DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL
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where detailed material about DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL discussed and i may republish the content of your material for easy navigation INTRODUCTION Definition: A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure. The end caps fitted to the cylindrical body are called heads. The legal definition of pressure vessel varies from country to country, but often involves the maximum safe pressure (may need to be above half a bar) that the vessel is designed for and the pressurevolume product, particularly of the gaseous part (in some cases an incompressible liquid portion can be excluded as it does not contribute to the potential energy stored in the vessel.) In the United States, the rules for pressure vessels are contained in the American society of mechanical engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Uses A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications. These include the industry and the private sector. They appear in these sectors respectively as industrial compressed air receivers and domestic hot water storage tanks, other examples of pressure vessels are: diving cylinder, recompression chamber, distillation towers, autoclaves and many other vessels in mining or oil refineries and petrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessel, habitat of a space ship, habitat of a submarine, pneumatic reservoir, hydraulic reservoir under pressure, rail vehicle airbrake reservoir, road vehicle airbrake reservoir and storage vessels for liquefied gases such as ammonia, chlorine, propane, butane and LPG. In the industrial sector, pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (PED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, AS1210 in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd, Det Norske Veritas, Stoomwezen etc. Shape of a pressure vessel Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of sections of spheres, cylinders and cones are usually employed. More complicated shapes have historically been much harder to analyse for safe operation and are usually far harder to construct. Theoretically a sphere would be the optimal shape of a pressure vessel. Unfortunately the sphere shape is difficult to manufacture, therefore more expensive, so most of the pressure vessels are cylindrical shape with 2:1 semi elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure vessels are arranged from a pipe and two covers. Disadvantage of these vessels is the fact that larger diameters make them relatively more expensive, so that for example the most economic shape of a 1000 litres, 250 bar (25,000 kPa) pressure vessel might be a diameter of 914.4 mm and a length of 1701.8 mm including the 2:1 semi elliptical domed end caps. Construction materials Generally, almost any material with good tensile properties that is chemically stable in the chosen application can be employed. Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a spherical pressure vessel, forged parts would have to be welded together. Some mechanical properties of steel are increased by forging, but welding can sometimes reduce these desirable properties. In case of welding, in order to make the pressure vessel meet international safety standards, carefully selected steel with a high impact resistance & corrosion resistant material should also be used. Some pressure vessels are made of wound carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high tensile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much trickier to manufacture. Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in fizzy drinks containers and copper in plumbing. Design Standards Â¢ BS 4994 Â¢ ASME Code Section VIII Division 1 Â¢ ASME Code Section VIII Division 2 Alternative Rule Â¢ ASME Code Section VIII Division 3 Alternative Rule for Construction of High Pressure Vessel Â¢ ASME PVHO (Safety Standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy) Â¢ PD 5500 Â¢ Stoomwezen Â¢ AD MerkblÃƒÂ¤tter Â¢ CODAP Â¢ AS 1210 ISO 11439 Pressure Vessel has the following basic elements. Â¢ Cylindrical Shells Â¢ Elliptical, spherical, Torispherical, conical and flat heads Â¢ Conical sections (including knuckles) Â¢ Body flanges Â¢ Skirts and lug supports Â¢ Nozzles Â¢ Dynamic wind analysis Â¢ Seismic analysis 3.Design Data Sheet Design code : ASME section VIII div1, Ed2004up to &add2006 Type of vessel : horizontal Inside diameter : 610.000mm W.L to W.L height : 1000.000mm Design temperature : 45 Ã‚Â°C MDMT : 0 Ã‚Â°C Working temp. (min.) : 7 Ã‚Â°C Working temp. (Max) : 45 Ã‚Â°C Working pressure : 0.490 Mpa (5.000 kg/cm2) Design pressure : 0785 Mpa (8.000 kg/cm2) MAWP : 0.785 Mpa (8.000 kg/cm2) Product stored : compressed Air (Non Lethal) Sp. Gravity of product : 0.0013 Max. Liquid level : NOT