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Computer Science Clay
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14-06-2009, 09:47 AM


Submitted by:NISHAD SUBAIR
AUGUST 2008 2
Blu-ray is the name of a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer and media manufacturers.The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. This extra capacity combined with the use of advanced video and audio codecs will offer consumers an unprecedented HD experience. While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-RAM rely on a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can easily be made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup unit.Blu ray also promises some added security, making ways for copyright protections. Blu-ray discs can have a unique ID written on them to have copyright protection inside the recorded streams. Blu .ray disc takes the DVD technology one step further, just by using a laser with a nice color.
1.1 What is a Blu-ray disc?
Blu-ray disc is a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by a group of leading consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), which succeeds the Blu-ray Disc Founders (BDF). Because it uses blue lasers, which have shorter wavelengths than traditional red lasers, it can store substantially more data in the same amount of physical space as previous technologies such as DVD and CD. A current, single-sided, standard DVD can hold 4.7 GB (gigabytes) of information. That's about the size of an average two-hour, standard-definition movie with a few extra features. But a high-definition movie, which has a much clearer image, takes up about five times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage. As TV sets and movie studios make the move to high definition, consumers are going to need playback systems with a lot more storage capacity.
The advantage to Blu-ray is the sheer amount of information it can hold :
¢ A single-layer Blu-ray disc, which is roughly the same size as a DVD, can hold up to 27 GB of data ” that's more than two hours of high-definition video or about 13 hours of standard video.
¢ A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 54 GB, enough to hold about 4.5 hours of high-definition video or more than 20 hours of standard video. And there are even plans in the works to develop a disc with twice that amount of storage. Blu-ray™s official logo is as shown in figure 1.1
1.2 Why the name Blu-ray?
The name Blu-ray is derived from the underlying technology, which utilizes a blue- violet laser to read and write data. The name is a combination of "Blue" and optical ray "Ray". According to the Blu-ray Disc Association, the spelling of "Blu-ray" is not a mistake. The character "e" is intentionally left out because a daily-used term cant be registered as a trademark.
1.3 Who developed Blu-ray?
The Blu-ray Disc format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association 1BDA), a group of leading consumer electronics and PC companies with more than 130 members from all over the world. The Board of Directors currently consists of:
Apple Computer
Inc. Dell Inc.
Helewlett Packard Company
Hitachi Ltd.
LG Electronics Inc.
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Pioneer Corporation
Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd
Sharp Corporation
Sony Corporation
Multimedia Walt
Disney Pictures
2. 2.1 INTRODUCTION TO The standards for 12-cm optical discs, CDs,DVDs, and Blu-ray rewritable discs (BD-RE Standard) were established in 1982, 1996, and 2002,respectively. The recording capacity required by applications was the important issue when these standards were decided (See fig 2.1). The requirement for CDs was 74 minutes of recording 2- channel audio signals and a capacity of about 800 MB. For DVDs, the requirement as a video disc was the recording of a movie with a length of two hours and fifteen minutes using the SD (Standard Definition) with MPEG-2 compression. The capacity was determined to be 4.7 GB considering the balance with image quality. In the case of the Blu-ray Disc, abbreviated as BD hereafter, a recording of an HDTV digital broadcast greater than two hours is needed since the BS digital broadcast started in 2000 and terrestrial digital broadcast has begun in 2003. It was a big motivation for us to realize the recorder using the optical disc. In a DVD recorder, received and decoded video signals are compressed by an MPEG encoder and then recorded on the disc. To record in the same fashion for an HDTV broadcast, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder is required. However, such a device for home use has not yet been produced. In the case of BS digital broadcasts, signals are sent as a program stream at a fixed rate, which is 24 Mbps for one HDTV program. In the program stream of BS digital broadcast there is a case that the additional data stream is multiplexed, and it is desirable to record and read the data as is. Two hours of recording requires a recording capacity of 22 GB or more. This capacity is about 5 times that of DVDs, which cannot achieve this capacity by merely increasing their recording density. To obtain this capacity we have developed a number of techniques such as: employing a blue-violet laser, increasing the numerical aperture of objective lens, making the optical beam passing substrate thin, 0.1 mm, and evenly thick, using an aberration compensation method of pickup adapted to the substrate thickness and dual layer discs, improving the modulation method, enhancing the ability of the error correction circuit without sacrificing the efficiency, employing the Viterbi decoding method for reading signals and improving the S/N ratio and the inter symbol interference, using the on-groove recording and highly reliable wobbling address system, developing high speed recording phase change media, etc. In addition , the convenient functions of a recording device have also been realized in the application formats.
These techniques are described in this paper. Furthermore, the key concepts of the Blu-ray standard such as the reason for employing 0.1 mm thick transparent layer and a dual layer recording disc will be described in each dedicated chapter. Following the rewritable system, the planning of a read-only system and write-once system has already started. In addition to high picture quality, the introduction of core and new functions is indispensable for the spread of the next generation package media. For example, during the switch from VHS to DVD, digital recording and interactive functions were newly introduced. Consequently, it is anticipated that the specifications of BD-ROM will provide a high performance interactiveness and a connection to broadband services, reflecting the demands of the movie industry (Fig 2.2).
Roots of a 1.2 mm substrate existed in the video disc. One of advantages of laser discs has been that they are hardly affected by dirt or dust on the disc surface since information is recorded and read through a cover layer. The first commercial optical disc, which was the videodisc called VLP or Laser Disc, used a 1.2 mm thick transparent substrate, through which information was read.This thickness was determined from conditions such as: - Deterioration of the S/N ratio due to surface contamination was suppressed to a minimum since it used analog recording , - A disc of 30 cm in diameter can be molded,
- The disc has sufficient mechanical strength,
- The disc is as thin as possible while satisfying the flatness and optical uniformity.
The last condition is because the thinner the cover layer, the more easily the performance of the objective lens to converge the laser beam can be improved. This convergence performance of the objective lens is expressed by what we call NA (Numerical Aperture), and the diameter of a converging light is inversely proportional to NA .Thus NA is required to be as large as possible. However, when the optical axis of the objective lens shift from the perpendicular to the disc surface, a deterioration of the convergence performance (aberration) occurs and its amount grows proportionally to the cube of NA. Since we cannot avoid discs from tilting to some extent from the optical axis of the objective lens due to the bending of discs or inclination of the mounting, and it has prevented the value of NA from increasing. It is shown in figure
On the other hand, an aberration caused by a disc inclination is proportional to the thickness of the cover layer. This aberration was originate in a of the refraction angle error at the cover layer interface resulting from the disc inclination. Further, the amount of blur in the beam spot due to the refraction angle error is proportional to the distance between the disc surface and the focal point as shown below in figure 2.4.
When the disc tilts refraction angle error, which is deviation from ideal angle to form an ideal light spot, occurs at the disc surface. This refraction angle error causes aberration at the focal point. Then the aberration is in proportion to the distance between disc surface and the focal point, i.e., the aberration is in proportion to thickness of cover layer.
