Challenges and Recent Advances in QoS Provisioning, Signaling, Routing and MAC protoc
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Challenges and Recent Advances in QoS Provisioning,
Signaling, Routing and MAC protocols for MANETs

Shivanajay Marwaha Jadwiga Indulska Marius Portmann
School of ITEE, University of Queensland and NICTA Queensland Research Laboratory
Brisbane, Australia

Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET), which comprise of
mobile nodes connected wirelessly, are emerging as a very
important technology for future generation of wireless
networking. MANETs are being used in numerous
application domains from emergency rescue and relief to
wireless sensor networks. Quality of Service (QoS)
provisioning in MANETs is of utmost importance in order to
support real-time communications (such as audio and video)
over MANETs. However, QoS provisioning in highly mobile
wireless networks such as MANETs is a very challenging
problem compared to provisioning of QoS in wired IP
networks. The main reasons behind this being unpredictable
node mobility, wireless multi-hop communication,
contention for wireless channel access, limited battery power
and range of mobile devices as well as the absence of a
central coordination authority in MANETs. This paper
presents the current state of the art in MANET QoS
Provisioning schemes at Routing, Transport and Medium
Access Layers as well as the MANET QoS Signaling and
Provisioning Models. Previous surveys have only looked at
QoS provisioning models, signaling and routing. This paper
presents a complete survey of the challenges and recent
protocols being developed for QoS provisioning in MANET
across multiple network layers as well as the various QoS
signaling and QoS models being developed for MANETs.


The Internet was originally developed to offer only
“best effort” communication services, wherein all data was
to be treated equally without any Quality of Service (QoS)
bounds or guarantees regarding delivery. However, with the
emergence of real-time communication such as Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) and video streaming, e.g. Video on
Demand (VoD), strict QoS requirements have been put on
the Internet in terms of delay, jitter and throughput. This led
to the development of the present day QoS models that can
support required communication QoS on the Internet.
According to RFC2386 [1], QoS is a set of service
requirements (such as latency, jitter, and packet loss) to be
met by the network while transporting a flow of data traffic.
A flow is a packet stream from a source to a destination
with an associated QoS requirement. A QoS model is a
mechanism for achieving and provisioning of QoS. IETF
has developed two of the main QoS provisioning models in
the Internet: (i) Integrated services (IntServ) [2] and (ii)
Differentiated services (DiffServ) [3]. The stateful IntServ,

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