Civil Engineering seminar or presentation Abstract And Report 4
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Study and Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Hexagonal Metals

Introduction
Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals deform plastically by a variety of slip and twinning modes. The relative contribution of these mechanisms depends strongly on the material studied and the conditions, such as temperature, under which the deformation is performed. This work further elucidates the complicated competition and interactions between twinning and slip deformation modes for two hcp materials, namely zirconium and magnesium. The model presented here to simulate the mechanical behavior of these materials is a new version of the visco-plastic self consistent (VPSC) model. In this version, twinning is accounted for using a composite-grain twin model which has been shown to better reproduce the effects of the microstructure evolution onto the mechanical response of the material, especially during strain path changes, than previous models. To ensure this microstructure based model is physically accurate, experimental data such as active twinning modes and twin volume fraction evolution are necessary. In this purpose, a new automatic twin recognition code has been developed in order to extract quantitative twin statistics from electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) data.
Investigating The Effect Of Shrinkage Stresses On Creep
Investigating The Effect Of Shrinkage Stresses On Creep

Introduction
By use of novel experimental investigations, this research will clarify the differentiation of creep and shrinkage effects with regard to the effects of specimen sizes and loading conditions (e.g., bending or axial loading). In particular moisture diffusion, differential shrinkage strains, creep will be evaluated in numerical models. Moreover, the numerical investigation is carried out in order to obtain reliable predictions of shrinkage effects for "full-scale" concrete structures.
Commercialising Ocean Nourishment
Commercialising Ocean Nourishment

Introduction
Ocean Nourishment, the concept of adding nutrients to the upper ocean to store carbon and increase fish stocks, has been a subject of study in the Ocean Technology Group for the last decade. An Australian firm is now undertaking commercialisation of this idea and it is interesting to examine whether this may lead to an innovation in the supply of marine protein. This talk traces the technology development and the changes in public perception about climate change. Although the idea of Ocean Nourishment was patented more than a decade ago, commercialisation had to await the introduction of carbon credits of significant value. This provided the opportunity to obtain a revenue stream that would allow the much more speculative impact on marine resources to be studied experimentally. Ocean Nourishment now is at the stage where merchant banks are attempting to obtain the resources to allow large scale implementation.
Engineering: Design Your World
Engineering: Design Your World

Introduction
Replacing the usual research seminar and presentation, this week the School presents a new 20 minute DVD produced by the Association of Consulting Structural Engineers, ACEA, entitled Engineering: Design Your World.

Engineering: Design Your World is an exciting initiative produced to heighten young minds to the valuable role engineers play in shaping our world.

It is hoped that this DVD will demystify the role of engineers by unravelling the huge diversity and misconceptions of this vital and exciting profession.

The DVD showcases various project and implimentations across a variety of disciplines, including interviews with young engieers who confess to both challenges and rewards of taking part in some of the world's most impressive creations.

To provide feedback to the ACEA attendees will be asked to fill in a short survey after the presentation.
Experimental study upon local scour of a sandy seabed around a submarine pipeline in ocean currents
Experimental study upon local scour of a sandy seabed around a submarine pipeline in ocean currents

Introduction
Local scour of sandy seabed around a submarine pipeline in ocean currents is a complex fluid-pipe-soil coupling problem. The similarity rules for modeling local scour of pipeline are established by means of dimensional analysis method. Physical phenomenon of local scour around the pipeline was modeled in a unidirectional flow flume. Experimental observation indicates that the process of local scour around the pipeline with an initial embedment involves four characteristic stages, i.e. spanning of pipeline, tunnel erosion, lee-wake erosion and equilibrium scouring stages. In the subcritical flow regime, there exists low correlativity between equilibrium scour depth and Reynolds number. In the case of clear-water scour, the equilibrium scour depth increases with increasing Shields number, and descends linearly with increasing initial gap-diameter ratio in the examined range of initial gap-diameter ratios (-0.25 < e0 /D < 0.55).
Yield line analysis of a tunnel lining element using the Monte Carlo Simulation
Yield line analysis of a tunnel lining element using the Monte Carlo Simulation

Introduction
In the construction of tunnel support systems, the locations of the rock bolts installed may depart from initially designed ones. On the other hand, tunnel linings are subject to various loads including rock mass and randomly falling rocks. The locations of the rock bolts and falling rocks affect the loading capacity of a tunnel lining. For the reasons of safety and economy, mining industries are very keen to know the quantitative effect of these location variations on the loading capacity of a tunnel lining. The investigation aims to quantify the effect by using yield line analysis and Monte Carlo Simulation.

