Celldar
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
seminar projects crazy
Active In SP
**

Posts: 604
Joined: Dec 2008
#1
28-01-2009, 01:25 PM



.doc   CELLPHONE RADAR SYSTEM.doc (Size: 171.5 KB / Downloads: 196)
Celldar" is made from two words: "cell" and "radar". This is a passive multistatic radar system, which is based on radiation of mobile base stations and can track moving objects. The concept of cell phone radar could provide a totally covert and innovative approach to the detection of land, air and sea-based objects. The hardware required is much simpler than existing radar systems, though the signal-processing software is complex. Previously, radar needed massive fixed equipment to work and transmissions from mobile phone masts were thought too weak to be useful. An individual with one type of receiver, a portable unit little bigger than a laptop computer, could even use the celldar as a ?personal radar' covering the area around the user.

The most important advantage of celldar is that it is invisible to anti-radar weapons. Celldar is aimed at anti-terrorism, defence, security and road traffic management. The seminar and presentation covers the concept of operation, advantages and applications of the celldar.

CELLPHONE RADAR SYSTEM

1. INTRODUCTION TO RADAR
Surveillance radar is the primary sensor of any modern air defense system. Radar is an electronic system used for the radiolocation or detection of objects by radio wa-ves. The location is achieved by measuring the distance or range of an object from the radar as well as its angular positions, the azimuth and elevation. Radar transmits electromagnetic signals and receives echoes from target objects. Em waves travel at the velocity of light (300.000 km/s).
Distance = speed X time
It works on the principle of DOPPLER EFFECT
C
Nose of Aii plane