The technology utilizes a "blue" (actually blue-violet) laser diode operating at a wavelength of 405 nm to read and write data. Conventional DVDs and CDs use red and infrared lasers at 650 nm and 780 nm respectively. As a color comparison, the visible color of a powered fluorescent black light tube is dominated by mercury's bluish violet emissions at 435.8 nm. The blue- violet laser diodes used in Blu-ray Disc drives operate at 405 nm, which is noticeably more violet (closer to the violet end of the spectrum) than the visible light from a black light. A side effect of the very short wavelength is that it causes many materials to fluoresce, and the raw beam does appear as whitish-blue if shone on a white fluorescent surface (such as a piece of paper). While future disc technologies may use fluorescent media, Blu-ray Disc systems operate in the same manner as CD and DVD systems and do not make use of fluorescence effects to read out their data. The blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength than CD or DVD systems, and this shrinking makes it possible to store more information on a 12 cm (CD/DVD size) disc. The minimum "spot size" that a laser can be focused is limited by diffraction, and depends on the wavelength of the light and the numerical aperture (NA) of the lens used to focus it. By decreasing the wavelength (moving toward the violet end of the spectrum), using a higher NA (higher quality) dual-lens system, and making the disk thinner (to avoid unwanted optical effects), the laser beam can be focused much tighter at the disk surface. This produces a smaller spot on the disc, and therefore allows more information to be physically contained in the same area.In addition to optical movements, Blu-ray Discs feature improvements in data encoding, closer track and pit spacing, allowing for even more data to be packed in.this is shown in figure 2.5 below.
2.3.1 DIODE
A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor p-n junction similar to that found in a light-emitting diode. Laser diodes are sometimes referred to (somewhat redundantly) as injection laser diodes or by the acronyms LD or ILD.
When a diode is forward biased, holes from the p-region are injected into the n-region, and electrons from the n-region are injected into the p-region. If electrons and holes are present in the same region, they may radiatively recombine”that is, the electron "falls into" he hole and emits a photon with the energy of the band gap . This is called spontaneous emission, and is the main source of light in a light-emitting diode.
Under suitable conditions, the electron and the hole may coexist in the same area for quite some time (on the order of microseconds) before they recombine. If a photon f exactly the right frequency happens along within this time period, recombination may be stimulated by the photon. This causes another photon of the same frequency to be emitted, with exactly the same direction, polarization and phase as the first photon. In a laser diode, the semiconductor crystal is fashioned into a shape somewhat like a piece of paper”very thin in one direction and rectangular in the other two. The of the crystal is n-doped, and the bottom is p-doped, resulting in a large, flat p-n junction. The two ends of the crystal are cleaved so as to form a perfectly smooth, parallel edges; two reflective parallel edges are called a Fabry-Perot cavity. Photons emitted in precisely the right direction will be reflected several times from each end face before they are emitted. Each time they pass through the cavity, the light is amplified by stimulated emission. Hence, if there is more amplification than loss, the diode begins to "lase"
(i) Double heterostructure lasers
In these devices, a layer of low band gap material is sandwiched between two high band gap layers. One commonly used pair of materials is GaAs with AlGaAs. Each of the junctions between different band gap materials is called a heterostructure, hence the name "double heterostructure laser" or DH laser. The kind of laser diode described in the first part of the article is referred to as a "homojunction" laser, for contrast with these more popular devices. The advantage of a DH laser is that the region where free electrons and holesexist simultaneously”the "active" region”is confined to the thin middle layer. This means that many more of the electron-hole pairs can contribute to amplification”not so many are left out in the poorly amplifying periphery. In addition, light is reflected from the heterojunction; hence, the light is confined to the region where the amplification takes place.
ii) Quantum well lasers
If the middle layer is made thin enough, it starts acting like a quantum well.This means that in the vertical direction, electron energy is quantized. The difference between quantum well energy levels can be used for the laser action instead of the band gap. This is very useful since the wavelength of light emitted can be tuned simply by altering the thickness of the layer. The efficiency of a quantum well laser is greater than that of a bulk laser due to a tailoring of the distribution of electrons and holes that are involved in the stimulated emission (light producing) process. The problem with these devices is that the thin layer is simply too small to effectively confine the light. To compensate, another two layers are added on, outside the first three. These layers have a lower refractive index than the center layers, and hence confine the light effectively. Such a design is called a separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) laser diode. Almost all commercial laser diodes since the 1990s have been SCH quantum well diodes
The entry of TDK to the BDF (as it was then), announced on 19 March 2004,was accompanied by a number of indications that could significantly improve the outlook for Blu-ray. TDK is to introduce hard-coating technologies that would enable bare disk (caddyless) handling, along with higher-speed recording heads and multi-layer recording technology (to increase storage densities).TDK's hard coating technique would give BDs scratch resistance and allow them to be cleaned of fingerprints with only a tissue, a procedure that would leave scratches on current CDs and DVDs. It is shown in figure
Like the BD-RE system, the pick up head for BD-ROM uses a high numerical aperture (NA) lens of 0.85 and a 405 nm blue laser. In early BD-RE systems the high NA was realized by using 2 lenses in combination. Today many single lenses with working distance larger than 0.5mm have been developed, and even lenses which can be used in DVD/BD compatible pick ups and CD/DVD/BD compatible pick ups have been developed. times while the blue laser contributes an additional factor of 2.6 times compared to the areal density of DVD. In total, the Blu-ray spot size is less than 1/5 that of DVD, resulting in more than 5 times the capacity of DVD.
Optical beam degradation occurs due to the disc tilt. This degradation is proportional to NA3 and the thickness of the cover layer. We selected 0.1 mm as the thickness of the cover layer, achieving more than +- 1.60 deg for the radial tilt margin for BD-ROM, which is similar to that of DVD-ROM. times while the blue laser contributes an additional factor of 2.6 times compared to the areal density of DVD. In total, the Blu-ray spot size is less than 1/5 that of DVD, resulting in more than 5 times the capacity of DVD. Optical beam degradation occurs due to the disc tilt. This degradation is proportional to NA3 and the thickness of the cover layer. We selected 0.1 mm as the thickness of the cover layer, achieving more than +- 1.60 deg for the radial tilt margin for BD-ROM, which is similar to that of DVD-ROM.
Configuration of Single Layer and Dual Layer Discs Figure 2.9 shows the outline of a Single Layer BD Read-Only disc and Figure shows the outline of a Dual Layer BD Read-Only disc. To improve scratch resistance, the cover layer can optionally be protected with an additional hard coat layer. One of the features that differentiate Blu-ray Disc from DVD recording systems is the position of the recording layer within the disc. For DVD, the recording layer is sandwiched between two 0.6-mm thick layers of plastic “ typically polycarbonate. The purpose of this is to shift surface scratches, fingerprints and dust particles to a position in the optical pathway where they have negligible effect - i.e. well away from the point of focus of the laser. However, burying the recording layer 0.6 mm below the surface of the disc also has disadvantages. Due to the injection molding process used to produce them, disc substrates suffer from stress-induced birefringence, which means that they split the single incident laser light into two separate beams. If this splitting is excessive, the drive cannot read data reliably from the disc. Consequently, the injection molding process has always been a very critical part of CD and DVD production. Another critical manufacturing tolerance, particularly for DVDs, is the flatness of the disc, because the laser beam becomes distorted if the disc surface is not perpendicular to the beam axis - a condition referred to as disc tilt. This distortion increases as the thickness of the cover layer increases and also increases for higher numericalTo overcome these disadvantages, the recording layer in a Blu-ray Disc sits on the surface of a 1.1-mm thick plastic substrate, protected by a 0.1-mm thick cover layer. With the substrate material no longer in the optical pathway, birefringence problems are eliminated. In addition, the closer proximity of the recording layer to the drive's objective lens reduces disc tilt sensitivity. This only leaves the problem of surface scratching and fingerprints, which can be prevented by applying a specifically
