Cyborg
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24-02-2009, 12:32 AM


A cyborg is a cybernetic organism (i.e., an organism that has both artificial and natural systems). The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space.[1] D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction by Manfred Clynes, who wrote of a "new frontier" that was "not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between 'inner space' to 'outer space' -a bridge...between mind and matter."[2] The cyborg is often seen today merely as an organism that has enhanced abilities due to technology,[3] but this perhaps oversimplifies the category of feedback.

Fictional cyborgs are portrayed as a synthesis of organic and synthetic parts, and frequently pose the question of difference between human and machine as one concerned with morality, free will, and empathy. Fictional cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g. the Borg in the Star Trek franchise or Amber from the game Project Eden); or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g. the "Human" Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica). The 1970s television series the Six Million Dollar Man featured one of the most famous fictional cyborgs. Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will. Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).

Real (as opposed to fictional) cyborgs are more frequently people who use cybernetic technology to repair or overcome the physical and mental constraints of their bodies. While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, they can be any kind of organism.


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29-06-2010, 12:34 AM

CYBORG
Abstract
Cyborg is a cybernetic organism. Cybernetics is a study of communication and control of machines, organism or a mixture of both. Cyborg is a mixture of organism and technology. An organism with any type of enhancement can be called cyborg. It is half living and half machine. The process of becoming a cyborg is called cyborgation. There are different type of cyborg such as cyborg with artificial hearts, cyborgs with retinal implants, cyborgs with brain sensors cyborgs with bionic arms etc. Also animal cyborgs such as cyborg eel, robo roach etc. Cyborg find there application mainly in military, medicine etc. Most of the soldiers in US military are undergoing cyborgation. Cyborgation is used for treatment of Parkinson€„¢s disease, for people with vision problem etc
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16-07-2010, 05:56 PM

can u tell how to download this document
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07-03-2011, 11:11 AM

Presented by:
S. Pranay kumar


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CYBORG
What is a Cyborg?

 Originated from the concept of cybernetics, which is the study of communication and control of machines, organism or a mixture of both, cyborg is referred to as a mixture of both the organism and the technology. When an organism is half human and half machine then we call them cyborg.
 For Example:
 Cochlear implants in the ear and Artificial Heart
Objective
 living being with a mechanical body part which is replaced for the damaged or lost body part. Among them has prime importance, it has functioning similar to our leg. These external mechanical parts works by the stimulations received generated from our neural system
Working
 The Neural impulses are converted into electrical impulse at the neuron stimulator and hence the sensing function of the machine part is done as the original biological part.
APPLICATIONS
 MEDICAL FIELD
 MILITARY
 SPORTS
 ART & POPULAR CULTURE
Advantages
 Prolongs life
 Enables one to lead a normal life
 Gives a part of the body back
 Improves the quality of life
Disadvantages
 Training is needed for doctors
 They are all expensive
 Psychological problems
 Feeling ‘different’ to everyone else
 The risk of rejection/infection
 Pain during operation
Conclusion
 Humans have limited capabilities. Humans sense the world in a restricted way, vision being the best of the senses.
 But these capabilities must get improved for the human beings to exist in this competitive world.
 Only technology can make it possible. And Cyborgology is the future technology for the purpose to be get real.
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07-03-2011, 11:34 AM

I want detailed Information about cyborg.thankyou.
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30-03-2011, 09:41 AM


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CYBORG
What is a Cyborg?

Humans who have machine parts incorporated into their bodies.
For example:
Cochlear implants in the ear…
Artificial Hearts
Artificial Limbs
Pacemakers
Advantages

Prolongs life
Enables one to lead a normal life
Gives a part of the body back
Improves the quality of life
Disadvantages
Training is needed for doctors
They are all expensive
Psychological problems
Feeling ‘different’ to everyone else
The risk of rejection/infection
Pain during operation
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06-04-2011, 04:55 PM

Presented By
SATHAVAHANA CHOWDARY. B
PRAVEEN KOLLA


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ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION

Human capability has long been limited by biology. Our mental and physical capabilities are limited. Athletes have pushed the limits of strength and endurance. Human working memory has always been limited to a relatively small number of items. Our minds, even of the most talented, are limited. And as we age, we go frail, both physically and mentally. Up to now, our advances in technology have functioned as accessories, enhancing our capabilities but not making any changes in our biology.
Now, we are able to develop a technology that helps us in the implantation of bio-electronic devices to amplify human thought, memory, vision, and muscle power. After these implants, a human-being becomes a Cyborg.
A CYBORG is a human-machine hybrid (cybernetic organism). It is part cybernetic and part human. Like all hybrids, Cyborgs provoke ambivalent responses. Their techno-bodies are represented super healthy, super clean and "more real than real" and their invulnerability makes them both seductive and potentially dangerous.
Introduction:
How might we interact with future computers? Let me list the ways: By gesture, by hand, foot and body motion, by the speed and forcefulness of our activities, by our thoughts, feelings and emotions, by where, how and when we look, by speech and sound, by music and touch. Imagine it and it shall come to pass? Not quite, but the potential is staggering, especially in the area of the cyborg—the implantation of bio-electronic devices to amplify human thought, memory, vision, and muscle power.
Cyborg is a cybernetic organism whose mental and physical and mental abilities are far extended by the machine technology.
It’s partly human and partly a machine.
WHY ?
The number of respected scientists predicting the advent of intelligent machines is growing exponentially. Steven Hawking, perhaps the most highly regarded theoretical scientist in the world and the holder of the Cambridge University chair that once belonged to Isaac Newton, said recently, "In contrast with our intellect, computers double their performance every 18 months. So the danger is real that they could develop intelligence and take over the world." He added, "We must develop as quickly as possible technologies that make possible a direct connection between brain and computer, so that artificial brains contribute to human intelligence rather than opposing it. The important message to take from this is that the danger that we will see machines with an intellect that outperforms that of humans—is real.The communication to robos is very difficult. There are certain grey areas in the man’s ability in order to rectify them
HOW CYBORGS ARE MADE..?
The chip is to be implanted in to our body, which consists of an array of electrodes. These electrodes are extremely thin, similar in dimension to a human hair. When implanted this get in contact with median nerve in order to record the reactions and simulate the nerves. The array is in turn in connected to the signal processing system through wires. The implant is a two way communication.
V ISUALISATIONS:
We think a lot isn’t it? We think logically , Analytically but we lack the processing capabilities.
What if we can get the processing capabilities of machine with our own way of thinking. No doubt we can create absolutely wonders.
8-Q This problem is keeping the 8 queens o chess board such that one queen should not face the other either diagonally ,horizontally or vertically squares.
There are nearly 96 different solutions to solve this problem. But, our computer performs 69,821 calculations of them only 2.34% of them are really needed.
So, a computer which can not think does all the calculations which are unnecessary.
SU-DO-KU:
Su-do-ku is another great puzzle which can be solved by computers in fraction of UEEN PROBLEM:
seconds but it can not be solved by us in that less time.
Because the processing capabilities of man are very less.
APPLICATIONS:
1) It is possible that the procedure could lead to a medical breakthrough for people paralyzed by spinal cord damage.
2) I hope to wire myself up to an ultrasonic sensor, used by robots to navigate around objects, to give myself a bat-like sixth sense.
3) The technique could be developed within a decade to restore movement to a tetraplegic's hand or feeling to a prosthetic leg used by an amputee.
Military applications:
1)Computer overlay maps project and implimentationed through an eyepiece positioned over a soldier's right eye offer a view of the terrain ahead with out being exposed.
2) This system will allow them to move leaps and bounds ahead of the current infantrymen on the battlefield.
3) Assault weapons are fitted with thermal sights able to zero in on warm bodies through the fog of war.
4) Global positioning systems track the soldier's every step through forests or jungle and tell commanders exactly where everyone is while a battle rages.
CHALLENGES AND CONCERNS:
1) The brain communicates with itself through a complex, highly parallel communication process involving the firing patterns of neural impulses, biochemical stimulation that bathes the brain structures with highly tuned molecular structures, and methods as yet unknown. Just how information is stored, regenerated, and interpreted within brain circuits remains a major mystery, one unlikely to be solved soon. I’m sure, we can record neural firings from tens of neurons and we can stimulate neurons to create crude sensory images. But full-fledged, precise control of the expert performer eludes understanding. Note how easy it is for computers to perform tasks we find difficult, such as arithmetic calculations and precise memory and how difficult to perform tasks we find trivial, such as walking and talking, throwing and seeing, understanding and creating.
2) When we program something in computer language, we’re essentially devising different optimal ways of bending binary codes. So, if I were to be a cyborg having circuitry implanted in my body, what language should I use? The speed at which my nerves communicate is ultra fast than any super computer there may be. But maybe the smarties at silicon valley can come up with a language that can form a pretty good bridge between an electrical circuit and a neural circuit (Neural Networks or Genetic algorithms).
3) As a human being isolated in a biological body, I can choose to indulge or relinquish contact, but I doubt if I would have the same liberty as an online existent being. For example, when we chat, we project and implimentation only those truths that we want to project and implimentation. The same is about a website. I would not normally write in my website that I enjoy smoking although that is a truth from which I am trying to escape. As a CYBORG, if I were to upload my whole consciousness online for all eternity, how secure would I feel? Anybody worth his programming could hack into my life and read all about me, also insert whatever fancy stuff they feel should be a part of my life.
4) Today, we test athletes in an evermore difficult attempt to eliminate drug-enhanced performance. Some day we may have to do full X-ray (3D tomographic) scans in an ever-more difficult attempt to detect artificial implants. Why? Because it is possible.
F A Q
What did your first chip implant do? When did it take place?
For the first experimental chip implant, back in August 1998, the implant merely sent a signal to the computer in the department here in Reading, which identified me. So the computer was programmed to open doors, switch on lights etc. depending where I was. For the next experiment we will be sending signals from the nervous system - which is a lot more complex.