SUBMITTED BY
Merin Sarah George
- Reg.No. 56351

i) RADAR EQUATION
The radar equation, also called the range equation, relates the range from which radar can detecfa target to the characteristics of the radar system. It is Useful not only for determining range but it serve as a means for understanding the factors alfecting the radar performance.
|\ i.> the transmitted p
(i is the j'.nii of the .
,\ , IS lilt' effective Oil' JlilCIU'.l
¢¢ P, A
p.. alllCIIIU itpci ! IliV L"lli i ,
\ is the pi;;, sic.ii o is the radar civ*ss ¢.¦,¦(. tit v ,t< i!ie i>h|0' \
. !' ill-; ill. :
b) RADAR CROSS SECTION
I he RCS is the property b\ which an object returns a magnitude of the incident radar signal back to the radar. RCS may be defined as the area of an imaginary perfect reflector, which returns the same magnitude of the incident radar signal as the target or object. Its unit is meter square.
ii) CHALLENGES TO THE SYSTEM
1) ARM (Anti Radiation Missile)
Anti radiation missile fitted with passive seeker, designed to detect radar signals forces the radar to shut down or run at the risk of being destroyed. Although the seeker is of relatively small diameter it has got very high sensitivity. Eventhough the j main beam may not be directed towards the incoming missile, the seeker of modern j ARM is sensitive enough to home on the smaller levels of energy contained in the ; side lobes of the transmitter.
2) JAMMING
Another challenge to the system is the use of Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) by enemy aircraft. This is nothing but a noise signal generated by the target, such that the radar cannot sense the returned echo signal. Thus an anti aircraft system will not be able to look on to the enemy aircraft in order to engage it. Therefore radar can be rendered useless in a tactical circumstance.
iii) PROTECTION OF THE SYSTEM
1) REDUCING THE SIZE
A bulky transmitter unit will always accompany conventional _ Radar systems.
This makes the system more vulnerable to attack. Inorder to reduce the system size a !
technique known as ACTIVE ARRAY TECHNOLOGY is used. By this method the
antenna is made up of a large number of transmit/receive (T/R) modules. Within each I
module, the T&R modules are mounted physically close to the radiating elements, an i
arrangement that virtually eliminates microwave losses, a typical antenna system will be
made up of several thousands of T/R units, each providing about 10W of power. This
technique also enables the radar operator to electronically steer the beam to the required I
direction. \
2) EMISSION CONTROL
Avoiding detection by ARM: The simplest and oldest technique of countering an j ARM is by strict emission control. This can involve operating the radar only for restricted periods, radiating only in specific sectors and shitting down if an ARM is launched against it.
Adaptive beam formation: This technique allows the radiation pattern of the antenna to be varied as required, matching it to the target and tactical circumstances. Thereby dramatically reducing its vulnerability to jamming. It overcomes the ! disadvantages of traditional side lobe cancellation schemes and allows for many jammers to be counted at once.
%
3) NETWORKINGS
If an air defense system is to practice good emission control yet remain compact effective, individual radar and control centers need to be networked, wherever possible the radar should be supplemented by other network sensors such as passive trackers.
4) MOBILITY
This allows radar to be moved where it is needed in the light of current tactical circumstances, either to cover a new sector of to replace a destroyed system. In the latest generation of surveillance radars emphasis is being laid on increasing the mobility of the entire system. In connection with mobility the most manufacturers define a term known as setup and tear don time i.e. the time it take to deploy.
5) DECOY
Another method of an ARM is to lure the missile with a decoy, able to produce signals that resemble those of the radar being protected. The false signals have to match the frequency, pulse repetition frequency and other features of the radar. The better the j technology in there ARM, the more the realistic the decoy must be. It is not necessary to reproduce the power level of the radars main beam: a lower level will be enough to look like a side lobe.
2. STEALTH TECHNOLOGY
Stealth or low observable technology is a magic word in the cutting edge military weapons. Able to strike with greater accuracy, stealth aircraft's & worships are virtually invisible to most type of military sensors.
It aims to reduce radar, infrared acoustic.
visual & avionics signatures of aircraft without significantly compromising performance [ range and play load. Low observable aircraft would degrade the adversaries' anti-air
capabilities consisting of variety of advanced sensors, seeker & guided weapons to detect | engage & destroy it both from ground based installations as well as from airborne ! weapon platforms.
Many different components are juggled to make stealth aircraft work. Special radar absorbent materials, unique architecture, color, flawlessly smooth surfaces, concealed engines & ordinance & electronic counter measures all combined to enable stealth aircraft to outfit most current defense systems.