Dual Layer Disc
scratch resistance, the cover layer can optionally be protected with an additional hard 25 coat layer. The different layers are shown. A spacing layer is used to separate the two information discs.Also The different transmission stack are shown FIGURE 2.10 Dual layer disc Focusing in a Blu-ray disc is done as in figure 2.11 . there will be a semi transparent layer in between the two recording layers. Inside the disc player , there will be a focusing mechanism , that could actually calculate the number of layers in the disc . The disc read is done by focusing at the correct layer by using the focusing mechanism and an optical pickup unit is there which could receive the reflected ray back from the data layer while reading
The table 3.1 below shows the technical specification of Blu-Ray
RECORDING CAPACITY 25 GB (SINGLE LAYER) 50 GB (DUAL LAYER) Laser wavelength: 405nm (blue-violet laser) Lens numerical aperture (NA): 0.85 Data transfer rate: 36Mbps Disc diameter: 120mm Disc thickness: 1 .2mm (optical transmittance protection layer: 0.1 mm) Recording format: Phase change recording Tracking format: Groove recording Tracking pitch: 0.32um Shortest pit length: 0.160/0.149/0.138um Recording phase density: 16.8/1 8.0/1 9.5Gbit/inch 2 Video recording format MPEG2 video Audio recording format: AC3, MPEG1, Layer2, etc. Video and audio multiplexing format: MPEG2 transport stream
Unlike DVDs and CDs, which started with read-only formats and only
later added recordable and re-writable formats, Blu-ray is initially designed in several
different formats:
 BD-ROM (read-only) - for pre-recorded content
 BD-R (recordable) - for PC data storage
 BD-RW (rewritable) - for PC data storage
 BD-RE (rewritable) - for HDTV recording
For high-definition movies a much higher data rate is needed than for standard definition. With the BD formatâ„¢s choices for both NA and wavelength we have been able to realize a format with 5X higher data rate while only doubling the rotation rate of DVD-ROM discs. The following numbers offer a comparison: Data bit length: 111.75 nm (25GB) (267 nm for DVD) Linear velocity: 7.367 m/s (Movie application) (3.49 m/s for DVD). User data transfer rate: 53.948 Mbit/s (Movie application) (10.08 Mbps for DVD) The BD system has the potential for future higher speed drives.
The BD-RE (rewritable) standard is now available; to be followed by the BD-R (recordable) and BD-ROM formats in mid-2004, as part of version 2.0 of the Blu-ray specifications. Looking further ahead in time, Blu-ray Discs with capacities of 100GB and 200GB are currently being researched, with these capacities achieved by using four and eight layers respectively.
The BD-ROM format will likely include 3 codecs: MPEG-2 (the standard used for DVDs), MPEG-4's H.264/AVC codec, and VC-1 based on Microsoft's Windows Media 9 codec. The first codec only allows for about two hours of storage on a single layer Blu-ray Disc, but with the addition of the latter two more advanced codecs, a single-layer disc can hold almost four hours. Highdefinition MPEG-2 has a data rate of about 50Mbps, while the latter two have data rates of about 36Mbps for video and 3Mbps for audio. BD-RE (and by extension BD-R) does not currently support any advanced codecs beyond MPEG-2. Because MPEG-2 is currently used to broadcast HDTV, recorders write this HD stream directly to a disc. Since there are no consumer level recorders capable of real-time transcoding from the MPEG-2 used for broadcasting and any other codec that might be used for BDRE, MPEG-2 is the only format supported by BD-RE. Encoding methods for the audio stream include Linear PCM, Dolby Digital, DTS and dts++ (loss less compression). The Blu-ray Disc Association is known to be looking into other codecs superior to those supported by the DVD specification.
An 8 cm BD specification has been finalized and approved. A one-sided, singlelayer 8 cm BD can hold 15 GB, giving it the capacity of one and a half regular sized (12 cm) single sided double layer DVDs. This would be an ideal format for small, portable devices, such as portable Movie players and digital video cameras. A new hybrid Blu-ray / DVD combo disc has been developed by JVC and is awaiting acceptance by the Blu-ray Disc Association. This would allow both normal DVD players and Blu-ray players to utilize the disc .Users would be able to purchase a single disc that can play at either high definition or standard DVD quality, depending on the hardware utilized. Users that do not have a Blu-ray disc player can view the video content at standard definition using their current DVD player, and enjoy the same content at high definition resolution when upgrading to a Blu-ray disc player in the future.
The BDA announced that, while it was not compulsory for manufacturers, Blu-ray lasers and drives are capable of reading the various DVD formats, ensuring backward compatibility. This makes the upgrade more attractive to consumers as it does not require replacing their collections of DVDs.
The first Blu-ray recorder was unveiled by Sony on March 3, 2003, and was introduced to the Japanese market in April that year. On September 1, 2003, JVC and Samsung Electronics announced Blu-ray based products at DFA in Berlin, Germany.
Blu-ray Security is Tough to Crack
Even though this is not always good for consumers, this is an mportant point Sony has for the movie studios. Movie studios want their content locked from the pirates and BDâ„¢s security and encryption features just help them do it in the most advanced way. Figure 3.1 a Blu-ray disc on a Blue ray disc player. Blu-ray has three layers of protection called AACS, BD+ and ROM mark.
The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is digital rights management feature that prevents any un-authorized copying of content from BD discs. AACS uses an encryption technology called Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). AACS is more advanced than earlier DRM used in DVDs. The difference with AACS is that each licensed player is given a unique set of decryption keys that licensors can revoke whenever they feel it has been compromised. By revoking a decryption key, the particular player will not be able to play any future HD content. Thus discouraging any attempt to decrypt the key.
BD+ is a safeguard against future cracks and hacks. It is a kind of and advanced DRM. Every authorized player will have a BD+ virtual machine that will decode the disc content to correct version. The advantage of BD+ is that it is dynamic and hence content providers can change the security feature whenever they wish. Thus, different Discs will have different encryption and therefore no single fix would help them play all BD discs. ROM Mark ROM mark was designed to prevent unwanted duplication of BD Discs. ROM Mark helps to create unique Discs that cannot be copied using software. This BD Discs will have a unique ID that are created with a specific BD licensed writer drive. No licensed BD players will work unless the inserted disc has a ROM mark. Therefore, without specialized equipments, you cannot copy a ROM Marked BD disc.
Some of the popular storage devices that are available in the market include:
Analog Storage Technology
 VHS Digital Storage Technology
 Floppy Disc
 Compact Disc (CD)
 Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)
The Blu-ray Disc recorder represents a major leap forward in video recording
technology as it enables recording of high-definition television (HDTV). It also offers
a lot of new innovative features not possible with a traditional VCR:
 Random access, instantly jump to any spot on the disc
 Searching, quickly browse and preview recorded programs in real-time
 Create play lists, change the order of recorded programs and edit recorded video
 Automatically find an empty space to avoid recording over programs
 Simultaneous recording and playback of video (enables Time slip/Chasing playback)
 Enhanced interactivity, enables more advanced programs and games
 Broadband enabled, access web content, download subtitles and extras
 Improved picture, ability to record high-definition television (HDTV)
 Improved sound, ability to record surround sound (Dolby Digital, DTS, etc)