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18-04-2011, 11:24 AM


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ABSTRACT:
In the years ahead we will witness machines with intelligence more powerful than that of humans. This will mean that robots, not humans, make all the important decisions. It will be a robot dominated world with dire consequences for humankind. Is there an alternative way ahead?
Humans have limited capabilities. Humans sense the world in a restricted way, vision being the best of the senses. Humans understand the world in only 3 dimensions and communicate in a very slow, serial fashion called speech. But can this be improved on? Can we use technology to upgrade humans?
A Cyborg is a CYBernetic ORGanism, part human part machine. In this, we will go through Kevin Warwick’s amazing steps towards becoming a Cyborg. The story is one of scientific endeavor and devotion, splitting apart the personal lives of himself and those around him. This astounding and unique story takes in top scientists from around the globe and seriously questions human morals, values and ethics.
CYBORG:
CYBORG, a compound word derived from Cybernetics and Organism, is a term coined by Manfred Clynes in 1960 to describe the need for mankind to artificially enhance biological functions in order to survive in the hostile environment of space. Originally, a CYBORG reffered to a “ Human being with a bodily functions aided or controlled by technological devices, such as an oxygen tank, artificial heart valve or insulin pump.” Over the years, the term has acquired a more general meaning, describing the dependence of human beings on technology. In this sense , CYBORG can be used to characterize anyone who relies on a computer to complete his or her daily work.
A CYBORG is a Cybernetics Organism, part human – part machine. This concept is bit tricky but let see an example of a CYBORG: you may have seen a movie “TERMINATOR.” In that ARNOLD was a CYBORG. He was part man- part machine. Well definition exactly says this; CYBORG can be made by technology known as CYBERNETICS. “What is CYBERNETICS?”, To understand CYBORG , this is the first step that we’ll see in the next topic.
CYBERNETICS:
Cybernetics is word coined by group of scientists led by Norbert Wiener and made popular by Wiener’s book of 1948, Cybernetics or Communication in the animal and the Machine. Based on the Greek “Kybernetics”, meaning steersman or governor, cybernetics is the science or study of the control or regulation mechanism in human and machine systems, including computers.
CYBERNETICS could be thought of as recently developed science, although to some extent it cuts across existing science. If we think of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc. as a traditional science, then Cybernetics is a classification, which cuts across them all. Cybernetics is formally defined as the science of control and communication in animals, men and machines. It extracts, from whatever context, that which is concerned with information processing and control …. One major characteristics of cybernetics is its preoccupation with the construction of models and here it overlaps operational research. Cybernetics models are usually distinguished by being hierarchical, adaptive and making permanent use of feedback loops… Cybernetics in some ways is like the science of organization, with special emphasis on the dynamic nature of the system being organized.
MAN MERGED WITH COMPUTERS
This is the question that professor Kevin Warwick and his team at the department of Cybernetics, university of Reading intend to answer with “Project Cyborg”.
On Monday,24th august, 1998, Professor Kevin Warwick underwent an operation to surgically implant a Silicon chip transponder in his arm. Dr.George Boulous carried out the operation usin anesthetic only.
This experiment allowed a computer to monitor Kevin Warwick as he moved through halls and offices of the department of Cybernetics at the university of Reading, using a unique identifying signal emitted by the implanted chip. He could operate doors, lights, heaters and other computers without lifting a finger.
The chip implant technology has the capability to impact our lives in ways that we have been thought previously in the movie. The implant could carry all sorts of information about a person, from access and visa details to your National Insurance Number, blood type, medical records,etc. with tha data being updated where necessary.
MAN UPGRADING HIMSELF WITH COMPUTERS
Professor Kevin Warwick, the world's leading expert in Cybernetics, here he unveils the story of how he became the worlds first Cyborg in a ground breaking set of scientific experiments.
In the years ahead we will witness machines with an intelligence more powerful than that of humans. This will mean that robots, not humans, make all the important decisions. It will be a robot dominated world with dire consequences for humankind. Is there an alternative way ahead?
Humans have limited capabilities. Humans sense the world in a restricted way, vision being the best of the senses. Humans understand the world in only 3 dimensions and communicate in a very slow, serial fashion called speech. But can this be improved on? Can we use technology to upgrade humans?
The possibility exists to enhance human capabilities. To harness the ever increasing abilities of machine intelligence, to enable extra sensory input and to communicate in a much richer way, using thought alone. Kevin Warwick has taken the first steps on this path, using himself as a guinea pig test subject receiving, by surgical operation, technological implants connected to his central nervous system.
A Cyborg is a Cybernetic Organism, part human part machine. In this book Kevin gives a very personal account of his amazing steps towards becoming a Cyborg. The story is one of scientific endeavour and devotion, splitting apart the personal lives of himself and those around him. This astounding and unique story takes in top scientists from around the globe and seriously questions human morals, values and ethics.