Monte Carlo Simulation combined with yield line analysis is employed to search for the critical yield mechanism of a tunnel lining element subject to a uniform load and a point load and to estimate the collapse load of the lining element. We examine the effects of the location variation of the rock bolts and a randomly falling rock treated as a point load on the collapse load.
Effects of Tunnelling on Existing Support Systems in the Sydney Region
Effects of Tunnelling on Existing Support Systems in the Sydney Region

Introduction
Underground excavations such as tunnels have been gradually increasing during the last few decades because of the development of better and more environmentally friendly infrastructure (e.g. highways, railways, subways, sewage disposal, communication, power transmission and other subsurface lifelines) in congested urban cities. As a result, the construction of new tunnels in close proximity to existing structures such as adjacent tunnels, piles, buildings, and pipelines becomes indispensable. In such cases, it is essential to protect the existing structures, and to control the construction of the new tunnel in order not to cause adverse effects on them since the construction of the new tunnels leads inevitably to ground displacements and deformations, which may affect the existing structures and lead to unacceptable damage.

This presentation will study the effect of tunnelling on the existing support system (i.e. shotcrete lining and rock bolts) of an adjacent tunnel using full three-dimensional (3D) numerical techniques, which takes into account the tunnelling procedure, the interaction between the shotcrete lining and rock mass, the interaction between the rock bolts and rock mass, and the elasto-plastic behaviour of the rock mass, the shotcrete lining and the rock bolts. The main objectives are: 1) to develop the 3D numerical procedure, i.e. TUNNEL3D incorporating with ABAQUS; 2) to investigate the complete response of the existing support system to the installation of adjacent parallel/crossover tunnels; 3) to address the influence of the tunnel construction length, the boundary conditions and the mesh, and the position between the new and existing tunnels on the obtained results; and 4) to qualitatively compare the numerical results with othersâ„¢ field observations and model tests. The main results are summarized into the following two recent papers:

* Liu HY, Small JC, Carter JP. 2007. Full 3D modelling for effects of tunnelling on existing support systems in the Sydney region. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology (In press and online available, doi: 10.1016/j.tust.2007.06.009)
* Liu HY, Small JC, Carter JP. Effects of tunnelling on the existing support system of a perpendicular crossover tunnel (manuscript in review)

However, this presentation will suppose the rock masses in tunnels are perfectly excavated by mechanical tools such as TBM (tunnel boring machine) and ignore the excavation process by TBM. Please refer to our following recent papers for the fracture process of rock mass by mechanical tools:

* Liu HY, Kou SQ, Lindqvist PA. 2007. Numerical studies on bit-rock fragmentation mechanisms. International Journal of Geomechanics ASCE (In press, to be published in October 2007)
* Liu HY, Kou SQ, Lindqvist PA, Tang CA. 2007. Numerical modelling of the heterogeneous rock fracture process using various test techniques. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 40 (2): 107-144
The Development of Scaffold Research
The Development of Scaffold Research

Introduction
Scaffolds are temporary structures generally used in construction to support various types of loads. The vertical loads on scaffold can be from labourers, construction equipment, formworks, and construction materials. Commonly, scaffolds must also be designed to withstand lateral loads, for instance, wind loads, impact loads, and earthquake loads.

This presentation will cover brief description of scaffold systems, common causes of scaffold collapses, analysis and modelling of scaffold structures, ultimate load capacities, and my up-to-date research. My research includes 3D nonlinear finite element analysis and modelling of scaffold structures. Furthermore, design optimisation and studies of bracing configuration will be carried out.
Modelling Interfacial Wave Attenuation
Modelling Interfacial Wave Attenuation

Introduction
Density variations are known to occur within the ocean due to changes in temperature, salinity and suspended particulate concentration. Such deviations from homogeneity can be manifested as a continuous variation or as step-like change. In this seminar and presentation we will investigate the propagation of two-dimensional progressive interfacial gravity waves on a two-layer step-like stratification of two different but constant densities, where the two fluid layers are considered to move above a permeable seabed. A nonlinear analytical solution assuming potential flow of miscible, inviscid and incompressible fluids is considered in addition to the numerical solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The effects of geometric and flow parameters such as ratios of depths and densities of the two fluids and seabed characteristics on the viscous attenuation of waves due to the combined effects of the wave interaction with the porous seabed, damping within the fluid layers, and damping at the interface of the two fluids will then be studied and discussed.
Interaction of a Coupled Model for an Offshore Pile
Interaction of a Coupled Model for an Offshore Pile