The storage capacity of different digital storage technology varies a lot. A usually used version of floppy disc has a capacity of 1.44MB while that of a CD is 700 MB & for DVD it is 4.7 GB. Also they have varying shell lives out of these DVD has the maximum. A DVD is very similar to a CD, but it has a much larger data capacity. A standard DVD holds about seven times more data than a CD does. This huge capacity means that a DVD has enough room to store a full-length, MPEG-2-encoded movie, as well as a lot of other information. DVD can also be used to store almost eight hours of CD-quality music per side. DVD is composed of several layers of plastic, totaling about 1.2 millimeters thick. Each layer is created by injection molding polycarbonate plastic.
A disc in the DVD format can currently hold 4.7 gigabytes of data. Unlike DVD technology, which uses red lasers to etch data onto the disc, the Blu-ray disc technology uses a blue-violet laser to record information.
PARAMETERS BD-ROM DVD-ROM Storage capacity (single-layer) 25 GB 4.7 GB Storage capacity (dual-layer) 50 GB 7.4 GB _ Laser wavelength 405 nm 650 nm Numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 0.60 Protection layer 0.1mm 0.6mm Data transfer rate (1x) 36.0Mbps 11.08Mbps
The blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength than the red lasers do, and with its smaller area of focus, it can fetch more data into the recording area . The digital information is fetched on the discs in the form of microscopic pits. These pits are arranged in a continuous spiral track from the inside to the outside. Using a red laser, with 650 nm wavelength, we can only store 4.7 GB on a single sided DVD. TV recording time is only one hour in best quality mode, and two, three or four hours with compromised pictures. Data capacity is inadequate for non-stop backup of a PC hard drive. The data transfer rate, around 10 Mbps, is not fast enough for high quality video.
Next generation optical disc format developed by Toshiba and NEC. The format is quite different from Blu-ray, but also relies heavily on blue-laser technology to achieve a higher storage capacity. The read-only discs (HD DVD-ROM) will hold 15GB and 30GB, the rewritable discs(HD DVD-RW) will hold 20GB and 32GB, while the recordable discs (HD DVD-R) won't support dual-layer discs, so they will be limited to 15GB. The format is being developed within the DVD Forum as a possible successor to the current DVD technology.