In the late summer of 2001, it is planned for Kevin Warwick to have a further implant. In this case the nervous system in his arm will be short circuited, via a radio signal, with the nervous system of the computer. They will investigate how his movement can be remotely controlled and how much his emotions can be directed by the computer. They will feed in ultrasonic information and try to bring about extra sensory perception.
BIOCHIP IN HUMAN BODY
The concept is TO PUT A CHIP IN THE HUMAN BODY, suddenly a question arise in our mind is it possible to put a chip in human body? What sort of efforts it will take? After some research we are confident that in near future we will be able to keep a chip in our body for safety, GPS for human body.
In some sort of accident people put themselves in catastrophic situation. At that moment this chip will help them to over come from such situation. While two politicians are planning for some corruption at that moment this chip will be helpful to get information what they did. Even it gets you with the information of he person who is kidnapped with the use of GPS, which will be available in this chip.
After considering all these situation we come to the point that , there must be some technology to over come such situation and there we found a semi conductor CHIP which was made up of silicon material. This chip contains information about the person who has this chip in his body. Like name, address, DNA report, etc.
To use this chip we would like to use some other technology like Nano Technology through which we can diagnose the internal thing of human body.
We can put this chip in human body by minor operation. The good thing about this is that it has no side effects. We can put this chip at the at the back of our neck or under the hair skin.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Whether it be a new emerging technology , a new instrument or a new equipment, everything has got its advantages and disadvantages. It depends on the user to make a proper use of equipped devices & the technologies. So, here are the set of advantages and disadvantages of CYBORG.
ADVANTAGES:
• The human cyborg represents a ‘transitional species’ of sorts,before the human enters total post-biological obsolescence.
• If evolution is theorized from an abstract perspective as an attempt to increase the information processing power latent in matter, in the struggle against entropy, it is clear that Artificial life will eventually win out against organic life since it is more durable and more efficient.
• These extropians see this as perhaps bad news for the human race, but in the long term at least good news for the planet and apparently the universe.
• There are others who foresee perhaps a more peacable coexistence for human beings and electronic ‘life’, however . one recent theory that has been bantered about lately is that the human race may have reached the saturation point for economic growth, but this is fortunate since it has arrived in time for it to work on ‘human growth’, i.e. the re-engineering of the human species.
• We can ‘graducate’ from being victims of natural selection to masters of self-selection. It seems hard to argue against increasing human longevity, intelligence, or strength , since human beings seem to live too short a span, to make too many mistakes in reasoning, and to to lack the physical endurance necessary to make great accomplishments.
• Lastly , there are the postmodern theorists , normally noted for their anti technological stance, who have taken a favorable position on the coming of the cyborg.
DISADVANTAGES
• The critics of bioelectronics and biocomputing foresee numerous potential negative social consequences from the technology. One is that the human race will divide along the lines of biological haves and have-nots.
• People with enough money will be able to argument their personal attributes as they see fit as well as to utilize cloning , organ replacement, etc. to stave off death for as long as they wish , while the majority of humanity will continue to suffer from hunger, bad genes, and infirmity.
• Certainly, it would be easy to utilize bio-implants that would allow people to trace the location and perhaps even monitor the condition and behavior of implanted persons.
• This would be tremendous violation of human privacy , but the creators of human biotech might see it as necessary to keep their subjects under control. Once implanted with bio-implant electronic devices , ‘cyborg’ might become highly dependent on the creators of these devices for their repair, recharge, and maintenance.
• It could be possible to modify the person technologically so that body would stop producing some essential substance for survival , thus placing them under the absolute control of the designer of the technology.
• Even those not spiritually inclined who still nevertheless posses the feeling that there is something within humanity which is not found in animals or machines and which makes us uniquely human, worry that the essence of our humanity will be lost to this technology.
CONCLUSION
Finally I would like to say that if the future of intelligent robots, then to protect mankind, we will must need some TERMINATORs. They all are CYBORGS. Because by making human CYBORGS, we may have the following extra ordinary capabilities….
• We will be able to communicate between each other by thought signals alone, so no more need for telephones, old fashioned signals, we all are able to think to each other via implants.
• Instead of communicating by speech as we do presently, we will be able to think to each other, simply by implants connected to our nervous system linking our brains electronically together, possibility even over the internet.
• We won’t need the languages that we presently do, we’ll need a new language of ideas and the concepts in order to communicate thoughts from brain to brain.

