just enough to produce a realigning momentum.
Handbrake with ceramic brake pads
Bugatti has installed a separate brake caliper here, as is customary in sports cars.
This component is operated electronically and has full ABS (Antilock Brake System) function together with a parking brake auto release system.
In the highly unlikely event of a fault with the main brakes, the driver would be able to bring the Veyron to a safe and stable stop below a certain speed limit, even on a surface with varied friction values (for example, ice on the right, dry as a bone on the left).
This caliper is fitted with wear-resistant ceramic brake pads designed to last for the complete life-time of the vehicle
The suspension of Veyron has been designed to minimize tyre tread angle variation to get as much power down to the track surface as possible, while keeping the vehicle stable and running true.

The suspension itself is fairly conventional, relying on a combination of double wishbones all around with conventional springs, dampers and antiroll bars. Hence called wishbone suspension system.

A live axle transmits the power via constant velocity joints to each wheel. The spindle is a highly complex construction in this system.

It gives excellent road-holding capabilities whilst taking up very little room under the car. This allows for smoother lines on the bodywork, and less intrusion in to the engine bay.

To ensure constant stability across the Veyron’s wide speed range, it also incorporates a specially developed hydraulic system that varies the ground clearance in three distinct stages.

Suspension has control arms as well as conventional shocks with titanium coil-overs in series with hydraulic ride-height adjusters. It is possible to adjust the rate and travel and to lock the suspension if the track surface allows. 

To make it drivable, the Veyron offers the driver three suspension heights: "standard" for normal driving, "handling" for fast-driving such as on race tracks in which front diffuser flaps open, and "top speed" for driving over 375kph.

In the standard setting, the car’s carbon fiber body sits five inches off the ground, the front diffuser flaps allowing air to travel underneath the car remain open, and the rear spoiler sits flush with the rear bodywork.

At speeds greater than 135 mph—or when the driver chooses to engage it via a button on the center console—the body adopts what is called the handling setting, automatically lowering to 3.14 inches of clearance at the front and 3.7 at the rear, the diffuser flaps stay open, and the spoiler motors out and is deployed at an angle that varies between 6 degrees and 26 degrees to provide up to 771 pounds of downforce.

Beyond this is the so-called top speed setting allowing the Veyron to run all the way to 250 mph. Besides twisting the second key, you are also required to run through a safety list, which includes such things as a tire-pressure check. Overall, the  Veyron’s drag co-efficient varies dramatically—from a low of 0.39 in the standard setting to a downforce-induced 0.42 in handling, and a slipperier 0.36 in top speed.
The Bugatti's level of luxury is astonishing.

The Veyron seats two in lavish style.

The interior is swathed almost completely in leather -- the dash, seats, floor and sides are all leather.

The generous wheelbase ensures ample space inside the car, and a lot of room for improvements.

There is also a new shape gear knob, new aluminum centre console, air vents, pedals, switchgear and other details to improve on the look and feel.

Some other features include a sequential shift and paddle flippers behind the steering wheel. A more or less unchanged three-spoke steering wheel fronts the instrument binnacle. This houses five dials, a central analogue tachometer and digital speedo that is flanked to the left by the novel engine output dial and to the right, an analogue speedo. Smaller water temperature and oil pressure guages are located just above.

Among the many options a Veyron buyer can order, are two one-carat diamonds which acts as points of focus for its exceptional luxury.

The car also surrounds its occupants with every sort of electronic nicety, including a remarkable stereo system, navigation system, etc. The high-end stadium-filling stereo sound system comes from the Berlin-based firm, Dieter Burmester. This custom-made system was developed with the progress of the car and initial work was agreed with the Bugatti development team when the monocoque bodyshell was still under development to get the right acoustic qualities, to ensure optimum function, music quality and design appeal. Ideal location of all the audio components was determined when the bodyshell was designed.

Interesting Facts
1001 Hp: power generated by 1,335 average household pumping motors working together.

Body width of 2m: 0.25m wider than a Hummer.

Height 1.2m: half a meter shorter than a average human.

Rear tyre width 0.3m: Almost the combined width of 4 average motorcycle rear tyres.

0-100kmph acceleration time 2.5 seconds: Less than the average taken time to say, “The Bugatti Veyron 16.4”.

173 mph: Takeoff speed for a Boeing 737

229.9 mph: F1 speed record by Antonio Pizzonia in a Williams-BMW at the ’04 Italian GP.
240 mph: Top speed of an Andretti Green Indy Racing League car
241.428 mph: Closed-course speed record set by Gil de Ferran in his Honda-powered Penske Racing Reynard at California Speedway in 2000.
11 hours, 9 minutes: Time it would take to get from Los Angeles to New York City at Veyron’s top speed.
Despite taking a couple of years longer than first thought, Bugatti finally delivered the world’s fastest road car.

The Bugatti Veyron 16.4 is not a half-baked aftermarket or boutique road burner. It is a production car developed and tested to the standards of Volkswagen, Bugatti's parent company. With a top speed of 253 mph, it is obviously the fastest production car ever built. The Veyron’s engine has more cylinders, more displacement, more power per liter, and more output overall than any other engine in the WR family tree.

Rational thought runs for its life when faced with the prospect of a car costing $1,250,000. It is strikingly attractive, beautifully finished, and brimming with sophisticated and well-developed automotive technology makes it irresistible for those who can afford it.

Even at $1,250,000, the Veyron is not expected to earn a dime of profit for Bugatti when development and tooling costs are counted up. But this outrageous 253-mph supercar will certainly put the Bugatti name back on the automotive map in a big way and will set the stage for future Bugatti models that will be less ambitious, less expensive, sell in higher volumes, and perhaps make money for the marque.

To conclude, The Bugatti Veyron 16.4, viewed from the perspective of engineering, beauty or luxury, is one of the greatest milestones in automobile history and is truly a mechanical masterpiece.


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