The technology is proven, but that's no guarantee of a smooth migration. Already, a standards war much like those that have broken out over every major medium since the videocassette is threatening this latest optical innovation. The nine electronics companies, led by Sony, Pioneer, and Matsushita Electric Industrial, unveiled a standard format dubbed the Blu-ray Disc, which incorporates blue-violet laser technology and sets the recording capacity of the disks between 23 and 25 gigabytes per side. Within the coalition, Sony, Matsushita, and Hitachi have demonstrated prototypes of lasers that meet the requirements.
The group (BDF), however, faces competition on several fronts. On one side stands Toshiba Corp, which has refused to endorse the Blue-ray Disc. That's troubling because in the early 1990s, Toshiba led the alliance of electronics and film companies that produced the standard for today's DVD systems, trouncing a competing effort by Sony and Royal Philips Electronics of the Netherlands. Earlier this year, Toshiba, which continues to head the DVD Forum, demonstrated its own rewritable optical disk, boasting a capacity of 30 GB per side. And Toshiba is not the only holdout: Mitsubishi Electric and AOL Time Warner, both important members of the DVD Forum, have yet to join the Blue-ray Disc group. The Toshiba is developing another kind of disc using the BLUE LASER Technology under name AOD (Advanced Optical Disc) more popularly known as HD DVD (High Definition DVD).And this technology is also backed up by the DVD Forum similar to the BDF Toshiba has developed an alternative version and NEC and a provisional specification approved by the DVD Forum. The original name was AOD (Advanced Optical Disc).
There are three versions in development.
1. HD DVD-ROM discs are pre-recorded and offer a capacity of 15 GB per layer per side. These can be used for distributing HD movies.
2. HD DVD-RW discs are re-writable and can be used to record 20 GB per side for re- writable versions.
3. HD DVD-R discs are write-once recordable format discs with a capacity of 15 GB per side.
Like Blu-ray discs they need a blue laser of 405 nm wavelength, but are physically similar to DVD discs, as they use a cover layer of 0.6 mm. Therefore HD DVD discs can be manufactured using existing DVD lines, and existing UV mastering equipment.
The following table provides a comparison of the two formats . It is not yet clear which format will win. Blu-ray currently seems to have the most support, but HD DVD presents fewer manufacturing problems, particularly for pre-recorded versions. HD DVD can be mastered and replicated with current equipment, while Blu-ray requires new equipment and processes for both.