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19-04-2011, 12:53 PM


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1. INTRODUCTION
There are possibility exists to enhance human capabilities. To harness the ever increasing abilities of machine intelligence, to enable extra sensory input and to communicate in a much richer way, using thought alone. Kevin Warwick has taken the first steps on this path, using himself as a guinea pig test subject receiving, by surgical operation, technological implants connected to his central nervous,system.
1.1. Cybermetics
Cybermetics is the interdisciplinary study of the the structure of the regulatory system.Cybermetics is closely related to control theory and system theory.Contemporary cybermetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control system,Electrical network theory,mechanical engineering,logic models,evolutionary biology,Neuroscience etc..
1.2. Cyborg
Cyborgs are originated from the concept of Cybermetics .A cyborg , also known as a cybermetic organism is a being with both biological and artificial values (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts.
Cyborg is a mixture of organism and technology. An organism with any type of enhancement can be called cyborg. It is half living and half machine. The process of becoming a cyborg is called cyborgation. There are different type of cyborg such as cyborg with artificial hearts, cyborgs with retinal implants, cyborgs with brain sensors cyborgs with bionic arms etc. Also animal cyborgs such as cyborg eel, robo roach etc. Cyborg find there application mainly in military, medicine etc. Most of the soldiers in US military are undergoing cyborgation. Cyborgation is used for treatment of Parkinsons disease, for people with vision problem etc.The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space. The cyborg is often seen today merely as an organism that has enhanced abilities due to technology.
According to some definitions of the term, the metaphysical and physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs. In a typical example, a human fitted with a heart pacemaker or an insulin pump (if the person has diabetes) might be considered a cyborg, since these mechanical parts enhance the body's "natural" mechanisms through synthetic feedback mechanisms. Some theorists cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities; however, these modifications are no more cybernetic than would be a pen or a wooden leg. Cochlear implants that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are more accurately cyborg enhancements.
The world’s first Cyborg was a white lab rat ,part of an experimental program at New Yorks Rochland State Hospital in the late 1950s.The rat had implanted in its body a tiny osmotic pump that injected precisely controlled doses of chemicals ,altering several of its physiological parameters .it was pare animal part machine.
2. HISTORY
The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story "The Man That Was Used Up". In 1908, Jean de la Hire introduced Nyctalope (perhaps the first true superhero was also the first literary cyborg) in the novel L'Homme Qui Peut Vivre Dans L'eau (The Man Who Can Live in the Water).Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. In the short story "No Woman Born" in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body.
One of the earliest uses of the term was by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:
For the exogenously extended organizational complex functioning as an integrated homeostatic system unconsciously, we propose the term ‘Cyborg'. Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline
Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to take place. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.
However this may not have been the earliest use. Ten months earlier The New York Times had printed:
A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being can live in an environment different from the normal one.
A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable computer was published by Doubleday. Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.
3. CYBORG PROJECTS
Among the Cyborgs living today Dr Kevin Warwik heads the Cybermetics Department at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom and has taken the first steps on this path, using himself as a guinea pig test subject receiving ,by surgical operation ,technological implants connected to his central nervous system .Probably the most famous piece of research undertaken by Warwick (and the origin of the nickname, "Captain Cyborg",( given to him by The Register) is the set of experiments known as Project Cyborg, in which he had a chip implanted into his arm, with the aim of "becoming a cyborg”.
3.1. PROJECT CYBORG
Professor Kevin Warwick, the world's leading expert in Cybernetics, in the book I cyborg here he unveils the story of how he became the worlds first Cyborg in a ground breaking set of scientific experiments.
In Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired in to his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the Internet. With this in place he successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the Internet to control a robotic hand, a loudspeaker and amplifier. This is a form of extended sensory input and the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans.
3.2. Cyborg1.0
Professor Kevin Warwick underwent an operation to surgically implant a siliconchip transponder in his forearm. Dr. George Boulous carried out the operation at Tilehurst Surgery,using local anaesthetic only.
The first stage of this research, which began on 24 May 1998, involved a simple RFID transmitter being implanted beneath Warwick's skin, and used to control doors, lights, heaters, and other computer-controlled devices based on his proximity. The main purpose of this experiment was said to be to test the limits of what the body would accept, and how easy it would be to receive a meaningful signal from the chip.This experiment allowed a computer to monitor Kevin Warwick as he moved through halls and offices of the Department of Cybernetics at the University of Reading, using a unique identifying signal emitted by the implanted chip. He could operate doors, lights, heaters and other computers without lifting a finger.
The chip implant technology has the capability to impact our lives in ways that have been previously thought possible in only sci-fi movies. The implant could carry all sorts of information about a person, from Access and Visa details to your National Insurance number, blood type, medical records etc., with the data being updated where necessary.
3.3. Cyborg 2.0
The second phase of the experiment Project Cyborg 2.0 got underway in March 2002. This phase will look at how a new implant could send signals back and forth between Warwick's nervous system and a computer. If this phase succeeds with no complications, a similar chip will be implanted in his wife, Irena. This will allow the investigation of how movement, thought or emotion signals could be transmitted from one person to the other, possibly via the Internet.
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Cyborg?
Cyborg is a cybermetic organism having both biological and artificial values.An organism with any type of enhancement can be called cyborg
Cybermetics
Cyborgation
PROJECT CYBORG
Professor Kevin Warwick ,the worlds leading expert in Cybermetics , in his book I CYBORG unveils the story of how he became the worlds first Cyborg through a set experiments .
Cyborg 1.0
Cyborg 2.0
ANIMAT
Difference b/w Robots and Cyborgs
All of them to some degree are programmed but
A robot doesnot necessarily have to resemble a human ,it can be in the shape of a lunar Lander .
Cyborgs are part machine and part organic.
Types of Cyborgs
INDIVIDUAL CYBORGS
SOCIAL CYBORGS
CONVENIENT CYBORGS
CONDITIONAL CYBORGS
FICTIONAL CYBORGS
LATEST TECHNOLOGY
HYBROTS:
A Hybrots is a cybermetic organism in the form of a robot controlled by a computer consisting of both electronic and biological elements
Another interesting feature of the hybrots is its longevity.
BCI OF CYBORGS
Brain computer interface is a direct pathway between a brain and an external device.
People with a condition where a healthy mind is unable to express itself due to brain damage, are slowly being opened up through direct contact with their motor neurons in the brain.
C-LEG
C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock Health Care is used to replace a human leg that has been amputed because of injury or illness.
Parts of C-Leg
Sensors in the C-Leg
Hydraulics in the C-Leg
Microprocessors in the C-Leg
Power source in the C-Leg
COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
A cochlear implants is a surgically implanted electronic
device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.
APPLICATIONS OF CYBORGS
IN MEDICAL FIELD
IN MILITARY
IN SPORTS
IN ART
IN FUTURE
MERITS
Organic life become more durable and efficient
Gives a part of body back
Improves quality of life
DEMERITS
They all are expensive
Human race will divide along the line of biological haves and have nots
The risk of rejection /infection
Genetic changes
Finally I would like to say that in future of intelligent robots, then to protect mankind ,we will must need some TERMINOTORS ,they all are CYBORGS.Because by making human CYBORGS,we may have the following extra ordinary capabilities..
We will be able to communicate between each other by thought signals alone,simply by implants connected to our nervous system linking our brains electronically together ,possibility even over the internet
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14-05-2011, 10:53 AM