APPLICABLE Corrosion allowance : 3.00MM Heat treatment : YES (dished end) P.W.H.T. : Nil Radiography : spot Hydro test pressure : 1.021 Mpa (10.40 kg/cmÃ‚Â².) Operating weight : 400.000 kgs (approximate) Hydro test weight : 600.00 kgs (approximate) LOADINGS (UG22): Sr.NO DESCRIPTION APPLICABILITY DOCUMENTED IN 1 Internal pressure Yes 0.785 Mpa Page 61 2 External pressure Nil 3 Static head (i)normal operating condition (ii)for hydrostatic test condition Negligible 5.98E07 Mpa 4 Weight of vessel in normal/ Hydrostatic test condition Yes Page 201 5 Super imposed static reaction From weight of attachment Nil 6 Internal attachment loading Nil 7 Cyclic & dynamic reaction Nil 8 Wind loading Nil 9 Seismic Yes (IS1893 ZONE 3) Page 241 & Page 242 10 Impact reaction Nil 11 Temperature gradient Nil 12 Deflagration Nil Note: Static head of fluids on normal operating condition is negligible. 4.EVALUATION OF MATERIALS (ASME SEC II,PART D): COMPONENTS SHELL, HEADS, PADS, SADDLES & SUPPORTS NOZZLE NECK (SMILES PIPE) Full specification SA 516 M Gr.485 SA 106 GrB pno 1 1 Group no 2 1 Whether allowed by sec viii div 1, Table ucs23(yes/no) Yes Yes Reference in sec ii part D page no 14 10 Reference in sec ii part D line no 20 5 Design temp. 45 45 Allowable stress at design temp. (Mpa) 138 118 Atmospheric temp. 45 45 Allowable stress at atm. Temp. (Mpa) 138 118 Permissible temp.© 550 550 Sp.cautionary notes G10,S1,T2 G10,S1,T2 Applicable cautionary notes None None Components Flanges& Pipe fittings Bolting Full specification SA 516 M Gr.485 SA 193M Gr.B7 pno 1  Group no 2  Whether allowed by sec viii div 1, Table ucs23(yes/no) Yes Yes Reference in sec ii part D page no 14 382 Reference in sec ii part D line no 6 33 Design temp. 45 45 Allowable stress at design temp. (Mpa) 138 172 Atmospheric temp. 45 45 Allowable stress at atm. temp. (Mpa) 138 172 Permissible temp.© 550 550 Sp.cautionary notes G10,G35,S1,T2  Applicable cautionary notes None None Gaskets : Compressed Asbestos (CAF) Conversion Factors 1 MPa = 10.197 kg/cm2 1 kg/cm2 = 0.0981 MPa 1 N/mm2 = 1 MPa 5. EVALUATION OF DESIGN PRESSURE FOR OPERATING CONDITION ( UG21 ) Inside diameter of vessel = 610.000 mm Maximum liquid level = 0.00 mm Internal Pressure: Design pressure at top = 0.785 MPa (8.00 kg/cm Ã‚Â²) Pressure due to static head = 0.000 MPa (0.00 kg/cm Ã‚Â²) Design pressure at bottom p = 0.785 MPa (8.00 kg/cm Ã‚Â²) External Pressure: External Design Pressure = 0.000 MPa (0.000 kg/cm2) Component 1 2 3 4 MAWP,Mpa Pressure due to static fluid MPa Vacuum correction MPa Design pressure (1+2+3). MPa Shell 0.785 0.000 0.000 0.785 Top head 0.785 0.000 0.000 0.785 Bottom head 0.785 0.000 0.000 0.785 Nozzles 0.785 0.000 0.000 0.785 All the components have been designed to = MPa Note: evaluation of loafing during hydrostatic test condition is documented in Pg.NO: 201 6. EVALUATION OF JOINT EFFIENCY (BUTT WELDS) (UW12): FIG UW3: Illustration of welded joint locations typical of categories A,B,C & D Description of joints Joint category Proposed Type No. Proposed NDE Joint Efficiency table UW12 1.shell longitudinal joints A (1) Spot Ec = 0.85 2. shell to ellipsoidal joints B (2) Spot Ec = 0.85 Ec = joint efficiency to be used in calculation of circumferential stress El = joint efficiency to be used in calculation of longitudinal stress 7. THICKNESS OF THE SHELL UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE (UG27) The minimum thickness of shells and heads used in compressed air service, steam service, & water service made from materials listed in table ucs23 shell be 3/32 in. (2.4mm) exclusive of any corrosion allowance. Provided positive tolerance = 6.00mm Possible inside diameter (corroded) = 622.00mm Inside radius (corroded) R = 311.000mm C.A = 3.000mm Internal design pressure at bottom P = 0.785 Mpa Max. allowable stress S = 138 Mpa Longitudinal joint efficiency EL = 0.85 Circumferential joint efficiency Ec =0.85 1) Circumferential stress (Longitudinal joint) 0.385SEL = 45.161 Mpa Design pressure P = 0.785 Mpa Since P<0.385SEL UG57© (1) can be applied Min. design thickness of shell, t = [PR/(SEc0.6P)]+C.A = {[0.785*311]/[(138*0.85)(0.6*0.785)]}+3 = 5.089 mm Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.(a) (2) longitudinal stress (Circumferential joint 1.25 SEc = 146.625 Mpa Design pressure P = 0.785 Mpa Since P < 1.25 SEc UG27© (2) can be applied Min. design thickness of shell, t = [PR/(2SEL+0.4P)]+C.A = {[0.785*311]/[(2*138*0.85) +(0.4*0.785)]}+3 t = 4.039 mm Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦ (b) (3 )Min. Thickness as per UG 16 (b) (4); Min. thickness of shell in compressed air service, = 2.5 mm + C.A = 2.5 + 3 =5.500 mm Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..