i) METHODS OF IMPLEMENTATION
The five important areas of aircraft signatures, exploited by sensors and seekers during a compact engagement are radar reflection. IR radiation, and acqoustic, visual &avionic signatures. Among these signatures, except for radar reflection others are self-emissions emanating from the aircraft during its operation. Among these \ve shall be discussion means of countering 2 of the common means of detecting aircraft.
a) REDUCTION OF RCS
SCATTERING RADAR WAVES: The most widely used method of'detecting an
aircraft is with the help of radar. As most aircraft have a round shape, due to aerodynamic requirements they reflect a part of the incident radar wave. This results in a definite RCS lor a given type of aircraft. This is evident from the figure below.
Stealth aircraft is made up of sharp triangular sheets fitted on to the airframe. This is not favorable to aerodynamic flight. Hence the waves impinging on the surface of the flight is reflected away from the transmitter. This helps to reduce the effective RCS of the craft. This is shown below. Radar antenna
2) I SING RADAR CROSS-SECTION MATERIALS (RAM):
The reflected signal depends on the impedance match between the surface and the layer. Special materials can be designed to absorb and or attenuate radar reflection from the surface of a target by tuning its complex dielectric permitivity and magnetic permeability. The ideal absorber should therefore comprise of a thin layer of materiel having equal values of permitivity and permeability over wide range of frequencies. By controlling materiel type, thickness, impedances and internal optical design, a variety of RAMs can be designed whose performance can be optimized for a single narrow band frequency, multiple frequencies, or over a wide frequency spectrum. Dielectric absorbers are based on carbon and fcrrite based compound, which are inevitably heavy and bulky.
b) REDUCTION OF IR SIGNATURE
I Here arc two significant sources of IR radiation from air breathing propulsion system n.tmcK hot parts and jet intakes. By using modern heat image sensors i.e. infrared sensors the difference can be seen between a flying object itself and the surrounding air .In the aircraft exhaust gases are mixed with the cool bypass air by means of a opening at the rear end. I he opening is made of zigzag edges so that incident radar waves are scattered aw a-..
3. CONCEPT OF CELLDAR
i) INTRODUCTION
This is a very cost effective means by which a wide-ranging radar system can be implemented. This technique has numerous advantages and has got the unique potential indestructibility. Celldar is even capable of identifying stealth aircraft. This can be easily implemented as cell phone masts, which are already installed by cell phone companies.
ii) CONCEPT OF OPERATION
The basic concept behind how the revolutionary Cell Phone Radar. CELLDAR system operates is described below.
¦ ¦
Fio.3
Using Cell Phone Transmissions
The Cell Phone Radar system is a passive system working by using existing transmissions made by digital cell phone base stations. When a target object enters the detection region, these cell phone transmissions are reflected by it and detected at one ore more Cell Phone Radar systems.
Acoustic sensor augment detection
In addition to the reflected cell phone base station transmissions, the Cell Phone Radar also has acoustic sensors to detect noise emissions from the target object This provides additional information to assist in positioning of the target.
Processing Cell Phone Radar Data
The data collected by the Cell phone Radar System is then sent back in real time to a central control system via a communication network. Here the data is processed to determine the position and speed of target.
iii) APPLICATIONS
> Airborne early Warning system
> Traffic monitoring
> Coastal surveillance
r Ground based air defense
r Battlefield reconnaissance
COASTAL SURVEILLANCE
CELLDAR„¢
Cell phone 1 mast
Craft approaching coastline
§
Fig.4
1 >c/>i: nj lA 7-.'. .SAY;'( 7-; Seminar Reporl-2005
CELLO AR
AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING OPERATION
A'.VACS aircraft equipped with CELLDAR"
lltl
UK
it'll
Ceil priori e mast
Bistatic radar cross section of target aircraft
TRAFFIC MONITORING
li
Cell phone mast
CELLDAR
ADVANTAGES
CELLDAR does not transmit any energy and so its use cannot be detected. CELLDAR provides a low cost solution when compared to its equivalent active radar competitors.
CELLDAR is a multistatic system which means there are many transmitters to enhance radar cross section of targets when compared to monostatic radar. Virtual indestructibility due to large number of cell base stations.
4. CONCLUSION
The celldar system has enormous potential of becoming the most sought after surveillance technique in the years to come, ll is said that if the X-rays are combined with the system when one can see through walls and buildings thus tracing people's movements down to their homes.
5. REFERENCE
google.com
roke.uk.co.in
\
AN
s
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
benoy3010
Active In SP
**