PARAMETERS BD BD HD- DVD HD-DVD Storage capacity 25GB 50 GB 15 GB 30 GB Number of layers Single - layer Dual “ layer Single - layer Dual “layer Laser wavelength 405nm 405nm 405nm 405nm Numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 0.85 0.65 0.65 Protection layer 0..l mm 0..l mm 0.6mm 0.6mm Data transfer rate 54.0Mbps 54.0Mbps 36.5Mbps 36.5Mbps Video compression MPEG-2 MPEG-4 AVC VC-1 MPEG-2 MPEG-4 AVC VC-1 MPEG-2 AVC MPEG-4 MPEG-2 AVC MPEG-4 TABLE 5. Comparison between BD & HD DVD
Blu-ray makes large gains in US Home Entertainment market
 Blu-ray recorder sales boom in Japan and debut in Australia
 Universum Film launches Germanyâ„¢s first BD-Live enabled disc
 Chinese companies authorized to develop Blu-ray products
The Blu-ray Disc Association US Promotions Committee has released market intelligence that indicates very significant in-roads being made by the Blu-ray Disc format in North America. The data indicates that although hardware supplies are limited at retail, demand is extremely high for both BD hardware and software. According to a study released by market analyst, , on June 3 almost four million US HDTV owners plan to buy a BD-capable disc player in the next six months. The study also reports that amongst consumers who purchased a Blu-ray Disc set-top player the majority cited Ëœleading-edge technologyâ„¢ and a Ëœsuperior viewing experienceâ„¢ as primary reasons for making the purchase. Consumers stated a clear preference for Blu-ray content. At the same time Sony Computer Entertainment America has announced the results of an internal survey conducted during the first half of May 2008 amongst almost 3,000 US
PLAYSTATION3 (PS3) owners.
0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 4500000 5000000 JAN FEB MAR APR JAN-APR 2007 2008 Hitachi launches Worldâ„¢s First Blu-Ray Disc Camcorders to transform home movies into full high definition masterpieces. Hitachi will give home movies the Hollywood treatment with the launch of its two Blu-ray disc camcorders, the worldâ„¢s first camcorders to store home movies in 1920x1080 Full HD on Blu-ray disc media and the worldâ„¢s first to provide a truly end-to-end Full HD solution from capture, storage to output. The result? Captured memories that have the same intensity, clarity and emotion as the moment they occurred - a totally unsurpassed audio visual experience, offering viewers the next best thing to reality itself. camcorders will be equipped with an 8cm Blu-ray disc drive for Full HD 1920x1080 recording, the worldâ„¢s highest resolution 5.3 megapixel CMOS sensor, Hybrid Blu-ray disc + HDD technology, Picture Master Full HD processing and HDMI connectivity. In summary, capture, storage and output of movies will be in a totally unique end-to-end Full HD process.
Hitachi Camcorder SIGMA MEDIA PROCESSOR TO POWER SHARPâ„¢S AQUOS LINE OF BLU-RAY DISC PLAYERS & RECORDERS Sigma Designs a leading provider of highly integrated systems-on- a-chip (SoC) solutions, today announced that its highly integrated SMP8634 media processor was selected by Sharp Corporation to power its new line of
AQUOS® Blu-ray disc players and recorders.
Figure 6.3 VAIO Blu-ray Disc Revolution
Sharp™s new products include the BD-AV1 and AV10 Series for the Japanese market and the recently introduced slim-profile AQUOS BD player, model BDHP20U, the company™s first offering in the U.S. market.Sharp™s new series of AQUOS Blu-ray disc recorders BD-AV1 and AV10 enable recording and playback of digital broadcasts of HDTV programs that capture the same high-resolution image quality of broadcast TV that VCR users are accustomed to experiencing. AQUOS also offers full compatibility with 24 movie frames per second playback, matching the native filming format for most movies as well as HDMI output support of 1080/24p video and Dolby trueHD, and an i.LINK„¢ (IEEE1394) input for connecting to a Sharp AQUOS High- ision recorder. Sony VAIO launched the world™s first notebook with an integrated Blu-ray Disc„¢ Drive complete with recording capabilities. Now the VAIO range of products is changing in readiness for the move to a High Definition future.
Sony introduced two additional Blu-ray Disc„¢ (BD) players today offering a full range of features.Optimized for the home theater enthusiast, the new BDP-S2000ES model is the first Blu-ray Disc player in Sony™s Elevated Standard (ES) line. This model, as well as the new BDP-S500, which complements Sony™s current BDP-S300 BD player, features full high-definition 1080/60p and 24p 41
True Cinema output. They support 7.1 channel linear PCM and Dolby® TrueHD, Dolby® Digital Plus, as well as dts-HD„¢ High Resolution Audio bitstream output via HDMI„¢ (ver1.3).US Blu-ray market set for strong growth, so says Entertainment Merchants Association Pioneer introduces four new Blu-ray Disc players in Europe arvato digital services granted BDA certification Burn to BD on your Mac with a little help from MCE Technologies Norwayâ„¢s first native Blu-ray Disc “ itâ„¢s a shocker! Corel Announces WinDVD® is the World's First Blu-ray Disc Playback Software to Receive BD-Video Profile 1.1 Certification WinDVD® now supports BD-Video Profile 1.1 for high-definition, picture-in-picture playback on Blu-ray Discs.
Today consumers are searching for faster transfer speeds and large storage capacity .These two are the most notable advantages of BD technology. So BD will be a good option for such peoples. According to the EMA (Entertainment Merchant Association) in U.S, by the end of 2012, sales of Blu-ray Discs will surpass those of standard definition storage medias , generating sales of a whopping $9.5 billion. Home video spending on the whole has been project and implimentationed to grow exponentially to $25.6 billion in 2012. These shows the increasing demand for Blu-ray products. The manufacturers of Blu-ray discs are further trying to increase the number of layers in a single disc so that a four layer disc stores 100GB of data , 8 layer disc stores about 200 GB of data, likewise. It's possible that the industry is headed to a point where BD sales will one day outstrip DVDs. It's too early to call the game just yet , but this will be an interesting technological development to follow.
 Blu-rayfaq/ - Blu-ray FAQ
 Blu-raymovies/ - Latest Blu-ray Releases .
 Blu-raydisc - Official Blu-ray website.
 Blu-raystats - Blu-ray Stats Website
 en.wikipediawiki/Blu-ray_Disc - Wikipedia entry on Blu-ray disc.
 electronics.howstuffworksBlu-ray.htm - how stuff works entry on blu-ray discs
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02-08-2009, 11:27 AM

