Challenges in the Migration to 4G
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17-09-2009, 12:33 AM


Challenges in the Migration to 4G

Second-generation (2G) mobile systems were very successful in the previous decade. Their success prompted the development of third generation (3G) mobile systems. While 2G systems such as GSM, IS-95, and cdmaOne were designed to carry speech and low-bit-rate data, 3G systems were designed to provide higher-data-rate services. During the evolution from 2G to 3G, a range of wireless systems, including GPRS, IMT-2000, Bluetooth, WLAN, and HiperLAN, have been developed. All these systems were designed independently, targeting different service types, data rates, and users. As all these systems have their own merits and shortcomings, there is no single system that is good enough to replace all the other technologies. Instead of putting efforts into developing new radio interfaces and technologies for 4G systems, which some researchers are doing, we believe establishing 4G systems that integrate existing and newly developed wireless systems is a more feasible option.

Researchers are currently developing frameworks for future 4G networks. Different research programs, such as Mobile VCE, MIRAI, and DoCoMo, have their own visions on 4G features and implementations. Some key features (mainly from user's point of view) of 4G networks are stated as follows:
" High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology
" Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost
" Personalization
" Integrated services
First, 4G networks are all IP based heterogeneous networks that allow users to use any system at any time and anywhere. Users carrying an integrated terminal can use a wide range of applications provided by multiple wireless networks.

Second, 4G systems provide not only telecommunications services, but also data and multimedia services. To support multimedia services, high-data-rate services with good system reliability will be provided. At the same time, a low per-bit transmission cost will be maintained.

Third, personalized service will be provided by this new-generation network. It is expected that when 4G services are launched, users in widely different locations, occupations, and economic classes will use the services. In order to meet the demands of these diverse users, service providers should design personal and customized services for them.

Finally, 4G systems also provide facilities for integrated services. Users can use multiple services from any service provider at the same time. Just imagine a 4G mobile user, Mary, who is looking for information on movies shown in nearby cinemas. Her mobile may simultaneously connect to different wireless systems. These wireless systems may include a Global Positioning System (GPS) (for tracking her current location), a wireless LAN (for receiving previews of the movies in nearby cinemas), and a code-division multiple access (CDMA) (for making a telephone call to one of the cinemas). In this example Mary is actually using multiple wireless services that differ in quality of service (QoS) levels, security policies, device settings, charging methods and applications. It will be a significant revolution if such highly integrated services are made possible in 4G mobile applications.

To migrate current systems to 4G with the features mentioned above, we have to face a number of challenges. In this article these challenges are highlighted and grouped into various research areas. An overview of the challenges in future heterogeneous systems will be provided. Each area of challenges will be examined in detail. The article is then concluded.
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19-02-2011, 09:30 AM