Posts: 2
Joined: Jun 2009
#2
28-06-2009, 11:52 PM

thanks
Reply
benoy3010
Active In SP
**

Posts: 2
Joined: Jun 2009
#3
28-06-2009, 11:55 PM

hello i want full report of this. plz help me
Reply
sreepriya
Active In SP
**

Posts: 3
Joined: Jul 2009
#4
19-07-2009, 01:25 PM

hello rumi i have liked this topic can you please send in more details or report regarding the topic"CELLDAR".my mail id is sreepriyakurup@hotmail.com
Reply
computer science crazy
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 3,048
Joined: Dec 2008
#5
13-09-2009, 05:42 PM

Using Cell Phone Transmissions
The Cell Phone Radar system is a passive system, working by using existing transmissions made by digital cell phone base stations. When a target object enters the detection region, these cell phone transmissions are reflected by it and are detected at one or more Cell Phone Radar systems.

Acoustic Sensors Augment Detection
In addition to the reflected cell phone base station transmissions, the Cell Phone Radar also has acoustic sensors to detect noise emissions from the target object. This provides additional information to assist in the positioning of the target object.

Processing Cell Phone Radar Data
The data collected by the Cell Phone Radar systems is then sent back in real-time to a Central Control System via a communications network. Here the data is processed to determine the position and speed of the target object

The celldar system, uses mobile phone masts to allow security authorities to watch vehicles and individuals 'in real time' almost anywhere in Britain.

The technology 'sees' the shapes made when radio waves emitted by mobile phone masts meet an obstruction. Signals bounced back by immobile objects, such as walls or trees, are filtered out by the receiver. This allows anything moving, such as cars or people, to be tracked. Previously, radar needed massive fixed equipment to work and transmissions from mobile phone masts were thought too weak to be useful.

The system works wherever a mobile phone can pick up a signal. By using receivers attached to mobile phone masts, users of the new technology could focus in on areas hundreds of miles away and bring up a display showing any moving vehicles and people.

An individual with one type of receiver, a portable unit little bigger than a laptop computer, could even use it as a 'personal radar' covering the area around the user. Researchers are working to give the new equipment 'X-ray vision' - the capability to 'see' through walls and look into people's homes.

Ministry of Defence officials are hoping to introduce the system as soon as resources allow. Police and security services are known to be interested in a variety of possible surveillance applications. The researchers themselves say the system, known as Celldar, is aimed at anti-terrorism defence, security
Roke Manor Research, part of Siemens Corp., has demonstrated a passive radar that exploits signals from GSM mobile phone base stations.

"Base station signals go further than several kilometers. We could develop a ground-based sensor for aircraft or an aircraft-mounted sensorso Celldar could be used to detect cars,objects ..etc



Range and accuracy a height-measuring system that works at similar frequencies and is accurate to about 10 meters.
Celldar, its name derived from "cell phone radar" is completely covert, and systems could be built for a fraction of the cost of conventional military radar.

Roke Manor's technology demonstrator uses two conventional Yagi aerials, two mobile phones as receivers and a PC with 200KHz A to D converters to digitize signals from the phones.

The parts cost $3,076 (2,000 British pounds), this simple set-up can detect vehicles through foliage at a range of several hundred meters as well as people moving in a parking lot. To locate an object on the ground, two base stations would be needed, or three to locate a flying object.


BAE Systems just signed up to fund the project and implimentation with cash and additional know-how.

Eventually Celldar will use phased array antennas, a technology that Roke Manor specializes in. Each of the hundred-or-so antenna elements will have a separate receiver and ADC, all feeding some form of processor. "A phased array radar for less than $150,000 (100,000 pounds).

Cross-correlation of direct and reflected signals is the method being used to detect time differences in the development system. Roke Manor hopes to add mobile phone knowledge from parent company Siemens to extract more information
Cell Plus electromagnetic wave (EMW) emission reduction
systems utilise a specially developed and patented anti-radiation screen known as E-Minus TM.


E-Minus TM is an intricate mesh composed of fine strands of advanced materials that are produced by a non-electrolytic process, then woven into a special pattern.


The Weave

Independent tests have shown E-Minus TM to have a high shielding effect absorbing up to 99% of radioation at 40-60dB through a shield mass of 31g/M2 with no loss of signal clarity.


For added safety, E-Minus TM has also been shown to have a low level of combustibility.


Cell Plus has also been subjected to exactly the same stringent tests that the mobile telephone manufacturers have to undergo.
These tests were completed by Radio Frequency Investigations Ltd , the specialist laboratory considered Europe's leading independent testing facility, with in depth experience of the radio communications industry.


The results of the full range of tests were nothing short of astonishing.
Tested to both European and Australian standards, in the full range of user positions, Cell Plus achieved SAR reductions between 97.6 and 98.8%. What's more the tests were conducted using a mobile telephone recognised as having one of the highest levels of emissions, and set at full power
For shielding RF radiation (Electric & Magnetic waves) emitted from cellular and mobile phones


Whenever you are on a call with your hand held cellular and mobile phones, the phones are emitting radiofrequency(RF) that seriously penetrates your body.
Radio frequency (RF) radiation is one of several types of electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together through space. These waves are generated by the movement of electrical charges.