© Design Thickness = max. Of (a, b, c) Design Thickness = 5.500 mm Provided thickness = 10.00 mm tr for compensation calculation: (using E=1 as per UG37) Minimum required thickness tr = PR/{SE0.6P} = [0.785*311]/[(138*1)(0.6*0.785)] tr = 1.774 mm 8 . FORMED HEADS PRESSURE ON CONCAVE SIDE : (UG  32) Type of head = 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL Provided positive tolerance = 7.000 mm Positive inside diameter (corroded) D = 623.00 mm C.A = 3.00mm Internal design pressure at bottom P = 0.785 Mpa Max. allowable stress S = 138 Mpa Joint efficiency E = 0.85 Inside depth measured from T.L h = 155.750 mm Ratio of the major axis to the minor axis D/2h = 2.000 For D/2h=2.00 from table 14.1 K = 1.000 Spherical radius factor K1 = 0.90 (from table UG37) D/2h 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 K1 1.36 1.27 1.18 1.08 0.99 0.90 0.81 0.73 0.65 0.57 0.50 Equivalent Spherical radius L = K1*D = 0.90*623 L = 560.700 mm (a) As per appendix 1 ,clause 14© Min. design thickness t = [(P*D*K)/(2*S*E0.2P)] + C.A. = {[0.785*623*1]/(2*138*0.85)(0.2*0.785)]} + 3 t = 5.085 mm Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.. (a) (b) Min. thickness as per UG 16 (b) (4) : Min. thickness of shell in compressed air service, = 2.5 mm + C.A. = 2.5 mm + 3 = 5.500mm Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.(b) © Thickness calculation as per UG 32(b), 0.665 SE P = 78.0045 Mpa Design pressure P = 0.785 Mpa Since P < 0.665 SE UG 32(f) can be applied. When the thickness of a hemispherical head does not exceed 0.665E the following formula shall apply. Min. design thickness of head, t = [PL/ (2SE0.2P)] + C.A. = {[00.785*560.7]/(2*138**0.85)(0.2*0.785)]} + 3 t = 4.877 mm Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.© Design thickness = max. Of (a,b,cs) = 5.500 mm Thinning allowan = 2.00 mm Design thickness including Thinning allowance = 7.500 mm Provided nominal thickness = 10.000 mm Provided min. thickness = 8.000 mm tr for compensation calculation : (using E=1 as per UG37) (i) As per UG â€œ 37 tr = PDK1/[2SE0.2P] = [0.785*623*0.9]/[(2*138*1)(0.2*0.785)] tr =1.595 mm (ii) For nozzle reinforcement limit outside the spherical portion: Not applicable for the present case since all nozzles on dish end comply with rule (I) describe above. (d) STRAIGHT FACE REQUIREMENT: Length of straight face: As per the UW13 (b)(3)&fig UW13.1(d) The min. length of the straight face shall not be less then 3th but need not exceed 38 mm. Where Nominal thickness of head th = 10.000 mm Nominal thickness of shell ts = 10.000 mm Min. length of the straight face 3th = 30.000 mm Therefore provided straight face length = 50.000 mm Taper transition requirement: Offset between shell and head thts = 0.000 mm 1/4th thickness of thinner section = 2.000 mm 1/8th = 3.000 mm Since thts is not exceeding min. of the 1/4th thickness of thinner section and 3 mm, However based on actual thickness of formed head the 1: 3 taper may be provided 9(A) . NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS CALCULATION. (UG  45) From pipe schedules 4 inch outer diameter = 114.3 mm & Schedule 80 & nominal thickness = 11.13 corrosion allowance = 3 mm radial neck = (114.3+2*32*11.13)/2 = 49.02 from pipe schedule Thickness of standard pipe wall = 6.01 t2 = ( pi*Rn )/(S.E0.6pÃ‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬i ) + (corrosion allowance) = (0.785*49.02)/(1180.6*0.785) + 3 = 3.327 mm t3 = ( pi*Rn )/(S.E0.6pÃ‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Â¬i) + (corrosion allowance) = (0.785*311)/(0.6*0.785) + 3 = 4.774 mm Description Formula/symbol Units Hand hole N5 A (DN 100) Location Shell Type of attachment Fig UW16.1(a) Internal design pressure Pi (from page 51) Mpa 0.785 External design pressure Pe (from page 51) Mpa 0.00 Radius neck (corroded) Rn mm 49.020 Radius shell (corroded) R mm 311.00 Allowable stress for shell material Sshell (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for head material Shead (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for neck material Sneck (from page 41) Mpa 118.00 Thickness of standard pipe wall t1 mm 6.020 Corrosion allowance C.A (page from 31) mm 3.000 Joint efficiency E 1 Design thickness as per UG 45 (a) t2=PiRn/(SE0.6Pi)+C.A mm 3.327 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1) (i) shell with E=1 t3=PiR/ (SE0.6Pi)+C.A mm 4.774 (ii) shell with E=1 Not applicable mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(2) t4 mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(3) t5=greater (t3,t4) mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(4) t6=0.875*t1+C.A mm 8.268 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1)(4) t7=smaller(t3,t4,t5&t6) mm 4.774 Design thickness as per UG 16 (b) t8=larger(t7&t8) mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1) tn=greater of (t2&t9) mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 mm 5.500 Nominal thickness 11.130 DN 100 [NPS 4] 11.130THK{sch.120} pipe FIG (16.1A): FULL PENETRATION WELD WITH INTEGRAL REINFORCEMENT 