please give me some images regarding of blu- ray disc
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and read this
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The thrust for an advanced format of data storage in optical storage media has led to the evolution of BLU-RAY DISC (BD). Blu-ray, also known as Blu -ray Disc (BD) is the name of the next- generation optical disc format and is the successor of present generation optical discs (2nd generation) like CD's, DVD’s HD-DVD’s. The Blu ray technology has changed the very definition of optical storage media by phenomenally improvised technology. Gone are the days when the quotation was "The sky is the limit." Now a data up to a 100 GB can be stored on a Blu-ray disc thus leading to a revolution in the history of optical storage medium. Due to the advanced technology used in BD's they have high storage capacity, advanced security, privacy features and their high Audio, video quality O/P of the media files make them quite unique and edge over its competitors like HD -DVD’s and DVD’s.
The BD application format addresses the limitations of DVD-Video by providing a complete user experience. The high storage capacity guarantees the best quality HD video available to the consumer. BD standardizes how content publishers can include executable applications on the disc to realize fully enhanced interactivity. By using a programming platform like Java, the standard need not define the allowable set of features, instead it defines the playback platform and disc publishers are free to implement any features they desire. Furthermore, BD supports seamless integration of Internet content with disc content, allowing synchronized presentation of updated content from the Internet with disc content. With this combination of features, highest quality HD video, enhanced interactivity and Internet connectivity, BD offers consumers a compelling experience. This paper will present an overview of the features that will be supported by the BD and the technical solutions used to realize these features.