TELE-BARRIER"
Because a specific FSS film (Frequency Selective Shielding Film) is used to confine the harmful RF
into the grid conductive patterns evaporated on PET film with a refined technology and alter the RF
(both electric & magentic waves) to harmless heat energy.

This product can shield not only 800-1900MHz radiofrequency but also magnetic field because it covers
the whole phone with the FSS film.
The film is composed of polyester/polyamid/polyethylene films and AL vacuum evaporation.

The shielding performance for RF radiation is dramatically high (97-98% reduction for 800MHz band and
90-95% for 1,500MHz band in all directions) that was tested by an accredited testing lab.
the international Pattent has already been applied.

"TELE-BARRIER" may be called as "The New Salvation".

If you test the radiation output from your own phone with RF/MF or EMF detector (gauss meter),
you will highly evaluate the excellent shielding performance immdediately and find an obvious difference
TEL AVIV - Imagine your company is holding secret talks to buy another firm when your main competitor suddenly snaps it up from under your nose, apparently aware of all the details of the negotiations.


While you instigate a widespread investigation, the culprit could be nothing more sinister than a cell phone "accidentally" left in the corner of the room, placed in a plant pot or taped under the boardroom table.

With a slight modification, cell phones become high-quality bugs. An owner can call the phone from anywhere in the world without it emitting a ringing tone while its screen remains blank, apparently turned off.

"The beauty of the cell phone as a bug is that it's an innocent looking and ubiquitous object," said Ben Te'eni, co-founder of Netline Communications Technologies, which has developed a device for detecting cell phone communications, especially from cell phones in apparently dormant mode.

"People trust cell phones, but modified and left in idle mode the cell phone can be used as a transmitter for up to a week. If it's connected to a power supply it can provide endless intelligence. Professional bugsweepers will ignore the cell phone frequency since the phones are so common and not suspicious."

The drawback for cell phones and what enables Netline to catch them out, however, is that they periodically transmit a signal to their base station. With Netline's small Cellular Activity Analyzer (CAA) device left in a boardroom before or during crucial meetings, cell phone activity is detected and recorded with a visual and audio warning emitted.

"I can leave the CAA in the office before important meetings and it will tell me if there's a cell phone in the room," Te'eni said. "I can also leave it in the room overnight or for a number of days (after a meeting) to see if a bug has been left behind."

INTELLIGENCE BACKGROUND

Like many Israeli high-tech company heads in the telecoms sector, 33-year-old Te'eni and his co-founder Gil Israeli, 34, are graduates of an army intelligence unit. Te'eni was unwilling to elaborate on his army service or Netline's client list.

Having worked for state-owned Israel Aircraft Industries after leaving the army, the pair decided to branch out on their own and set up Netline in 1998.

Their first product was a jamming device which prevents cell phone calls in chosen areas of a building or in the open air, which Te'eni said has been sold to defense agencies of "blue chip governments" around the world.

"The jammer can be used by bomb squads or VIP security services to prevent the detonation of bombs by cell phones," Te'eni said.

"We have also sold to prisons because top criminals are known to continue their operations or coordinate testimony using smuggled-in cell phones. In Brazil, riots were synchronised in five prisons using cell phones and in Paris a prisoner escape was coordinated using cell phones."

Te'eni compared the innocent-looking and simple cell phone with the cardboard cutters used by hijackers of the planes used in the September 11 attacks in the United States.

Both have non-lethal and everyday uses that are positive, but can also make life easier for criminals.