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1. Introduction
In the years ahead we will witness machines with intelligence more powerful than that of humans. This will mean that robots, not humans, make all the important decisions. It will be a robot dominated world with dire consequences for humankind. The question is - Is there an alternative way ahead?
Humans have limited capabilities. Humans sense the world in a restricted way, vision being the best of the senses. Humans understand the world in only 3 dimensions and communicate in a very slow, serial fashion called speech. But can this be improved on? Can we use technology to upgrade humans?
The possibility exists to enhance human capabilities. To harness the ever increasing abilities of machine intelligence, to enable extra sensory input and to communicate in a much richer way, using thought alone. This possibility is made possible in the form of Cyborgs. A Cyborg is a Cybernetic Organism, part human part machine; it thrives on the inputs both from the living senses and from the machine interface, which acts as an enhancement module.
Dr. Kevin Warwick heads the Cybernetics Department at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom and has taken the first steps on this path, using himself as a guinea pig test subject receiving, by surgical operation, technological implants connected to his central nervous system.
In this seminar and presentation, I intend to throw some light on, how exactly the cyborgdom is achieved and what are the future aspects and prospects? Are we witnessing a true revolution in human futuristics or is it going to be just a flight of fantasy? That the future will tell. But for now let us understand what Cyborgs are all about?
2. The Cyborg Ancestry
The world's first cyborg was a white lab rat, part of an experimental program at New York's Rockland State Hospital in the late 1950s. The rat had implanted in its body a tiny osmotic pump that injected precisely controlled doses of chemicals, altering several of its physiological parameters. It was part animal, part machine.
The Rockland rat is one of the stars of a paper called "Cyborgs and Space," written by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline in 1960. This engineer/psychiatrist double act invented the term cyborg (short for "cybernetic organism") to describe the vision of an "augmented man,"
From the start, the cyborg was more than just another technical project and implimentation; it was a kind of scientific and military daydream. The possibility of escaping its annoying bodily limitations led a generation that grew up on Superman and Captain America to throw the full weight of its grown-up R&D budget into achieving a real-life superpower. By the mid-1960s, cyborgs were big business, with millions of US Air Force dollars finding their way into project and implimentations to build exoskeletons, master-slave robot arms, biofeedback devices, and expert systems.
It wasn't only the military that was captivated by the possibilities of the cyborg. Now there was the possibility of making better humans by augmenting them with artificial devices. Insulin drips had been used to regulate the metabolisms of diabetics since the 1920s. A heart-lung machine was used to control the blood circulation of an 18-year-old girl during an operation in 1953. A 43-year-old man received the first heart pacemaker implant in 1958.
In fact robots, automata, and artificial people have been part of the Western imagination since at least as far back as the Enlightenment. Legendary automaton builder Wolfgang von Kempelen built a chess-playing tin Turk and became the toast of Napoleonic Europe. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein built a monster out of body parts and activated it with electricity. Even the Indian national epic, the Mahabharata, composed about 300 BC, features a lion automaton.
One thing makes today's cyborg fundamentally different from its mechanical ancestors - Information. Cyborgs, Donna Haraway explains, "are information machines. They're embedded with circular causal systems, autonomous control mechanisms, information processing - automatons with built-in autonomy."
3. The Concept: Information Feedback
In 1948, Norbert Wiener wrote Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine. The book was nothing if not ambitious. Wiener, an MIT mathematician, saw amazing similarities between vast groups of different phenomena. Catching a ball, guiding a missile, running a company, pumping blood around a body - all seemed to him to depend on the transmission of "information," a concept floated by Bell Laboratories' Claude Shannon in his founding work on information theory. More specifically, these processes seemed to depend on what the engineers had begun to call "feedback."
Wiener took the name cybernetics from the Greek kubernetes, meaning "steersman," and the image of a classical helmsman, hand on the rudder of a sailing ship, perfectly captures the essence of his idea. Palinurus, approaching the rocks, gets visual information about the ship's position and adjusts course accordingly. This isn't a single event but a constant flow of information. Palinurus is part of a feedback loop, his brain getting input from the environment about wind speed, weather, and current, then sending signals to his arms to nudge the ship out of danger. Wiener saw that the same model could be applied to any problem that involved trying to manage a complex system and proposed that scientists use the same framework for everything.
Wiener's followers saw cybernetics as a science that would explain the world as a set of feedback systems, allowing rational control of bodies, machines, factories, communities, and just about anything else. Cybernetics promised to reduce "messy" problems such as economics, politics, and perhaps even morality to the status of simple engineering tasks: stuff you could solve with pencil and paper, or, at worst, one of MIT's supercomputers.
For initials, we can treat the body as just a meat computer running a collection of information systems that adjusts themselves in response to each other and their environment. So if you wanted to make a better body, all you had to do was improve the feedback mechanisms, or plug in another system - an artificial heart, an all-seeing bionic eye. It's no accident that this strangely abstract picture of the body as a collection of networks sounds rather like that other network of networks, the Internet; both came out of the same hothouse of Cold War military research.
Cybernetics has two important cultural residues. The first is its picture of the world as a collection of networks. The second is its intuition that there's not as much blue water between people and machines as some would like to believe. These still-controversial concepts are at the bionic heart of the cyborg, which is alive and well, and constructing itself in a laboratory near you.
4. Analogy with the Human Nervous System
In order to observe and correlate, the Information Feedback concept with the actual way in which our neural communications take place, we should take a glimpse into the way the Human Nervous System is arranged.
4.1) How is the human nervous system organized?
The human nervous system contains:
• A Central Nervous System (CNS) - where information is processed. Our central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
• A Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - a highway which allows signals to travel between the CNS and the body's receptors and effectors.
For now, we do not have to bother ourselves with the way in which the CNS operates. What we should know is that, it acts as a Central Processing Unit (CPU), and so processes all the inputs it receives from the PNS, which are known as stimuli and translates them into the Outgoing signals for the PNS, also known as response. Thus, for every Stimulus there is a corresponding Response.
Now, as far as the way these neural signals, originating from the brain are transmitted to and from the muscles and the peripheral organs, the PNS provides the medium. The nerves of the peripheral nervous system behave like major road systems, carrying traffic in and out of the Central Nervous System. Afferent or Sensory nerves carry information from sensory receptors into the CNS and Efferent, or Motor nerves carry information from the CNS out to effector organs. The efferent system has two more sub-divisions - the somatic and autonomic systems. These differ in their functions rather than their structure or position in the body.
The Nerve Conduction is in the form of Nerve Impulses which are Spikes of electromagnetic potential initiating from about -80mV then sharply rising to +60mV and then declining to +20mV. These Nerve Impulses travel along the Nerve Fiber and thus reach their destination electrically.
Since the Nerve Conduction is in the form of Electrical Signals, this opens up a possibility of intercepting, interpreting and processing them with the help of Machine Interfaces. As the Machines can process all kind of electrical signals, so we can have a Microchip Implant intercepting the Neural Impulses at the nerve endings, transmitting them to a Database, correlating them to existing data and modulating it to a desired effect.
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16-07-2011, 02:15 PM