9(B) . NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS CALCULATION (UG  45) Description Formula/symbol Units Air outlet N2 (DN 50) Location Head Type of attachment Fig UW16.1(a) Internal design pressure Pi (from page 51) Mpa 0.785 External design pressure Pe (from page 51) Mpa 0.000 Radius neck (corroded) Rn mm 22.080 Radius shell (corroded) R mm 311.00 Allowable stress for shell material Sshell (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for head material Shead (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for neck material Sneck (from page 41) Mpa 118.00 Thickness of standard pipe wall t1 mm 3.910 Corrosion allowance C.A (page from 31) mm 3.000 Joint efficiency E 1 Design thickness as per UG 45 (a) t2=[(Pi*D*K)/(2*SE0.2Pi)] + C.A mm 3.147 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1) (i) shell with E=1 Not applicable mm Not applicable (ii) shell with E=1 t3=[(Pi*D*K)/(2*SE0.2Pi)] + C.A mm 4.769 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(2) t4 mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(3) t5=greater (t3,t4) mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(4) t6=0.875*t1+C.A mm 6.421 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1)(4) t7=smaller(t3,t4,t5&t6) mm 4.769 Design thickness as per UG 16 (b) t8=2.5 mm +C.A. mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b) t9=larger (t7&t8) mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 tn=greater of (t2&t9) mm 5.500 Nominal thickness mm 11.070 DN 50 [NPS 2] 11.07THK{sch.XXS} pipe 9 © . NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS CALCULATION (UG  45) Description Formula/symbol Units PL & drain N3&N4 (DN 20) Location Shell Type of attachment Fig UW16.1bb) Internal design pressure Pi (from page 51) Mpa 0.785 External design pressure Pe (from page 51) Mpa 0.000 Radius neck (corroded) Rn mm 17.180 Radius shell (corroded) R mm 311.00 Allowable stress for shell material Sshell (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for head material Shead (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for neck material Sneck (from page 41) Mpa 138.00 Thickness of standard pipe wall t1 mm 2.870 Corrosion allowance C.A (page from 31) mm 3.000 Joint efficiency E 1 Design thickness as per UG 45 (a) t2=PiRn/(SE0.6Pi)+C.A mm 3.098 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1) (i) shell with E=1 t3=PiR/ (SE0.6Pi)+C.A mm 4.774 (ii) shell with E=1 Not applicable mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(2) t4 mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(3) t5=greater (t3,t4) mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(4) t6=0.875*t1+C.A mm 5.511 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1)(4) t7=smaller(t3,t4,t5&t6) mm 4.774 Design thickness as per UG 16 (b) t8=2.5 mm +C.A. mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b) t9=larger (t7&t8) mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 tn=greater of (t2&t9) mm 5.500 Nominal thickness 7.820 DN 20 [NPS 3/4] NPT half coupling C.I.6000 FIG: 16.1(b): weld reinforcement 9 (D) . NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS CALCULATION (UG  45) Description Formula/symbol Units Air inlet /SV N1 N6 (DN 50) Location Shell Type of attachment Fig UW16.1(a) Internal design pressure Pi (from page 51) Mpa 0.785 External design pressure Pe (from page 51) Mpa 0.00 Radius neck (corroded) Rn mm 22.080 Radius shell (corroded) R mm 311.00 Allowable stress for shell material Sshell (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for head material Shead (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for neck material Sneck (from page 41) Mpa 118.00 Thickness of standard pipe wall t1 mm 3.910 Corrosion allowance C.A (page from 31) mm 3.000 Joint efficiency E 1 Design thickness as per UG 45 (a) t2=PiRn/(SE0.6Pi)+C.A mm 3.147 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1) (i) shell with E=1 t3=PiR/ (SE0.6Pi)+C.A mm 4.774 (ii) shell with E=1 Not applicable mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(2) t4 mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(3) t5=greater (t3,t4) mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(4) t6=0.875*t1+C.A mm 6.421 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1)(4) t7=smaller(t3,t4,t5&t6) mm 4.774 Design thickness as per UG 16 (b) t8=2.5 mm+C.A. mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b) t9=larger (t7&t8) mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 tn= greater of (t7&t8) mm 5.500 Nominal thickness mm 11.070 DN 50 [NPS 2] 11.07 THK {sch.XXS} pipe 9 (E) . NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS CALCULATION (UG  45) Description Formula/symbol Units Hand hole N5 A (DN 100) Location Head Type of attachment Fig UW16.1(a) Internal design pressure Pi (from page 51) Mpa 0.785 External design pressure Pe (from page 51) Mpa 0.00 Radius neck (corroded) Rn mm 49.020 Radius