presented by:
k.janakiraman M.sc,M.Phil


.doc   ABSTRACT.doc (Size: 135 KB / Downloads: 150)
CHALLENGES IN MIGRATION TO 4G
Abstract
Convergence of mobile communications, computing and Internet is on the way. This provides the driving force towards development of 4G technology. 4G mobile systems have the potential to provide flash high data rates over a wide area and roaming facility. 3G merely focus on developing new standard and hardware whereas 4G systems will support Imprehensive and personalized services, providing stable system performance and quality of service (Qos). However, such technologies don't come without their challenge .In this paper these challenges are discussed as well as the proposed solutions to the targeting different service types, data rates, and users. In Figure l the shift in shown: while 2G was focused on full coverage for cellular systems offering only one techno I provides its services only in dedicated areas and introduces the concept of vertical handover.
Introduction
Mobility is one of the most compelling features in communication these days, having an enormous impact on computing. A lot of research on mobility in next generation network systems is being done, which promises or emerging omnipresent and
ubiquitous communications. The standards for Fourth Generation (4G) networks systems are evolving. These networks systems require new level of mobility support as compared to traditional .2G systems such as GSM, IS-95, and cdma One were designed to carry speech and low-bit-rate success prompted the development of third-generation (3G) mobile systems. They were designed higher data-rate services. During the evolution from 2G to 3G, a range of wireless systems, including TMT-2000, Bluetooth, WLAN, and Hiper LAN, have been developed. All these systems we independently, Coupling with wireless local area network (WLAN) systems, 4G will be a convergence plat form all the network layers. Researchers are trying to establish 4G systems that integrate existing and newly developed wireless and also developing frameworks for 4G networks. Different research programs, such as M MIRAI, QOS and Do Como, have their own Visions on 4G features and implementations. The next generation (4G) is the futuristic approach and is envisioned as a convergence of different wireless access technologies providing the user with the best Anywhere, anytime connection and better resource utilization.
Personalization
This new-generation network will provide personalized service. In order to meet the demands of diverse users, service providers should design personal and customized services.
Integrated services
4G systems also provide facilities for integrated services. Users can use multiple services from any service provider at the same time.
Terminal Heterogeneity and Network Heterogeneity
In order to be a step ahead of 3G, 4G just not only provide higher data rates but also a clear and tangible advantage in people's everyday life. Thus the success of 4G will consist of a combination of terminal heterogeneity and network heterogeneity. Terminal heterogeneity refers to the different types of terminals in terms of display size, energy consumption,
portability weight, complexity etc. Network heterogeneity is related to the increasing heterogeneity of wireless networks due to the proliferation in the number of access technologies available (e.g., WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth). These heterogeneous wireless access networks typically differ in terms of coverage, data rate, latency, and loss rate. Therefore, each of them is practically designed to support a different set of specific services and devices. 4G will encompass
various types of terminals, which may have to provide common services independently of their capabilities
Challenges in Integrating Heterogeneous Systems
It is convenient to discuss the challenges (and their proposed solutions) by grouping them into three different aspects namely Mobile station, System and Service. In this section each of the key research areas are explained
Mobile Station
Multimode User Terminals In order to use the large variety of services and wireless networks in 4G systems, multimode user
terminals are essentials as they can adapt to different wireless networks by reconfiguring themselves. This eliminates the need to use multiple terminals. The most promising way of implementing multimode user terminals is to adopt the software radio approach. Figure2 shows the design of an ideal software radio. The analog part of the receiver consists of an antenna, a band pass filter (BPF), and a low noise amplifier (LNA). The received analog signal is digitized by the Analog/digital converter (ADC) immediately after the analog processing .The processing in the next stage (usually still analog processing in conventional terminals) is then performed by a reprogrammable base band digital signal processor (DSP).
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20-03-2011, 12:46 AM

hiiiiiiii can u plz send me d ful report as soon as possible to "mallige_07@yahoo.com"
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25-03-2011, 12:36 PM


.docx   ABSTRACT.docx (Size: 817.91 KB / Downloads: 68)
Chapter 1 : INTRODUCTION
1.1 2G – 2nd Generation Mobile System
1.1.1 GSM, IS-95, cdmaOne
1.1.2 Low-bit-rate data

1.2 Higher-data-rate service: Cost of the services provided by the 2G is very expensive.
1.3 3G – 3rd Generation Mobile System
New technology Are invented to fulfill customers need regarding network like ,
1.3.1 GPRS: -General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packets oriented mobile data service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications(GSM), as well as in the 3G systems. In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/s GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred.
1.3.2 IMT-2000: -International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)', better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a family of standards for mobile telecommunications defined by the International Telecommunication Union, which includes GSM EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000 as well as Services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Compared to 2G and 2.5G services,
1.3.3 Bluetooth: - This is short range wireless network to connect component without wires .components like camera , headset , scanner and other devices to connect to the computer by mearly being brought within range.
1.3.4 WLAN: - Each computer has the radio modem and antenna and which it can communicate with other computer systems.
1.3.5 HiperLAN: - This is same as the WLAN but useful for more distance and bit rate is much lower.
1.4 Independent systems, all have there own shortcomings.
1.5 A single system is needed to replace all of them – 4G.
Wireless mobile communications systems are uniquely identified by "generation designations. Introduced in the early 1980s, first generation (1G) systems were marked by analog frequency modulation and used primarily for voice communications. Second generation (2G) wireless communications systems, which made their appearance in the late 1980s, were also used mainly for voice transmission and reception The wireless system in widespread use today goes by the name of 2.5G-an "in between " service that serves as a stepping stone to 3G. Whereby 2G communications is generally associated with Global System for Mobile (GSM) service, 2.5G is usually identified as being "fueled " by General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) along with GSM. In 3G systems, making their appearance in late 2002 and in 2003, are designed for voice and paging services, as well as interactive media use such as teleconferencing, Internet access, and other services. The problem with 3G wireless systems is bandwidth-these systems provide only WAN coverage ranging from 144 kbps (for vehicle mobility applications) to 2 Mbps (for indoor static applications). Segue to 4G, the “next dimension” of wireless communication.
Digrams of all 2g, 3g n 4g
• 4G – 4th Generation Mobile System
• Key Features from Users’ Point of View: -
• High usability: Anytime, anywhere, and with any technology .It will really helpful to use remote information at any time, at any physical condition, and even use any technology which is given above.
• Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost like video, audio, text document to transfer through this technology. So it will be more users friendly.
• Personalization: In this any person can perform any operation as per his/her requirement more efficiently. Even at any time.
• Integrated services: In this all services can be integrated for more good uses.
• All-IP based network – any system / any time / any where
• Telecommunications services + data and multimedia services. Personalized service Facilities for integrated services
Chapter: 2 OVERVEIW OF THE CHALLENGES
2.1 Mobile station
2.2 System
2.3 Service

