CELLULAR VIRUS ATTACK full report
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A Seminar report On
Cellular Virus Attack

Computer Engineering
By
Mr. Pandav Milind M.
Under guidance of
Prof. Anarse B.V.
Prof. Kharade S.S.
Department of Computer Engineering.
INDIRA GANDHI POLYTECHNIC
Belwandi (Sugar)-413702
2007-2008

ABSTRACT
Viruses in the cell phones arena come late but there are many parallels between computers and cell phones in terms of malicious code. As web integration was added in cell phones, embedded scripts, Java code and other active content opened the way for far more sophisticated and damaging attacks in cell phones. Java enabled phones are arriving with sophisticated features. So, it is easier to attach any malicious threat with these files. The first cell phone virus been sited is Cabir-A. Cabir-A is a virus written specifically for Nokia Series 60 mobile phones running the Symbian operating system.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am grateful to Mr. Kharade S.S., faculty in Computer Science for guiding me and providing important materials for the preparation of technical seminar and presentation.
I am also thankful to Mr. Anarse B.V. coordinator of technical seminar and presentation, for giving me the opportunity to present my topic in the technical seminar and presentation.
Finally I thank to my friends, for there continued drive for better quality in everything that happens at Seminar. This report is a small contribution towards the greater goal.

Pandav Milind M.
(T.Y.Computer)
INDEX
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. VIRUS 2
2.1 MOBILE VIRUS 2
2.2 CELL PHONE VIRUS 2
3. WAP SECUIRITY 3
3.1 WAP GATEWAY SECURITY 4
4. PC VIRUS VS CELLPHONE VIRUS 6
5. HOW CELLPHONE VIRUS CAME INTO MARKET 7
6. MOTIVES TO CREATE VIRUS 7
7. VIRUS ACTIONS 8
8. CURRENT THREAT 8
9. CONCLUSION 10
10. REFERENCES 11
1. INTRODUCTION
Viruses in the cell-phone arena are new but there are many parallels between computers and mobile phones in terms of malicious code. Now-a-days thereâ„¢s an explosive impact on users as there is a fully-established virus writing community that has effective virus toolkits, better technology, far superior knowledge and skill, and far greater communication within the community. The parallels begin with the client technology. Early email client software was very basic, doing little more than passing plain text from one user to another. Attachments were added, which introduced the first vulnerability. As web integration was added, embedded scripts, Java code and other active content opened the way for far more sophisticated and damaging attacks. Simple text-based mail is substituted by SMS. Now attachments substitute picture, video transfer and MP3. Java enabled phones are arriving with sophisticated features. So, it is easier to attach any malicious threat with these files. The first cell-phone virus been sited is Cabir-A. Cabir-A is a virus written specifically for Nokia Series 60 mobile phones running the Symbian operating system. The virus spreads as a .sis package, named as Caribe.sis. This paper will discuss the virus affecting the cellular phones and what all remedies can be taken to overcome this problem.
2. VIRUS
Computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. It may be benign or have a negative effect, such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory.
2.1 MOBILE VIRUS
The viruses for WAP-enabled mobile devices are the mobile virus. Viruses in the mobile arena are new but there are many parallels between email and mobile in terms of malicious code. In many ways, the threats to mobile phones, network-enabled organizers and other mobile appliances are new where threats to personal computers were five years ago. This time, however, we face an explosive impact on users as there is a fully-established virus writing community that has effective virus toolkits, better technology, far superior knowledge and skill, and far greater communication within the community.
2.2 CELL PHONE VIRUS
The use of WAP-enabled cellular phones is booming. Cellular phones with support for WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) allow users to access a wide variety of services. Early client software was very basic, doing little more than passing plain text from one user to another. Attachments were added, which introduced the first vulnerability.
3. WAP SECUIRITY