PRESENTED BY
PRAVEEN SRIVASTAV


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INTRODUCTION
The term cyborgs means as a mixture of both organism and technology. When an organism is half human and half machine we call them CYBORG.The whole process becoming a cyborg are called Cyborgation.
A human being whose body has taken over in whole or in part by electromechanical devices. “a cyborg is a cybernetic organism”
A cyborg is a cybernetic organism (i.e. an organism that has both artificial and natural systems). The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space. ...
Among the Cyborgs living today Dr. Kevin Warwick heads the cybernetics department at the University Reading at the United Kingdom and has taken this first steps on this path, using himself as guinea pig test subject receiving ,by surgical operation, technological connected to his central nervous system.
REAL LIFE CYBORGS
A cyborg can be defined as the human being who is technologically complemented by external or internal devices that compliment or regulate various human body functions. Cyborlogy is a technical and socio-philosophical study which deals with the development and spreading of technology to the society.
The Cyborgs got their fame mainly through the super talented characters in the fiction story.
ROBOTS & CYBORGS
All of them to some, degree are programmed; are basically computer that move. A robot however doesn't necessarily have to resemble a human. It can be in any shape. It is always control by an external source.
But cyborgs are beings that are part mechanical and part organic. In fact, some theorists consider anyone whose body relies on a form of machinery in order to survive- such as a pacemaker or an insulin pump- is a cyborg.
TYPES OF CYBORGS Convenient Cyborgs
Conditional Cyborgs
Cyborgs are categorized into two types based on their structural and functional role play. Structurally cyborgation can take place either internally or Externally.
Convenient cyborgtion may refer to any external provision of an exoskeleton for the satisfying the altered fancy needs of body.
Conditional cyborgation includes bionic implants replanting the lost or damaged body part for the normal living in the present environment. There is also different types of cyborgs differentiated as per their body working, i.e. HYBORTS
APPLICATION IN MEDICAL FIELD
In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: these are the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost functions, organs and limbs”. The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or lost processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function.
The enhancement cyborgation follows the Principle of Optimal performance: maximizing the output with a minimized input. Thus, the enhanced cyborgintend to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.
Pacemaker
IN MILITARY
. The insects motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System for detecting the presence explosives and Gas.
Powered Exoskeleton is another proposed product from Cyborgology for military purpose, which combines a human control system with robotic muscle.
IN SPORT
Prosthetic legs and feet are not advanced enough to give the athlete the edge, and people with these prosthetics are allowed to complete, possibly only because they are not actually competitive in such athlons. Some prosthetic leg and feet allow for runners to adjust the length of their stride which could potentially improve run times and in time actually allow a runner with prosthetic leg to be fastest in the world.
IN ARTS
The concept of cyborgation to associate to most people with science fiction, they tend to believe cyborgs exist only in imaginations of writers and artists. Cyborgs get famed through mainly science fiction films and through stories of writers.
ADVANTAGES
Prolongs life
Enables one to lead a normal life
Gives a part of the body back
Improves the quality of life
DISADVANTAGES
The critics of bioelectronics and biocomputing foresee numerous potential negative social consequences from the technology.
People with enough money will be to argument their personal attributes as they see fit as well as to utilize cloning, organ replacement etc. to stave off death as long as they wish.
It could be possible to modify the person technologically so that body would stop producing some essential substance for survival.
Pain in operation.
FUTURE OF CYBORG
In defensive applications the Cybernetics and Cyborgological experiences are held for the development of “Cyborg soldier”. The cyborg soldier often refers to a soldier whose weapons as well as the survival systems are integrated into the self, creating a human-machine interface. Military organizations research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animal. DARPA has announced it’s interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during it’s pupal stage. DARPA is also developing neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks.
Dr Kevin Warwick has conducted a revolutionary investigation in to the problem associated with convolution, “subjective” IQ testing into the nature of intelligence itself.
CONCLUSION
Humans have limited capabilities. Humans sense the world in a restricted way, vision being the best of the senses. Humans understand the world in only 3 dimensions and communicate in a very slow, serial fashion called speech. But it must get improved for the human beings to exist in this competitive world. Only technology can make it possible. And Cyborgology is the future technology for the purpose to be get real. Even it has some major defects and wrong sides as like any technologies evolving now days.
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16-07-2011, 04:14 PM

i want details of cyborgs for seminar and presentation..plzz
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seminar flower
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07-07-2012, 03:18 PM