shell (corroded) R mm 311.00 Allowable stress for shell material Sshell (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for head material Shead (from page 41) Mpa 138.000 Allowable stress for neck material Sneck (from page 41) Mpa 118.00 Thickness of standard pipe wall t1 mm 6.020 Corrosion allowance C.A (page from 31) mm 3.000 Joint efficiency E 1 Design thickness as per UG 45 (a) t2=[(Pi*D*K)/(2*SE0.2Pi)] + C.A mm 3.326 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1) (i) shell with E=1 Not applicable mm Not applicable (ii) shell with E=1 t3=[(Pi*D*K)/(2*SE0.2Pi)] + C.A mm 4.770 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(2) t4 mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(3) t5=greater (t3,t4) mm Not applicable Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(4) t6=0.875*t1+C.A mm 8.268 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b)(1)(4) t7=smaller(t3,t4,t5&t6) mm 4.770 Design thickness as per UG 16 (b) t8=2.5 mm + C.A mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 (b) t9=larger (t7&t8) mm 5.500 Design thickness as per UG 45 tn=greater of (t2&t9) mm 5.500 Nominal thickness mm 11.130 DN 100 [NPS 4] 11.130 THK {sch.120} pipe 10A EVELUATION OF FILET SIZE OF ATTACHMENT : (UW16) Nomenclature: (i) t = corroded vessel wall thickness = 7.00 mm (ii) tn = corroded nozzle neck thickness (iii) te = reinforcing pad thickness =0.000mm (iv) tmin = smaller of 19 mm or thickness of thinner of part joined (v) tc = smaller of 6 mm or 0.7 tmin. (vi) =leg size of outer element fillet weld =(1/2 tmin) /0.707 Required fillet weld size : Nozzle designation Neck thk corroded tn (mm) t min (from iv ) (mm) tc (from v) (mm) Size of outer Element fillet weld (from vi) (mm) Nozzle attachment weld=tc/0.707 (mm) N5 A 8.130 7.000 4.900 NOT APPLICABLE 6.93 N2 8.070 7.000 4.900 NOT APPLICABLE 6.93 N3 &N4 4.820 4.820 3.374 NOT APPLICABLE 4.77 N1,N6 8.070 7.000 4.900 NOT APPLICABLE 6.93 N5 B 8.130 7.000 4.900 NOT APPLICABLE 6.93 ( I ) Neck thickness corroded = nominal thickness of neck â€œ corrosion allowance = 11.13 â€œ 3 = 8.130 mm (II) t min = 10 â€œ 3 { we are getting t shell = 10 mm & t nozzle = 11.13 mm which ever less is used} (III) tc = smaller of 6 mm or 0.7 t min = 0.7*7 = 4.900 mm which is less than 6 mm (IV) nozzle attachment = tc/0.707 = 4.900/0.707 = 6.93 mm For safety we get 8 mm, so fillet sizes are safe. Provided fillet size weld: Nozzle designation Size of outer Element fillet weld (mm) Nozzle attachment weld (mm) N5 A  8.00 N2  8.00 N3 &N4  8.00 N1,N6  8.00 N5 B  8.00 Therefore provided fillet sizes are safe &hence satisfactory 10 OPENIGS & REINOFRECE MENT CALCULATIONS CHECK FOR THE LARGE OPENINGS [UG 36 B (1)] Corroded inside diameter of vessel = 616.000 mm One half of the vessel diameter = 308.000mm As per UG 36 (b) (1), Limiting size for large opening = smaller of (One half of the vessel diameter or 500 mm) Nozzle designation Finished diameter of the Opening (corroded) mm Whether less than one half of the Vessel dia. Or 500 mm N5 A 98.040 YES N2 44.160 YES N3 &N4 34.360 YES N1,N6 44.160 YES N5 B 98.040 YES Since corroded diameter of the finished opening of above described nozzle doesnâ„¢t exceed the prescribed limitin UG36(b)(1),none of the opening needs to be analyzed as a large openings. Check for : (i) Reinforcement requirement for small opening in pairs [UG(36)©(3)] (ii) Analysis of multiple openings (UG 42) (iii) Opening requiring Reinforcement (UG 37) Row Nozzle designation N5 B N2 N3 N4 1 Corroded finished diameter of opening,d1 (mm) 98.040 44.160 34.360 34.360 location Orientation Refer sketch Elevation Head Head Shell Shell 2 Possible pair of nozzles from sketchpage 118   N6 N1 Corroded finished diameter of opening d2(mm)   44.160 44.160 3 d1+d2 (mm)   78.52 78.52 4 Actual distance between nozzles of row 1&2(mm)   350.00 520.880 5 Actual distance between nozzles is greater than(d1+d2 )mm   Yes Yes 6 Check for UG 36 ©(3)(d)   No No 7 Two times average diameter of d1 and d2(mm)   78.520 78.520 8 Is actual distance between nozzles greater than the value in row 7   Yes Yes 9 Is analysis required as per UG 42 for multiple openings   No No 10 Is calculation required for reinforcement Yes No No No Row Nozzle designation N5 A N1 N6 1 Corroded finished diameter of opening,d1 (mm) 98.040 44.160 location Orientation Elevation Shell Shell Shell 2 Possible pair of nozzles from sketchpage 118 N3 N6 N3 Corroded finished diameter of opening d2(mm) 34.36 44.60 44.160 3 d1+d2 (mm) 132.40 88.32 78.52 4 Actual distance between nozzles of row 1&2(mm) 502.71 492.67 350.00 5 Actual distance between nozzles is greater than(d1+d2 )mm Yes Yes Yes 6 Check for UG 36 ©(3)(d) No No No 7 Two times average diameter of d1 and d2(mm) 132.40 88.32 78.520 8 Is actual distance between nozzles greater than the value in row 7 Yes Yes Yes 9 Is analysis required as per UG 42 for multiple