In case of WAP security ,From the outset, vendors of mobile phones and WAP servers have ensured that much consideration was given to confidentiality and privacy issues for WAP data, as well as to user authentication. Add this to the fact that data integrity checking has been taken into account, and one could be forgiven for thinking that the WAP infrastructure WAS already secure enough.
However, we believe that there are still a number of security issues to be resolved. Firstly, there is no content security for the WAP infrastructure [1], and yet this is where one of the biggest threats typically lies. As we have already seen in the desktop-PC world, content-related security is the single biggest security issue for home and corporate users alike. Even now, we receive an average of seven new PC virus samples every day, with actions that range from benign to Potentially Catastrophic. In the telecommunications world, content has traditionally been speech “ with no security risks involved. Now the content is code, and the whole picture changes.
The WAP infrastructure has not taken executable mobile content “ such as downloadable programs“ into account from a content-security point of view. The WAP content requested by the mobile device and returned by the origin server can, for example, contain WML cards, which may display text or pictures, working similarly to HTML pages on the Web. The pages can also contain script written with WML Script language “ which is a close relative to the JavaScript scripting language. As a side note, several PC viruses written with JavaScript were discovered during 1999 and 2000.
3.1 WAP GATEWAY SECURITY
The first, and biggest, step in delivering content security into the WAP world is a gateway-level solution for protecting the WAP infrastructure. A WML script scanner is integrated with the WAP gateway, which detects and removes malicious code before it is passed to usersâ„¢ devices. Gateway protection will also ensure that when a new virus is found, counter-measures to provide protection can be developed quickly and distributed over the Internet-based framework to WAP servers worldwide.
Fig 1 schematic illustration of the basic WAP infrastructure
.
4. PC VIRUS VS CELLPHONE VIRUS
There are many parallels between computers and mobile phones in terms of malicious code. The parallels begin with the client technology. Early email client software was very basic, doing little more than passing plain text from one user to another. Attachments were added, which introduced the first vulnerability. As web integration was added, embedded scripts, Java code and other active content opened the way for far more sophisticated and damaging attacks. Now that email clients are tightly integrated with the computer operating system (particularly in the Windows environment) the vulnerabilities [2] have extended much further.
There is no question that the introduction of Java and other active code will impact security and reliability. In the early days of Java on the web, restrictions were placed on the Java Virtual Machines that ran within the user's browser to prevent the code accessing the user's hard disk or connecting across a network (known as a 'sandbox' approach). A similar approach is going to be necessary with Java on mobiles to prevent phones calling out to premium rate numbers, proving free calls to 'phreakers' or other fraud.
As WML also increases in sophistication, so do the opportunities for creating more advanced, malicious code. When the first WAP virus hits, it could spread as fast as or faster than similar PC viruses.
5. HOW CELLPHONE VIRUS CAME INTO MARKET
First malicious mobile phone virus which only affects phone running the Symbian operating system, spreads via an illegally modified version of the mobile phone game Mosquitos, calling itself Mosquito v2. It does not attack the mobile phone system; rather it sends off numerous SMS messages to premium rate phone numbers without the user's consent. Costs for these texts will show up on the users' phone bill.
Victims of this virus have knowingly downloaded the illegal copy of the Mosquitos game to play on their mobiles; however they were unaware that the Trojan was lurking within the game and sending text messages whilst they played Mosquitos. Nokia which is one of the phone manufacturers that uses the Symbian OS has had numerous contacts from users claiming to have lost a lot of money as a result of this malicious virus. Symbian has advised users that the virus will be deleted from their phones as soon as they delete the Mosquito game.