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.docx   BLU-RAY DISC.docx (Size: 68.9 KB / Downloads: 168)


Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the name of a next-generation optical disc video recording format jointly developed by nine leading consumer electronics companies. The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HDTV). Blu-ray makes it possible to record over 2 hours of digital high-definition video (HDTV) or more than 13 hours of standard-definition video (SDTV/VHS picture quality) on a 27GB disc. There are also plans for higher capacity discs that are expected to hold up to 50GB of data.

The Blu-ray Disc technology can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is being considered.


Blu-ray is a new optical disc standard based on the use of a blue laser rather than the red laser of today’s DVD players. The standard, developed collaboratively by Hitachi, LG, Matsushita (Panasonic), Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, and Thomson, threatens to make current DVD players obsolete. It is not clear whether new Blu-ray players might include both kinds of lasers in order to be able to read current CD and DVD formats.
The new standard, developed jointly in order to avoid competing standards, is also being touted as the replacement for writable DVDs The blue laser has a 405 nanometer (nm) wavelength that can focus more tightly than the red lasers used for writable DVD and as a consequence, write much more data in the same 12 centimeter space Like the rewritable DVD formats, Blu-ray uses phase change technology to enable repeated writing to the disc.

Blu-ray’s storage capacity is enough to store a continuous backup copy of most people’s hard drives on a single disc. The first products will have a 27 gigabyte (GB) single-sided capacity, 50 GB on dual-layer discs. Data streams at 36 megabytes per second (Mbps), fast enough for high quality video recording Single-sided Blu-ray discs can store up to 13 hours of standard video data, compared to single-sided DVD’s 133 minutes. People are referring to Blu-ray as the next generation DVD, although according to Chris Buma, a spokesman from Philips (quoted in New Scientist) “Except for the size of the disc, everything is different.”

Blu-ray discs will not play on current CD and DVD players, because they lack the blue-violet laser required to read them. If the appropriate lasers are included, Blu-ray players will be able to play the other two formats.


Data bits are permanently stored on a CD as a spiral track of physically molded pits in the surface of a plastic data layer that is coated with reflective aluminum. Smooth areas surrounding pits are called lands. CDs are extremely durable because the optical pickup (laser light source, lenses and optical elements, photoelectric sensors, and amplifiers) never touches the disc. Because data is read through the thick bottom layer, most scratches and dust on the d surface are out of focus, so they do not interfere with the reading process.

With a 650-MB storage capacity (sometimes expressed as ‘74 minutes,’ referring to audio playing time encoded in the original CD format), one CD-ROM disc can store the data from more than 450 floppy disks. Data access speeds are reasonable, with random access rates ranging from 80 to 120 ms for any data byte on the disc. Maximum data transfer rates are approximately 6 MB/sec. These attributes make CD-ROMs especially well suited for storing large multimedia presentations and software programs.

CD-ROM drives are distinguished by different disc rotation speeds measured relative to the speed of an audio CD player. A 1X CD-ROM accesses data at approximately 150 KB/sec, the same as an audio player. A 32 X CD-ROM reads data thirty-two times faster at approximately 4,800 KB/sec. In general, faster speeds reduce data access time, but vibration and noise problems limit maximum speeds to approximately 48X.

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20-01-2013, 09:33 PM

can u show figures in the report of blue ray
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to get information about the topic "Blu-ray TECHNOLOGY " related topic refer the link bellow

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hello sir i want seminar and presentation report on Blue-ray technology.
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