openings No No No 10 Is calculation required for reinforcement Yes No No P=spacing ,center to center between openings U1,U2,Â¦=Ligament width (d1+d2)2=average diameter of pair of opening FIG UG39: Multiple opening in rim of head with large central opening Â¢ Actual distances between all nozzles are greater than their ave diameter and no cluster of are formed. Â¢ Nozzle N5 A & N5B requires reinforce cement as per UG36 © (3) (A). Welded brazed & fluid connect meeting the applicable rules and with a finished opening not larger than 89 mm or 31/2inch. In vessel shell or heads with a required minimum thickness of 10 mm or 3/8 inch or less 23/8 (10 mm) diameter in vessel shell or heads required minimum thickness 10 mm(3/8 inch). Â¢ No pair needs to be analyzed as a pair of opening as per UG 42 (A) When only two opening are spaced at greater then two times of average diameter the limit of reinforcement will not overlap. Reinforcement limit calculation for nozzles N5 A DN 100[NPS4] [UG40] 1 Designation Formula/symbol 2 Location Shell 3 Shape of opening Circular 4 Size of opening 114.30 mm 5 Required min. Neck thickness tm 5.500 mm 6 Corrosion allowance C 3.000 mm 7 Provided neck thickness(corroded) tn 8.130 mm 8 Diameter of finish opening (corroded) d 98.040 mm 9 Neck radius(corroded) Rn 49.020 mm 10 Nominal shell thickness 10.00 mm 11 Shell thickness (corroded) t 7.00 mm 12 Provided rein forcing element thickness te 0.00 mm Limits of reinforcement 13 Parallel to vessel wall d Rn+tn+t Greater of (d,Rn+tn+t) 98.040 mm 64.150 mm 98.040 mm 14 Normal to vessel wall 2.5t 2.5tn+te Smaller of (2.5t 2.5tn+te) 17.500 mm 20.325 mm 17.500 mm 15 Ã‚Â¾ of 13 for app.17 rules Reinforcement limit calculation for nozzles N5 B DN 100[NPS4] [UG40] 1 Designation Formula/symbol 2 Location Head 3 Shape of opening Circular 4 Size of opening 114.30 mm 5 Required min. Neck thickness tm 5.500 mm 6 Corrosion allowance C 3.000 mm 7 Provided neck thickness(corroded) tn 8.130 mm 8 Diameter of finish opening (corroded) d 98.040 mm 9 Neck radius(corroded) Rn 49.020 mm 10 Nominal shell thickness 10.00 mm 11 Shell thickness (corroded) t 7.00 mm 12 Provided rein forcing element thickness te 0.00 mm Limits of reinforcement 13 Parallel to vessel wall d Rn+tn+t Greater of (d,Rn+tn+t) 98.040 mm 64.150 mm 98.040 mm 14 Normal to vessel wall 2.5t 2.5tn+te Smaller of (2.5t 2.5tn+te) 17.500 mm 20.325 mm 17.500 mm 15 Ã‚Â¾ of 13 for app.17 rules Reinforcement limit calculation for nozzles N5 A DN 100[NPS4] [UG40] NO Descriptation Formula / symbol value 1 Required thickness of seamless shell on circumferential stress tr from page72 1.774 mm 2 Required thickness of seamless nozzle wall tm 5.500 mm 3 Nozzle wall thickness tn 8.130 mm 4 Thickness of reinforcing element te 0.000 mm 5 Provided shell thickness t 7.000 mm 6 Corrosion allowance C.A 3.000 mm 7 Finished diameter of opening( corroded) d 98.040 mm 8 Distance of nozzle project and implimentations beyond the inner surface of the vessel wall h 0.000 mm 9 Nominal thickness of internal project and implimentationion of nozzle wall ti 0.000 mm 10 Size of outward nozzle fillet weld Leg 41 8.000 mm 11 Size of RF pad fillet weld Leg 42 0.000 mm 12 Size of inward nozzle fillet weld Leg 43 0.000 mm 13 Allowable stress in nozzle Sn 118.00 MPa 14 Allowable stress in vessel Sv 138.00 MPa 15 Allowable stress in reinforcing element Deleted  MPa 16 Correction factor F 1.000 17 Stress reduction factor (inserted throâ„¢ wall) fr1=Sn/Sv 0.855 18 Stress reduction factor fr2=Sn/Sv 0.855 19 Stress reduction factor fr3=lesser of (Sn or Sp)/Sv 0.855 20 Stress reduction factor fr4=Sp/Sv 0.000 21 Area required for reinforcement A=dtrF+2tntrF(1fr1) 178.15 mm2 22 Area in excess thickness in the vessel wall available for reinforcement a)d(E1tftr)2tn(E1tFtr)(1fr1) b)2(t+tn)(E1tFtr)2tn(E1tFtr) (1fr1) A1=larger of a & b 503.98 mm2 145.81 mm2 503.98 mm2 23 Area in excess thickness in the nozzle wall available for reinforcement a)5(tntm)fr2t b)2(tntm)fr2t(2.5tn+te) A2=smaller of a & b 78.709 mm2 639.91 mm2 78.709 mm2 24 Area available for reinforcement when nozzle extend inside the vessel a)5 t ti fr2 b)5 t ti fr2 c)2 h ti fr2 A3=smaller of a,b&c 0.000 mm2 0.000 mm2 0.000 mm2 0.000 mm2 25 Area available in outward nozzle weld A41=(leg 41)2 fr3 54.725 mm2 26 Area available in outer pad weld A42=(leg 42)2fr4 0.000 mm2 27 Area available in inward nozzle weld A43=(leg 43)2fr2 0.000 mm2 28 Total area available for reinforcement A1+A2+A3+A41+A42+A43 637.42 mm2 29 Is area provided is greater than required Action code YES Reinforcement limit calculation for nozzles N5 B DN 100[NPS4] [UG40] NO Descriptation Formula / symbol value 1 Required thickness of seamless shell on circumferential stress tr from page72 1.595 mm 2 Required thickness of seamless nozzle wall tm 5.500 mm 3 Nozzle wall thickness tn 8.130 mm 4 Thickness of reinforcing element te 