6. MOTIVES TO CREATE VIRUS
Viruses are written for a variety of reasons, such as curiosity, a challenge, or to gain wider attention. Some virus writer groups are known to target any new platform just is able to say they were the first to write a virus for this platform. At the time of writing, the WAP infrastructure is still emerging and the uptake of WAP devices is still increasing. Currently therefore, WAP devices do not present a big enough target and so no WAP-specific viruses have yet been seen. However, a growing threat is coming in from the horizon as the power of WAP devices is set to increase dramatically with future WAP protocol versions.
7. VIRUS ACTIONS
WAP needs more functionality in order to be useful and for it to really take off the ground. Unfortunately, more functionality means more risks. Such functions include making phone calls, accessing and modifying phone book data, and sending Short Messaging Service (SMS) messages.
With such functionality available to WML scripts, in the future it is not difficult to imagine a virus which would spread by accessing your phone book and sending a link to itself in SMS text messages to all the phone numbers found within. subsequently, the virus could do damage by either deleting or modifying the phone book, or by starting to make phone calls to pay-per-minute numbers “ in the middle of the night. With such a feature, virus writers could easily make money with their viruses “ thus providing an obvious motivation.
8. CURRENT THREAT
8.1.1CABIR
It is the first mobile worm for N-Gage and Series 60 phones [3]. This mobile worm Symb/Cabir-A is a worm written specifically for Nokia Series 60 mobile phones running the Symbian operating system. The worm spreads as a .sis package, named as Caribe.sis.
Those files are installed onto the system/Apps/Directory on the phone itself. The worm runs every time the device is turned on or restarted, and worse, once Symb/Cabir-A is installed, it'll attempt to send itself to other Series 60 phones whenever your Bluetooth is activated. There are some measures that can be taken to avoid the worm, though, and even if you get it, it can be deleted. So it should be turned off the Bluetooth whenever it's not needed, and it should not turned on it on in crowded areas for long periods of time.
CABIR REQUIRES
approving connection from unknown device
approving receiving a file from unknown device
Approving installation of unknown application received from unknown device.
Symbian operating system [4] is used in the Nokia 60 series cell phones. SymbianOS simply doesn't install things automatically. Users will always have to confirm installation. Itâ„¢s exactly the same as with Linux: you have to give the file required permissions and then consciously confirm its installation. And the same will apply toSymbianOS.Before installing the Cabir three warnings and required confirmations are asked. Itâ„¢s like if somebody sent you FORMAT.EXE (renamed to Cabir.exe) and asked you to run it and then to answer "YES" to the "Do you really want to format your C: drive" message changed to "Do you like me if you run it and answer YES then it will format your pc .CABIR is just like this.Cabir is NOT a virus. It is people who confirm three warnings about unknown, possibly insecure file - approve connection, allow receipment, and install it - who are mentally infected. It doesn't take Cabir to damage such people's phone or computer those are aware of it. It cannot install automatically, and that's something we touched upon with the "If you're downloading what you believe is a Series 60 version of Tetris and you see the file is Caribe.sis or another suspicious name, don't install it." sentence. It needs confirmation to install.
9. CONCLUSION
The problem is that Cabir doesn't match virus definition. It cannot install and it cannot run without user's knowledge and conscious acceptance.But it's the beginning of the attempts to try to create viruses that will ruin cell phone. It is people who confirm three warnings about unknown, possibly insecure file - approve connection, allow receipment, and install it - who are mentally infected.
10. REFERENCES
[1].itsecuritypapers/insl1.htm
[2].virusthreatcentervirus.aspx
[3].Symantec Virus Dictionary
[4].gosymbian.com
[5].allaboutsymbianforum
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06-04-2010, 05:00 PM