Cyborg


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Defining Cyborg

CYBORG:
“HUMAN BEING WITH BODILY FUNCTION AIDED OR CONTROLLED BY TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICES.”

CYBERNETICS:
“THE SCIENCE OF CONTROL AND COMMUNICATION IN ANIMALS, MAN AND MACHINES.”

Introduction

A cyborg, is a short form of "cybernetic organism”
CYBORG referred to a “Human being with bodily functions aided or controlled by technological devices.”
such as an oxygen tank, artificial heart valve or insulin pump ,might be considered a cyborg.
Other examples like contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses etc are the instruments that enhance the human biological capabilities.

History and Developments

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II.
First the term(defination) was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to describe the need for mankind to artificially enhance biological functions in order to survive in the hostile environment of Space.

Benefits of Chip Implantation

Computer can monitor Kevin Warwick as he moved through halls and offices of his lab.
By a unique identifying signal emitted by the implanted chip. He could operate doors, lights, heaters and other computers without lifting a finger.
The implant could carry all sorts of information about a person,
Implant can access credit cards and carries visa details , National Insurance number, blood group, medical records etc., And the data can be updated where necessary.

Cyborg technology used in Military

A giant flower beetle with implanted electrodes and a radio receiver on its back can be wirelessly controlled.
a nearby computer command the insect to take off, turn left or right, or hover in midflight.

Advantages of Cyborg Technology

Giving artificial sight to blind people.
Would be implemented in almost all fields where human interaction is needed. where human interaction is needed.
Diseases could be analyzed and cured in terms of the neural impulse signals.
To establish intercommunication between two or more peoples without using speech.

Negative Consequences

The human race will divide along the lines of biological haves and have-nots.
Could easily become a new sort of dominant caste, forcing the rest of untechnologized caste, forcing the rest of untechnologized humanity into serfdom.
A tremendous violation of human privacy .
Once implanted with bio-implant electronic devices, 'cyborgs' might become highly dependent on the creators of these devices for their repair, recharge, and maintenance, thus placing them under the absolute control of the designers of the technology.
This technology originate from people who foresee tremendous possible risks toward human health.



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25-09-2012, 11:28 AM

cyborg


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The world's first cyborg was a white lab rat, part of an experimental program at New York 's Rockland State Hospital in the late 1950s. The rat had implanted in its body a tiny osmotic pump that injected precisely controlled doses of chemicals, altering several of its physiological parameters. It was part animal, part machine. The Rockland rat is one of the stars of a paper called " Cyborgs and Space ," written by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline in 1960. This engineer/psychiatrist double act invented the term cyborg (short for "cybernetic organism") to describe the vision of an "augmented man,"
From the start, the cyborg was more than just another technical project and implimentation; it was a kind of scientific and military daydream. The possibility of escaping its annoying bodily limitations led a generation that grew up on Superman and Captain America to throw the full weight of its grown-up R&D budget into achieving a real-life superpower. By the mid-1960s, cyborgs were big business, with millions of US Air Force dollars finding their way into project and implimentations to build exoskeletons, master-slave robot arms, biofeedback devices, and expert systems.
It wasn't only the military that was captivated by the possibilities of the cyborg. Now there was the possibility of making better humans by augmenting them with artificial devices. Insulin drips had been used to regulate the metabolisms of diabetics since the 1920s. A heart-lung machine was used to control the blood circulation of an 18-year-old girl during an operation in 1953. A 43-year-old man received the first heart pacemaker implant in 1958. In fact robots, automata, and artificial people have been part of the Western imagination since at least as far back as the Enlightenment. Legendary automaton builder Wolfgang von Kempelen built a chess-playing tin Turk and became the toast of Napoleonic Europe. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein built a monster out of body parts and activated it with electricity. Even the Indian national epic, the Mahabharata, composed about 300 BC, features a lion automaton.

The next step towards true Cyborgs?

On the 14th of March 2002 , a one hundred electrode array was surgically implanted into the median nerve fibres of the left arm of Professor Kevin Warwick. The operation was carried out at Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford , by a medical team headed by the neurosurgeons Amjad Shad and Peter teddy. The procedure, which took a little over two hours, involved inserting a guiding tube into a two inch incision made above the wrist, inserting the microelectrode array into this tube and firing it into the median nerve fibres below the elbow joint . The purpose of this experiment was to link the nervous system in the left arm, to a radio transmitter receiver; to send signals from nervous system to a computer and vice versa.
The main part of the silicon chip consisted of a battery, radio transmitter/ receiver and processing unit. Pins connected to the chip pierced the membrane surrounding Warwick 's nerve fibers
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