"A phone can remotely activate a bomb or be used for tactical communications such as a terrorist act, bank robbery, hostage situation or kidnapping," Te'eni said. "There are so many negative ways for using cell phones which is why the ability to jam them is crucial
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
manusha
Active In SP
**

Posts: 4
Joined: Dec 2009
#6
26-12-2009, 08:02 AM

i want full report of celldar
Reply
electronics seminars
Active In SP
**

Posts: 694
Joined: Nov 2009
#7
26-12-2009, 11:12 AM

ABSTRACT
The word CELLDAR is an acronym that
stands for CELL PHONE RADAR. It is capable of identifying, stealth crafts that
cannot he detected by ordinary radars. This seminar and presentation is divided in to three parts. The
first deals with the importance of air defense radar. Then it moves to the challenges
faced by radars today. And the various methods for protecting the system is presented.
The second part brings about the principles of stealth technology. Finally the seminar and presentation
focuses on CELLDAR.This technique is very simple to implement and even has the
capability of uncovering stealth aircrafts. It is a ground breaking technique that uses
the reflection of digital telephone signals from the sides of aircrafts or boats to detect
and track their movement's can detect large aircraft over hundreds of kilometers,
provided there is a cell phone network present to illuminate the target.
1. INTRODUCTION TO RADAR
Surveillance radar is the primary sensor of any modern air defense system.
Radar is an electronic system used for the radiolocation or detection of objects by
radio waves. The location is achieved by measuring the distance or range of an object
from the radar as well as its angular positions, the azimuth and elevation. Radar
transmits electromagnetic signals and receives echoes from target objects. Em waves
travel at the velocity of light (300.000 km/s).
Distance = speed X time
It works on the principle of DOPPLER EFFECT
(
Nose of
Aotptane
le
CELLDAR
Radar antenna
iy RADAR EQUATION
The radar equation. also called the range equation, relates the range from
which radar can detc" tamet to the characteristics of the radar system. It is Useful
not only for determin4 range but it serve as a means for understanding the factors
Liffectin2 the radar performance.
CELLDAR
tran,nutickl
is the t , ,iat lit the H
I!. the etteeti n C
anti find APCI!
.\
the
the radar Li-
¢..,
!. the
b) RADAR CROSS SECTION
he RCS is the property hn which an object returns a magnitude of the
incident radar signal hack to the radar. RCS may he defined as the area of an
imaginary perfect reflector. which returns the same magnitude of the incident
radar signal as the target or ohject. Its unit is meter square.
ii) CHALLENGES TO THE SYSTEM
1) ARM (Anti Radiation Missile)
Anti radiation missile fitted with passive seeker. designed to detect radar signals
forces the radar to shut down or run at the risk of beim! destroyed. AlthouLh the
seeker is of relatively small diameter it has got very high sensitivity. Eventhough the
main beam may not he directed towards the incoming missile, the seeker of modern
ARM is sensitive enough to home on the smaller levels of energy contained in the
side lobes of the transmitter.
NO,
CELLDAR
2) JAMMING
Another challenge to the system is the use of Electronic Counter Measure (ECM)
by enemy aircraft. This is nothing but a noise signal generated by the target, such that the
radar cannot sense the returned echo signal. Thus an anti aircraft system will not be able
to look on to the enemy aircraft in order to engage it. "I herefore radar can be rendered
useless in a tactical circumstance.
iii) PROTECTION OF THE SYSTEM
REDUCING THE SIZE
A bulky transmitter unit will always accompany conventional _ Radar systems.
This makes the system more vulnerable to attack. Inorder to reduce the system size a
technique known as ACTIVE ARRAY TECHNOLOGY is used. By this method the
antenna is made up of a large number of transmit/receive (T/R) modules. Within each
module, the T&R modules are mounted physically close to the radiating elements. an
arrangement that virtually eliminates microwave losses, a typical antenna system will be
made up of several thousands of T/R units, each providing about l OW of power. This
technique also enables the radar operator to electronically steer the beam to the required
direction.
EMISSION CONTROL
Avoiding detection by ARM: The simplest and oldest technique of countering an
ARM is by strict emission control. This can involve operating the radar only for restricted
periods, radiating only in specific sectors and shitting down if an ARM is launched
against it.
Adaptive beam formation: This technique allows the radiation pattern of the
antenna to be varied as required, matching it to the target and tactical circumstances.
Thereby dramatically reducing its vulnerability to jamming. It overcomes the
disadvantages of traditional side lobe cancellation schemes and allows for many jammers
to be counted at once.
-3) NETWORKING ii-
.
If an air defense system is to practice good emission control yet remain compact
effective, individual radar and control centers need to be networked, wherever possible
the radar should he supplemented by other network sensors such as passive trackers.
CELLDAR
MOBILITY
This allows radar to be moved where it is needed in the light of current tactical