0.000 mm 5 Provided shell thickness t 7.000 mm 6 Corrosion allowance C.A 3.000 mm 7 Finished diameter of opening( corroded) d 98.040 mm 8 Distance of nozzle project and implimentations beyond the inner surface of the vessel wall h 0.000 mm 9 Nominal thickness of internal project and implimentationion of nozzle wall ti 0.000 mm 10 Size of outward nozzle fillet weld Leg 41 8.000 mm 11 Size of RF pad fillet weld Leg 42 0.000 mm 12 Size of inward nozzle fillet weld Leg 43 0.000 mm 13 Allowable stress in nozzle Sn 118.00 MPa 14 Allowable stress in vessel Sv 138.00 MPa 15 Allowable stress in reinforcing element Deleted  MPa 16 Correction factor F 1.000 17 Stress reduction factor (inserted throâ„¢ wall) fr1=Sn/Sv 0.855 18 Stress reduction factor fr2=Sn/Sv 0.855 19 Stress reduction factor fr3=lesser of (Sn or Sp)/Sv 0.855 20 Stress reduction factor fr4=Sp/Sv 0.000 21 Area required for reinforcement A=dtrF+2tntrF(1fr1) 160.13 mm2 22 Area in excess thickness in the vessel wall available for reinforcement a)d(E1tftr)2tn(E1tFtr)(1fr1) b)2(t+tn)(E1tFtr)2tn(E1tFtr) (1fr1) A1=larger of a & b 521.29 mm2 150.82 mm2 521.29 mm2 23 Area in excess thickness in the nozzle wall available for reinforcement a)5(tntm)fr2t b)2(tntm)fr2t(2.5tn+te) A2=smaller of a & b 78.709 mm2 639.91 mm2 78.709 mm2 24 Area available for reinforcement when nozzle extend inside the vessel a)5 t ti fr2 b)5 t ti fr2 c)2 h ti fr2 A3=smaller of a,b&c 0.000 mm2 0.000 mm2 0.000 mm2 0.000 mm2 25 Area available in outward nozzle weld A41=(leg 41)2 fr3 54.725 mm2 26 Area available in outer pad weld A42=(leg 42)2fr4 0.000 mm2 27 Area available in inward nozzle weld A43=(leg 43)2fr2 0.000 mm2 28 Total area available for reinforcement A1+A2+A3+A41+A42+A43 654.72 mm2 29 Is area provided is greater than required Action code YES Action code: Yes: No further calculation is required & the nozzle is self reinforced NO: provide external elements for compensation Conclusion: Provided reinforcement is adequate 12. STRENGTH OF WELD PATH (UG41 / U15) AND MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS DUE TO IMPOSED LOAD (UG45C) For nozzles N1, N2, N3, N4 & N6 : As these nozzles are exempted from reinforcement by UG36 C (3), strength calculation for these welds are exempted from strength path calculation. (UW 15 (b) (2) ) For nozzles N5A & N5B : The type of weld [Figure UW â€œ 16.1 (a)] provided is exempted by UW15(b)(1) for strength calculation for nozzle attachment weld for pressure loading. MAXIMUM SHEAR DUE TO IMPOSED LOAD (UG45C) As per Appendix L7.5, 3.4, Shear stress due to shear load on circumference of Handhole neck = W/ r tn = 0.232 MPa Where, Shear load W = Blind flange wt. + Bolting flange wt. Blind flange = 7.7 kg Bolting flange weight = 6.8 kg W = 14.5 kgs = 20 kgs Inside radius of handhole neck r = 49.020 mm Minimum neck thickness tn = 5.500 mm Shear stress due to torsion load on circumference of Handhole neck = W/2 r 2 tn = 0 MPa Where, Torsion load = 0 N Combined shear stress = Shear stress due to shear load + Shear stress due to torsion load = 0.232 MPa As per UG45 © Allowance shear stress = 70% of the allowable tesile stress for the Handhole neck Material. = 83 MPa Where, Allowable tensile stress for neck material = 118 MPa Since combined shear stress is less than allowable shear the design is safe. 13. CHECK FOR FLANGE RATINGS Ref: (i) UG11 & UG44 (iii) ASME B 16.5 Table 21.1 Designation Nozzles 1 Nozzle designation Ni, N2, N5A/B & N6 (Bolting Flange) 2 Flange material SA 105M 3 Material Group number 1 4 Design Temperature (From Page 31) 45 C. 5 Coincident design pressure (From Page 31) 0.785 MPa 6 MAWP (From Page 31) 0.785 MPa Selection of rating of flange based on MAWP 7 Class 150 Class 8 Working pressure permitted by Table 21.1 1.940 MPa 9 Whether MAWP < Working pressure permitted YES 10 Fastener material SA 193M Gr. B7 SA 194M Gr. 2H Designation Nozzles 1 Nozzle designation Ni, N2, N5A/B & N6 (Bolting Flange) 2 Flange material SA 105M 3 Material Group number 1 4 Design Temperature (From Page 31) 45 C. 5 Hydrostatic test pressure (From Page 31) 0.785 MPa Selection of rating of flange based on MAWP 6 Class 150 Class 7 Working pressure permitted by Table 21.1 1.940 MPa 8 Whether Hydrostatic test pressure < Working pressure permitted YES 9 Fastener material SA 193M Gr. B7 SA 194M Gr. 2H Hence selected flange rating of Class 150 is safe. It is recommended that only Group No. 1 gaskets be used for Class 150 flanged joints. Hence Compressed Asbestos (CAF) Gasket is selected. 