CEREALS AS A FUNCTIONAL FOODS (oat, wheat, & rice)
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CEREALS AS A FUNCTIONAL FOODS (oat, wheat, & rice)

Functional food
“Similar in appearance to a conventional food, consumed as part of the usual diet, with demonstrated physiological benefits, or to reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions” (Health Canada, 1997).

Functional foods may be whole, fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods.

Cereal crops or grains are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible grains.
Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more energy worldwide than any other type of crop, they are therefore staple crops.
Different types cereal crops are cultivated in all over the India.
Majorly are maize, rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, millets, oats, rye, etc.
Cereals are the 4th rank functional food accepted by the consumer.
The staple food of Scotland and popular worldwide for livestock.
Botanical name - Avena sativa
Oats are grown throughout the temperate zones
Historical attitudes towards oats vary. Oat bread was first manufactured in England, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899.

Uses of oat
Oats have numerous uses in food.
They are rolled or into oatmeal, or ground into fine oat flour.
Also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies, and oat bread.
Oats are also occasionally used in Britain for brewing beer.

Health claims
Oats fulfill the description of functional foods.
Are nutritious provides protein, energy, vita, min, & good A.A. balance, also it confers the a specific health benefits.
The outer layer of oats contains insoluble fiber have the capacity to improve colonic functions.
The active component of oats is a type of soluble fiber called beta- glucan.
-glucans are a soluble fiber component
-glucans are reported to reduce LDL cholesterol, and lower blood pressure
Effect may be modulated via insulin.
Reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Nature of oat products
Whole oats
Oat Bran
Β- Glucan

Whole oats
Harvested oats husk contains 25-30% of seed, which is normally de-hulled.
Unprocessed hull contains silicate particles i.e. spicules have barbed nature, irritate mouth , GIT,& esophagus.
Oat fiber involves lowering of fasting blood glucose & LDL cholesterol level are observed during hospitlization but was not retained in ambulatory phase.
Difficulty in milling due to soft nature & lipid distribution in kernel.
Chemical analysis shows that β- glucan constitutes about 75% of endosperm cell wall.

Oat Bran
Is the food produced by grinding clean oat groat or rolled oat & separating oat flour by sieving such that bran fraction does not more than 50% of starting material & β- glucan content of at least 5.5% & total DF of 16% & such that at least 1/3 of TDF is soluble fiber.
Quality bran should contain 7% or more.
Commercial methods are available for bran production.
β- glucan Isolates
At present no purified β- glucan pdt is commercially available.
New pdt is developed Oatrim by Inglett.
Prepared by extraction of oat or oat bran with hot water containing heat stable α amylase to give low dextrose from weight of β- glucan.
Oatrim act as fat replacer may incorporate benefit from viscous soluble fiber.
Function of β- glucan
Fat- replacer and powerful water binder.
Imparts excellent creamy mouth feel.
Stabilizer and viscosity modifier.
Soluble in nature.
Active in cholesterol reduction.
Allow slow release of glucose into the bloodstream: GI modulation.
Excellent soluble dietary fiber, essential for healthy gut function.
Cardiovascular disease: oats
Each 0.026mmol/L increment in LDL-cholesterol causes an increase in coronary risk of 1 per cent.
It reduces the LDL in blood plasma..
Kestin et al. (1990) compared three different cereal brans (wheat, rice, oats) in mildly hypercholesterolaemic men. The bran was incorporated in bread and muffins and was given for four weeks, reduce cholesterol concentration with 5.6 and 3.8 % than respectively.
The main difference betn the test products was that oat bran contained twice as much water-soluble fibers than others.

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