The fourth generation of mobile networks will truly turn the current mobile phone networks, in to end to end IP based networks, couple this with the arrival of IPv6, every device in the world will have a unique IP address, which will allow full IP based communications from a mobile device, right to the core of the internet, and back out again. If 4G is implemented correctly, it will truly harmonies global roaming, super high speed connectivity, and transparent end user performance on every mobile communications device in the world.
4G is set to deliver 100mbps to a roaming mobile device globally, and up to 1gbps to a stationary device. With this in mind, it allows for video conferencing, streaming picture perfect video and much more.
It won’t be just the phone networks that need to evolve, the increased traffic load on the internet as a whole (imagine having 1 billion 100mb nodes attached to a network overnight) will need to expand, with faster backbones and oceanic links requiring major upgrade.
4G won’t happen overnight, it is estimated that it will be implemented by 2010, and if done correctly, should take off rather quickly.
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26-03-2011, 02:30 PM

PRESENTED BY:
D.MANOJ KUMAR
P.PALLAVI


.doc   4G - MOBILE COMMUNICATION.doc (Size: 48.5 KB / Downloads: 45)
ABSTRACT
With the rapid development of communication networks, it is expected that fourth generation mobile systems will be launched within decades. Fourth generation (4G) mobile systems focus on seamlessly integrating the existing wireless technologies including GSM, wireless LAN, and Bluetooth. This contrasts with third generation (3G), which merely focuses on developing new standards and hardware. 4G systems will support comprehensive and personalized services providing stable system performance and quality service. This paper gives the details about the need for mobile communication and its development in various generations. In addition, the details about the working of 4G mobile communication were given. Finally, it narrates how 4G mobile communication will bring a new level of connectivity and convenece in communication.
1.INTRODUCTION
Communication is one of the important areas of electronics and always been a focus for exchange of information among parties at locations physically apart. There may be different mode of communication. The communication may be wired or wireless between two links. Initially the mobile communication was limited to between one pair of users on single channel pair. Mobile communication has undergone many generations. The first generation of the RF cellular used analog technology. The modulation was FM and the air interface was FDMA. Second generation was an offshoot of Personal Land Mobile Telephone System (PLMTS). It used Gaussian Shift Keying modulation (GMSK). All these systems had practically no technology in common and frequency bands, air interface protocol, data rates, number of channels and modulation techniques all were difficult. Dynamic Quality of Service (QoS) parameter was always on the top priority list. Higher transmission bandwidth and higher efficiency usage had to be targeted. On this background development of 3G mobile communication systems took place. In this Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode technology using 5MHz channels was used. This had no backward compatibility with any of the predecessors. But 3G appeared to be somewhat unstable technology due to lack of standardization, licensing procedures and terminal and service compatibility. Biggest single inhibitor of any new technology in mobile communication is the mobile terminal availability in the required quantity, with highest QoS and better battery life. The future of mobile communication is FAMOUS-FUTUERE Advanced Mobile Universal Systems, Wide-band TDMA, Wideband CDMA are some of the technologies. The data rates targeted are 20MBPS. That will be the 4G in the mobile communication. 4G must be hastened, as some of the video applications cannot be contained within 3G.
2.DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOBILE COMMUNICATION
The communication industry is undergoing cost saving programs reflected by slowdown in the upgrade or overhaul of the infrastructure, while looking for new ways to provide third generation (3G) like services and features with the existing infrastructures. This has delayed the large-scale development of 3G networks, and given rise to talk of 4G technologies. Second generation (2G) mobile systems were very successful in the previous decade. Their success prompted the development of third generation (3G) mobile systems. While 2G systems such as GSM, andIS-95 etc. were designed to carry speech and low bit-rate data. 3G systems were designed to provide higher data-rate services. During the evolution from 2G to3G, a range of wireless systems, including GPRS, IMT-2000, Bluetooth, WLAN, and Hiper LAN have been developed. All these systems were designed independently, targeting different service types, data rates, and users. As these systems all have their own merits and shortcomings, there is no single system that is good to replace all the other technologies. Instead of putting into developing new radio interface and technologies for 4G systems, it is believed in establishing 4G systems is a more feasible option.