.ppt   Cellular Virus Attack.ppt (Size: 414.5 KB / Downloads: 267)

A Technical Seminar Report On Cellular Virus Attack

Virus, What is it ?

A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. It may be benign or have a negative effect, such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory.



MOBILE VIRUS :-

The viruses for WAP-enabled mobile devices
are the mobile virus.

CELL PHONE VIRUS :-

Viruses that can attack WAP-enabled
Cell phones



WAP SECUIRITY PROBLEM:-

WAP gateway security
Operating system
Use of SMS



Motive to create virus :-

Viruses are written for a variety of reasons

curiosity
Challenge
to gain wider attention
some antivirus companies want to enter
new market





Virus Actions:-

Send SMS text messages to all the numbers found within cell phone

damage by deleting or modifying the
phone book

starting to make phone calls to pay-per- minute numbers




CURRENT THREAT:-
CABIR

Symb/Cabir-A is a virus written specifically for N-Gage, 3650, or other Nokia Series 60 mobile phones running in the Symbian operating system. The virus spreads as a .sis package, named as Caribe.sis





Cabir requires:-

approving connection from unknown device
approving receiving a file from unknown device

approving receiving a application from unknown device





Reason to create cabir:-

There are two reasons behind Cabir creators :

some antivirus companies want to enter new market.

May be Microsoft wants to show how insecure Symbian OS is compared to their MS Smart phone





Working function of cabir:-


When launched, the worm displays a message on the screen: either 'Caribe' or 'Caribe - VZ/29a' . worm itself is an SIS format file, called caribe.sis, of 15092 or 15104 bytes in size . This file contains three objects:

caribe.app: 11932 / 11944 bytes in size
flo.mdl: 2544 bytes in size
caribe.rsc: 44 bytes in size






The worm installs the three file to the following directories


Ó:\system\apps\caribe\caribe.app
Ó:\system\apps\caribe\flo.mdl
Ó:\system\apps\caribe\caribe.rsc




GET RID OF THIS VIRUS:-

The directory SYMBIANSECUREDATA which the worm creates is hidden and cannot be seen by the user of the infected telephone. Fexplorer isused to
delete those hidden files.

C:\SYSTEM\SYMBIANSECUREDATA\CARIBE SECURITYMANAGER\ CARIBE.SIS
C:\SYSTEM\SYMBIANSECUREDATA\CARIBE SECURITYMANAGER\ CARIBE.APP
C:\SYSTEM\SYMBIANSECUREDATA\CARIBE SECURITYMANAGER\ CARIBE.RSC
C:\SYSTEM\RECOGS\FLO.MDL




CONCLUSION:-

. There are so many antivirus applications for Series 60 are already available in market.