Introduction
A coupled model is developed to investigate the dynamic interaction between an offshore pile, the seabed and seawater. The pile and seabed are described by Biotâ„¢s dynamic theory, while the seawater is characterized by the Helmholtz equation. Three boundary element formulations are constructed for the pile, seabed and seawater and the continuity conditions are used to formulate the model for the system. The dynamic response of the system is calculated and a numerical example is used to demonstrate the capacity of the coupled model.
Some recent findings related to the long-term performance of liner systems
Some recent findings related to the long-term performance of liner systems

Introduction
The GeoEnginnering Centre at Queen's-RMC is currently engaged in a major study of the long-term performance of landfill composite liner systems. This work included large scale laboratory tests examining full liner systems in landfill simulators, laboratory studies of aging of geomembranes, laboratory studies of shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) when composite liners are left exposed in the field, field studies of wrinkling of geomembranes, field studies of shrinkage of GCLs, and numerical modelling of heat and moisture transfer in barrier systems. This presentation will provide an overview of the research, its motivation and some recent results highlight new findings.

Biographical Sketch

Dr. Kerry Rowe is Professor of Civil Engineering and Vice Principal (Research) at Queenâ„¢s University, Kingston, Canada. Prior to joining Queen's in 2000, Professor Rowe was educated at the University of Sydney BSc('73), BE(Hons I, '75), PhD('79), D.Eng ('93), worked for the Australian Government Department of Construction in Sydney for 6 years, and spent 21 years at the University of Western Ontario. Author of more than 200 refereed journal papers; 3 books; 14 book chapters; 200 full conference papers, he has extensive research and consulting experience in the geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering field. His research has been recognized by numerous awards including being a former NSERC Steacie Fellow, a Killam Prize winner (Canada's highest award in Engineering), and was selected to present the 45th Rankine Lecture in March 2005. He is a fellow of both the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering as well as Professional Societies in Australia, Canada and USA. He is currently President of the Engineering Institute of Canada.
Impacts of Global Climate Change and Sea-level Rise in the Coastal Regions of Bangladesh
Impacts of Global Climate Change and Sea-level Rise in the Coastal Regions of Bangladesh

Introduction
This presentation will start with a brief summary of global climate change and sea-level rise and then it will present some observed data along the Bay of Bengal where rate of sea-level rise is larger than global average rate. It will then outline the possible impacts in the coastal regions of Bangladesh with especial attention to coastal flooding, erosion and salinity intrusion.

Some useful numerical tools to investigate cyclone-induced storm surge and associated coastal flooding will also be described. It will then present simulated results of coastal flooding for different climate scenarios.

At the final part, it will show on-going as well as recommended adaptation measures along the coastal belt. Finally, the presentation will come to an end with a set of recommendations that might be useful for any low-lying deltaic countries or island countries to cope with future adverse climate.
Application of BEM to Wave Interaction with Multi-Bodies & A brief of coastal facilities at DUT
Application of BEM to Wave Interaction with Multi-Bodies & A brief of coastal facilities at DUT

Introduction
This seminar and presentation will firstly describe the facilities for Coastal Engineering research at Dalian University of Technology. This will include details of the flumes and large scale wave generation tank.
The seminar and presentation will then outline the use of the BEM (boundary element method) to solve problems involving the interaction of waves and various bodies in the water.
The Reliability-Based Assessment of Existing Bridge Structures: Live Load-Effects Given by Various Australian Design Trucks
The Reliability-Based Assessment of Existing Bridge Structures: Live Load-Effects Given by Various Australian Design Trucks

Introduction
Bridges are considered as an essential part of the transportation network. There are the demands for new bridges and at the same time there are the needs to operate old bridges. In Australia, more than 50% of bridges are over 50 years old. The legal load limits have been continuously pushed to increase from industrial sections by operating longer and heavier vehicles on highways. Most existing bridges, designed according to the design codes at that time, are determined as unsatisfactory bridges because of the failure to satisfy structural requirements based on the current design standards. These may result in the replacement of bridges that are actually performing sufficiently in real locations. These emphasise the need for a better more realistic approach in evaluating the safety of existing bridges.

This presentation will briefly introduce the basic concepts of the main objectives in this research. The improvement of live load models, dynamic load allowance (DLA) and the procedures to achieve better realistic models will be discussed. Finally, the results of load-effects given by various Australian design trucks, analysed by load stepping method, will be compared and presented. The results will be used to determine the effectiveness of Influence Line method in determining peak load-effects for single-span simply-supported bridges and typical 3-span continuous bridges.
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