circumstances, either to cover a new sector of to replace a destroyed system. In the latest
generation of surveillance radars emphasis is being laid on increasing the mobility of the
entire system. In connection with mobility the most manufacturers define a term known
as setup and tear don time i.e. the time it take to deploy.
DECOY
Another method of an ARM is to lure the missile with a decoy. able to produce signals
that resemble those of the radar being protected. The false signals have to match the
frequency, pulse repetition frequency and other ICatures of the radar. The better the
technology in there ARM, the more the realistic the decoy must he. It is not necessary to
reproduce the power level of the radars main beam: a lower level will he enou2h to look
like a side lobe.
CELLDAR
2. STEALTH TECHNOLOGY
Stealth or low observable technology is a magic
word in the cutting edge military weapons. Able to strike with greater accuracy, stealth
aircrafts & worships are virtually invisible to most type of military sensors.
It aims to reduce radar. infrared acoustic.
visual & avionics signatures of aircraft without significantly compromising performance
range and play load. Low observable aircraft would degrade the adversaries' anti-air
capabilities consisting of variety of advanced sensors. seeker & guided weapons to detect
engage & destroy it both from ground based installations as well as from airborne
weapon platforms.
Many different components are juggled to
make stealth aircraft work. Special radar absorbent materials, unique architecture, color.
flawlessly smooth surfaces, concealed engines & ordinance & electronic counter
measures all combined to enable stealth aircraft to outfit most current defense systems.
i) METHODS OF IMPLEMENTATION
The five important areas of aircraft signatures, exploited by
sensors and seekers during a compact enga gement are radar reflection. IR radiation, and
acqoustic, visual &avionic signatures. Among these signatures. except for radar reflection
others are self-emissions emanating from the aircraft during its operation. Amon g these
e shall he discussion means of countering 2 of the common means of detectin g aircraft.
a) REDUCTION OF RCS
RADAR WAVES:
The most widely used method of 'detecting an
aircraft is with the help of radar. As most aircraft have a round shape, due to aerodynamic
requirements they reflect a part of the incident radar wave. This results in a definite RCS
lOr a given type olaircrall. This is evident from the figure below. CELLDA R
Stealth aircraft is made up of sharp trian gular sheets fitted
on to the airframe. This is not favorable to aerodynamic flight. Hence the waves
impinging on the surface of the flight is reflected away from the transmitter. This helps to
reduce the effective RCS of the craft. This is shown below.
Radar antenna
2) USING RADAR CROSS-SECTION MATERIALS (RAM):
The reflected signal depends on the impedance
match between the surface and the layer. Special materials can he designed to absorb
and or attenuate radar reflection from the surface of a target by tuning its complex
dielectric permitivity and magnetic permeability. The ideal absorber should therefore
comprise of a thin layer of materiel having equal values of permitivity and permeability
over wide range of frequencies.- By controlling materiel type. thickness, impedances and
internal optical design, a variety of RAMs can he designed whose performance can he
optimized for a single narrow hand frequency, multiple frequencies, or over a wide
frequency spectrum. Dielectric absorbers are based on carbon and ferrite based
compound, which arc inevitably heavy and bulky.
h) REDUCTION OF IR SIGNATURE
I here are two signia'ant sources of IR radiation from air breathing propulsion system
n:tmel:. hot parts and jet intakes. By using modern heat image sensors i.e. infrared sensors
the difference can he seen between a flying object itself and the surrounding air .In the
aircraft exhaust gases are mixed with the cool bypass air by means of a opening at the
rear end. The opening is made of zigzag edges so that incident radar waves are scattered
3. CONCEPT OF CELLDAR
INTRODUCTION
This is a very cost effective means by which a wide-ranging
radar system can he implemented. This technique has numerous advantages and has got
the unique potential indestructibility. Celldar is even capable of identifying stealth
aircraft. This can be easily implemented as cell phone masts. which are already installed
h\ cell phone companies.
CONCEPT OF OPERATION
The basic concept behind how the revolutionary Cell Phone Radzir, CELLDAR
system operates is described below.
CELLDAR
Using Cell Phone Transmissions
The Cell Phone Radar system is a passive system
working by using existing transmissions made by digital cell phone base stations. When a
target object enters the detection region. these cell phone transmissions are reflected by it
and detected at one ore more Cell Phone Radar systems.
Acoustic sensor augment detection
In addition to the reflected cell phone base station
transmissions, the Cell Phone Radar also has acoustic sensors to detect noise emissions
from the target object This provides additional information to assist in positioning of the
target.
Processing Cell Phone Radar Data
The data collected by the Cell phone Radar System is
then sent hack in real time to a central -Ctintrol system via a communication network. Here
the data is processed to determine the position and speed of target.