3. ARCHITECTURAL CHANGES IN 4G TECHNOLOGY
In 4G architecture, focus is on the aspect that multiple networks are able to function in such a way that interfaces are transparent to users and services. Multiplicities of access and service options are going to be other key parts of the paradigm shift. In the present scenario and with the growing popularity of Internet, a shift is needed to switch over from circuit switched mode to packet switched mode of transmission. However 3G networks and few others, packet switching is employed for delay insensitive data transmission services. Assigning packets to virtual channels and then multiple physical channels would be possible when access options are expanded permitting better statistical multiplexing. One would be looking for universal access and ultra connectivity, which could be enabled by:
(a) Wireless networks and with wire line networks.
(b) Emergence of a true IP over the air technology.
© Highly efficient use of wireless spectrum and resources.
(d) Flexible and adaptive systems and networks.
4. SOME KEY FEATURES OF 4G TECHNOLOGY
Some key features (mainly from the users point of view) of 4G networks are:
1. High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology
2. Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost
3. Personalization
4. Integrated services
First, 4G networks are all IP based heterogeneous networks that allow users to use any system at any time and anywhere. Users carrying an integrated terminal can use a wide range of applications provided by multiple wireless networks.
Second, 4G systems provide not only telecommunications services, but also data and multimedia services. To support multimedia services high data-rate services with good system reliability will be provided. At the same time, a low per-bit transmission cost will be maintained.
Third, personalized service will be provided by the new generation network.
Finally, 4G systems also provide facilities for integrated services. Users can use multiple services from any service provider at the same time.
To migrate current systems to 4G with the features mentioned above, we have to face number challenges. Some of them were discussed below.
4.1 MULTIMODE USER TERMINALS
In order to use large variety of services and wireless networks in 4G systems, multimode user terminals are essential as they can adopt different wireless networks by reconfiguring themselves. This eliminates the need to use multiple terminals (or multiple hardware components in a terminal). The most promising way of implementing multimode user terminals is to adopt the software radio approach. The analog part of the receiver consists of an antenna, a band pass filter (BPF), and a low noise amplifier (LNA). The received analog signal is digitized by the analog to digital converter (ADC) immediately after the analog processing. The processing in the next stage (usually still analog processing in the conventional terminals) is then performed by a reprogrammable base band digital signal processor (DSP). The Digital Signal Processor will process the digitized signal in accordance with the wireless environment.
4.2. TERMINAL MOBILITY
In order to provide wireless services at any time and anywhere, terminal mobility is a must in 4G infrastructures, terminal mobility allows mobile client to roam across boundaries of wireless networks. There are two main issues in terminal mobility: location management and handoff management. With the location management, the system tracks and locates a mobile terminal for possible connection. Location management involves handling all the information about the roaming terminals, such as original and current located cells, authentication information, and Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities. On the other hand, handoff management maintains ongoing communications when the terminal roams. MobileIPv6 (MIPv6) is a standardized IP-based mobility protocol for Ipv6 wireless systems. In this design, each terminal has an IPv6 home address whenever the terminal moves outside the local network, the home address becomes invalid, and the terminal obtain a new Ipv6 address (called a care-of address) in the visited network. A binding between the terminal’s home address and care-of address is updated to its home agent in-order to support continuous communication.
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