We should not accept files from unknown people without confirmation .
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1. INTRODUCTION
Rapid advances in low-power computing, communications, and storage technologies
continue to broaden the horizons of mobile devices, such as cell phones and personal
digital assistants (PDAs). As the use of these devices extends into applications that
srequire them to capture, store, access, or communicate sensitive data, (e.g., mobile ecommerce,financial transactions, acquisition and playback of copyrighted content,
etc.) security becomes an immediate concern. Left unaddressed, security concerns
threaten to impede the deployment of new applications and value-added services,
which is an important engine of growth for the wireless, mobile appliance and
semiconductor industries. According to a survey of mobile appliance users, 52% cited
security concerns as the biggest impediment to their adoption of mobile commerce.
A cell-phone virus is basically the same thing as a computer virus -- an unwanted
executable file that "infects" a device and then copies itself to other devices. But
whereas a computer virus or worm spreads through e-mail attachments and Internet
downloads, a cell-phone virus or worm spreads via Internet downloads, MMS
(multimedia messaging service) attachments and Bluetooth transfers. The most
common type of cell-phone infection right now occurs when a cell phone downloads
an infected file from a PC or the Internet, but phone-to-phone viruses are on the rise.
Current phone-to-phone viruses almost exclusively infect phones running the
Symbian operating system. The large number of proprietary operating systems in the
cell-phone world is one of the obstacles to mass infection. Cell-phone-virus writers
have no Windows-level marketshare to target, so any virus will only affect a small
percentage of phones.
Infected files usually show up disguised as applications like games, security patches,
add-on functionalities and free stuff. Infected text messages sometimes steal the
subject line from a message you've received from a friend, which of course increases
the likelihood of your opening it -- but opening the message isn't enough to get
infected. You have to choose to open the message attachment and agree to install the
program, which is another obstacle to mass infection: To date, no reported phone-to-
phone virus auto-installs. The installation obstacles and the methods of spreadinglimit the amount of damage the current generation of cell-phone virus can do.
Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell
phone features. These will enable cellphone viruses to spread either through SMS or
by sending Bluetooth requests when cellphones are physically close enough. The
difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different
epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's
social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's
mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cellphone data recording calls,
SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and
Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile
phone users affect such spreading processes.
2. SPREADING OF VIRUS
Phones that can only make and receive calls are not at risk. Only smartphones with a
Bluetooth connection and data capabilities can receive a cell-phone virus. These
viruses spread primarily in three ways:
•Internet downloads - The virus spreads the same way a traditional computer
virus does. The user downloads an infected file to the phone by way of a PC or
the phone's own Internet connection. This may include file-sharing downloads,
applications available from add-on sites (such as ringtones or games) and false
security patches posted on the Symbian Web site.
•Bluetooth wireless connection - The virus spreads between phones by way of
their Bluetooth connection. The user receives a virus via Bluetooth when the
phone is in discoverable mode, meaning it can be seen by other Bluetooth-enabled
phones. In this case, the virus spreads like an airborne illness.
•Multimedia Messaging Service - The virus is an attachment to an MMS text
message. As with computer viruses that arrive as e-mail attachments, the user
must choose to open the attachment and then install it in order for the virus to
infect the phone. Typically, a virus that spreads via MMS gets into the phone's
contact list and sends itself to every phone number stored there.
With Bluetooth an infected file can be distributed simultaneously to all the devices
in it’s proximity. Mobiles enabled with GPS facility can cause much large scale of
virus infection spread. After all, the virus can access the address book stored on the
mobiles. Now just imagine, as the smart phones (mobiles that are equipped with new
facilities and technologies such as file storage, personal information storage, internet
transacting facility, certificates and key storages and many more in the queue) are
being launched into market after regular short intervals, what the great threat we are
living in! In fact our current mobiles are at such low risk bearance state that if a
proper attack of virus is there on mobiles, whole working of the world will came to
halt.
In all of these transfer methods, the user has to agree at least once (and
usually twice) to run the infected file. But cell-phone-virus writers get you to open
and install their product the same way computer-virus writers do: The virus is
typically disguised as a game, security patch or other desirable application.
The Commwarrior virus arrived on the scene in January 2005 and is the first
cell-phone virus to effectively spread through an entire company via Bluetooth .It
replicates by way of both Bluetooth and MMS. Once you receive and install the virus,
it immediately starts looking for other Bluetooth phones in the vicinity to infect. At
the same time, the virus sends infected MMS messages to every phone number in
your address list. Commwarrior is probably one of the more effective viruses to date
because it uses two methods to replicate itself.
3. CASE STUDIES
3.1 CABIR

The first known cell-phone virus, Cabir, is entirely innocuous. All it does is sit in the
phone and try to spread itself. Other cell-phone viruses, however, are not as harmless.
Cabir is coded for the Symbian operating system, which was, and remains, the most
commonly used operating system in mobile phones. This marker leader position is
due largely to the fact that all smartphones produced by Nokia are Symbian-based. In
fact, Symbian +Nokia is currently the standard smartphone combination, and it’s
going to take Windows Mobile a long time to win a significant share of the market
from Symbian.
The appearance of Cabir confirmed the law of computer virus evolution. In order for
malicious programs targeting a particular operating system or platform to emerge,
three conditions need to be fulfilled:
1. The platform must be popular. Symbian was and remains the most
popular platform for smartphones, with tens of millions of users
throughout the world.
2.There must be well-documented development tools for the application.
3. The presence of vulnerabilities or coding errors. Symbian includes a
number of faults, by design, in the system that handles files and
services. In the case of Cabir these faults were not exploited, but most
of today’s Trojans for smartphones take full advantage of them.

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