Bio-Molecular Computing
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
computer science crazy
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 3,048
Joined: Dec 2008
#1
23-09-2008, 12:43 AM


Definition
Molecular computing is an emerging field to which chemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, electronic engineering, solid state physics and computer science contribute to a large extent. It involves the encoding, manipulation and retrieval of information at a macromolecular level in contrast to the current techniques, which accomplish the above functions via IC miniaturization of bulk devices. The biological systems have unique abilities such as pattern recognition, learning, self-assembly and self-reproduction as well as high speed and parallel information processing. The aim of this article is to exploit these characteristics to build computing systems, which have many advantages over their inorganic (Si,Ge) counterparts.

DNA computing began in 1994 when Leonard Adleman proved thatDNA computing was possible by finding a solution to a real- problem, a Hamiltonian Path Problem, known to us as the Traveling Salesman Problem,with a molecular computer. In theoretical terms, some scientists say the actual beginnings of DNA computation should be attributed to Charles Bennett's work. Adleman, now considered the father of DNA computing, is a professor at the University of Southern California and spawned the field with his paper, "Molecular Computation of Solutions of Combinatorial Problems." Since then, Adleman has demonstrated how the massive parallelism of a trillion DNA strands can simultaneously attack different aspects of a computation to crack even the toughest combinatorial problems.

Adleman's Traveling Salesman Problem:
The objective is to find a path from start to end going through all the points only once. This problem is difficult for conventional computers to solve because it is a "non-deterministic polynomial time problem" . These problems, when they involve large numbers, are intractable with conventional computers, but can be solved using massively parallel computers like DNA computers. The Hamiltonian Path problem was chosen by Adleman because it is known problem.

The following algorithm solves the Hamiltonian Path problem:
1.Generate random paths through the graph.
2.Keep only those paths that begin with the start city (A) and conclude with the
end city (G).
3.If the graph has n cities, keep only those paths with n cities. (n=7)
4.Keep only those paths that enter all cities at least once.
5.Any remaining paths are solutions.

The key was using DNA to perform the five steps in the above algorithm. Adleman's first step was to synthesize DNA strands of known sequences, each strand 20 nucleotides long. He represented each of the six vertices of the path by a separate strand, and further represented each edge between two consecutive vertices, such as 1 to 2, by a DNA strand which consisted of the last ten nucleotides of the strand representing vertex 1 plus the first 10 nucleotides of the vertex 2 strand. Then, through the sheer amount of DNA molecules (3x1013 copies for each edge in this experiment!) joining together in all possible combinations, many random paths were generated. Adleman used well-established techniques of molecular biology to weed out the Hamiltonian path, the one that entered all vertices, starting at one and ending at six. After generating the numerous random paths in the first step, he used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify and keep only the paths that began on vertex 1 and ended at vertex 6. The next two steps kept only those strands that passed through six vertices, entering each vertex at least once. At this point, any paths that remained would code for a Hamiltonian path, thus solving the problem.
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply

Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please

ASK HERE

So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page

Quick Reply
Message
Type your reply to this message here.


Image Verification
Please enter the text contained within the image into the text box below it. This process is used to prevent automated spam bots.
Image Verification
(case insensitive)

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread Author Replies Views Last Post
  embedded computing systems notes vtu jaseelati 0 1,035 19-02-2015, 12:58 PM
Last Post: jaseelati
  Computing on Encrypted Data Cinergy 1 787 28-11-2014, 03:49 PM
Last Post: Commcrafts
  Unicode And Multilingual Computing computer science crazy 9 6,545 30-10-2014, 01:29 PM
Last Post: Guest
  Pervasive Computing: A Paradigm for the 21st Century study tips 0 592 10-08-2013, 04:07 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Cloud Computing and its Contribution to Climate Change study tips 0 637 10-08-2013, 02:36 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Full Report on Cloud computing study tips 4 1,288 02-08-2013, 09:59 AM
Last Post: study tips
  Achieving Secure, Scalable, and Fine-grained Data Access Control in Cloud Computing seminar class 2 3,916 15-03-2013, 11:20 AM
Last Post: srinivas17
  Parasitic Computing pdf project girl 0 701 01-01-2013, 04:50 PM
Last Post: project girl
  GRID COMPUTING full report seminar ideas 1 1,388 04-09-2012, 10:50 AM
Last Post: seminar flower
  Surface computing seminar flower 1 980 16-08-2012, 10:51 AM
Last Post: seminar girl