Ho APPLICATIONS
Airborne early Warning system
Traffic monitoring
Coastal surveillance
Ground based air defense
Battlefield reconnaissance

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING OPERATION
AWACS aircraft
equipped v..ith CELLDAR"
110
bstatit radar
cross section of
tarcjet aircraft
Cell phone mast
Fig.5
I)f)I ¢
C'\'1:1
I, ¢
________________________________________
TRAFFIC MONITORING
Cell phone mast
CELLDA rem
Fi!J.6
I )cm:
/¢ (
c
________________________________________
CELLDAR
iv) ADVANTAGES
CELLDAR does not transmit any energy and so its use cannot be detected.
CELLDAR provides a low cost solution when compared to its equivalent active
radar competitors.
CELLDAR is a multistatic system which means there are many transmitters to
enhance radar cross section of targets when compared to monostatic radar.
Virtual indestructibility due to large number of cell base stations.
4. CONCLUSION
The celldar system has enormous potential of becoming the most sought after
surveillance technique in the years to come. It is said that if the X-rays are combined with
the system when one can see through walls and buildings thus tracing people's
movements down to their homes
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
veti5
Active In SP
**

Posts: 8
Joined: Jun 2010
#8
15-07-2010, 08:32 PM

plz send the entire details, report nd ppt to the id itsappolo13[at]gmail.com.. thanks
Reply
veti5
Active In SP
**

Posts: 8
Joined: Jun 2010
#9
15-07-2010, 08:56 PM

can u plz mail me the details of celldar to the id itsappolo13[at]gmail.com
can u plz mail me the details of celldar to the id itsappolo13[at]gmail.com includund report,ppt nd ol.. its urgent
Reply
veti5
Active In SP
**

Posts: 8
Joined: Jun 2010
#10
22-07-2010, 08:04 PM

plz mail me the ppt of celldaar to itsappolo13[at]gmail.com
Reply
seminar tips
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 8,857
Joined: Oct 2012
#11
05-10-2012, 10:45 AM

to get information about the topic "celldar " full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow


topicideashow-to-celldar

topicideashow-to-celldar?page=2

Reply

Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please

ASK HERE

So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page

Quick Reply
Message
Type your reply to this message here.


Image Verification
Please enter the text contained within the image into the text box below it. This process is used to prevent automated spam bots.
Image Verification
(case insensitive)