16. EVALUATION OF HEAT TREATMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR COLD FORMED COMPONENTS (UCS79) Action Code : NO : Post Forming heat treatment is not required. When percentage elongation < 5% YES : Post Forming heat treatment Is required. When either of the following conditions exists. (a) When percentage elongation > 40%. (b) When percentage elongation > 5% but <40% & any of the conditions 7 to 11 exists. CHECK : Proceed further to check whether conditions 7 to 11 exists. SHELL HEAD 1 Forming temperature Ft Atmospheric Atmospheric 2 Final center line radaius (Infinity for flat plate), Rf 311.000 mm 105.91 mm* 3 Original center line radius (Infinity for flat plate), R0 Infinity mm Infinity mm 4 Nominal thickness, t 10.000 mm 10.000 mm 5 Thickness after forming, tmin 10.000 mm 8.000 mm 6 % extreme fiber elongation Applicable formulae Result [50t/Rf] [1(Rf/R0)] 1.61 % [75t/Rf] [1(Rf/R0)] 7.08% Is % extreme fiber elongation exceeding 5% NO YES Action code NO YES 7 Is lethal service NO NO 8 Is impact test required Not required Not required 9 Is thickness exceeding 16 mm before cold forming NO NO 10 % Reduction in thickness Applicable formulae Result (ttmin) (100/t) 0 (ttmin) (100/t) 20% 11 During forming 120 C to 480 C N.A. N.A. 12 Action Code YES * Based on 17% of D, as per provided in UG32 (d) Conclusion : Head shall be heat treated after forming. Specified heat treatment : Stress Relieving. Shell is not required to be heat treated after forming. 17. EVALUATION OF POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT REQUIREMENT (UCS56) Weld Type L/S Butt weld Butt weld Set in groove weld Fillet weld Location Shell Shell to Head Nozzle neck to shell Pad plate to Shell MOC SA 516M Gr. 485 SA 516M Gr. 485 SA 516M Gr. 485 SA 516M Gr. 485 Nominal thk. As per UW40 (f) (mm) 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 Limit thick as per UCS56 (mm) 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 Is Nominal thk. > Limit thickness NO NO NO NO PWHT Required as per table UCS56 NO NO NO NO MDMT <  48 C (Check for UCS68) NO NO NO NO PWHT required as service requirement as per U2 (a) (3) NO NO NO NO CONCLUSION : PWHT is Not Mandatory, since all checks have resulted negative. 18. EVALUATION OF FULL RADIOGRAPHY REQUIREMENTS (UW11) Uw11 (A) Check Description Result Action Code 1 Whether the vessel contains lethal substance NO NONE 2 Whether all butt welds in vessel exceeds 32 mm (UCS57) NO NONE 3 Whether vessel is an unfired stream boiler having design pressure > 350 kpa NO NONE 4 Is there any categoryC joint in nozzle that either exceed DN 250 or 29 mm vessel wall thickness for 1,2 & 3 above NO NONE 5 Are the category A & D butt welds of vessel designed with joint efficiency of 1 NO NONE 6 Whether electro gas / electroslag welding is used NO NONE Action code: YES : Full radiography is required as per UCS57 NONE : Full radiography of joint is not required. Conclusion: Full RT is not mandatory for fulfilling code requirements. Specified NDE is documented on page no. 61 of this calculation. 19. EVALUATION OF IMPACT EST REQUIREMENTS OF MATERIALS MDMT = 0 Ã‚Â°C Component Shell Head Pipe Type of Weld Butt Weld Butt Weld Fillet Weld/Groove Material of Construction SA 516M Gr. 485 SA 516m gr. 485 SA 106 Gr. B P. No. 1 1 1 Gr. No. 2 2 1 Applicable Curve D D B Governing thickness Fig UCS663 (mm) 10.000 8.000 8.000 Exemption thick. Per UG20 (f) (mm) For curve B,D material 1 1 1 Component Flange Fasteners Pipe Fittings Type of Weld Butt Weld  Fillet Weld/ Groove Material of Construction SA 105M SA 193M Gr. B7 SA 105 M SA 194M Gr. 2H P. No. 1  1 Gr. No. 2  2 Applicable Curve B  B Governing thickness Fig UCS663 (mm) 11.130  7.82 Exemption thick per UG20 (f) (mm) For curve B material 1  1 A) Check for UG20 (f) exemptions : 1. Whether all the materials are PNo. 1, Gr. No. 1 or 2 : Yes Whether thick. Exceeds 25 mm for materials listed in Curve B of Fig. UCS66 : No 2. Is the vessel hydro tested as per UG99 (b) : Yes 3. Is design temperature between 29 C and 345C : Yes 4. Whether thermal or mechanical loadings are a controlling design requirement : No 5. Whether cyclic loading is a controlling design requirement : No As per UG20 9f), all components are exempted from impact testing. B) As per UCS66C Exemption temperature for ASME B 16.5 flanges is 29 C C) For bolting, note (e) of General notes of Fig. UCS66 is applied. Exemption temperature for SA 193 M Gr. B7 & SA 194M Gr. 2H 64 mm dia and under is â€œ 48 C There for all components are exempted from impact testing. D) Since all base metals are exempted from impact test, weld metal & HAZ also exempted from impact testing as per UCS67. 20. EVALUATION OF HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE (UG99(B)) MAWP = 0.785 MPa. Aat 0 Ã‚Â°C Material Allowable stress at Design temperature of 45 Ã‚Â°C (MPa) Allowable stress at Test temperature of 45 Ã‚Â° C. SA 516M Gr. 485 138 138 SA 106 Gr. B 118 118 SA 105M 138 138 SA 193M Gr. B7 172 172 Applicable Formulae : (i) Stress Ratio = Allowable Stress at DesignTemp. 45 Ã‚Â°C Allowable Stress Test Temperature at 45 Ã‚Â°C (ii) Hydrotest pressure = (1.3 * MAWP *Lowest Stress Ratio ® ), MPa Material From Formula (i) Hydrotest Pr. From Formula (ii) in MPa SA 516 M Gr. 485 1 .021 SA 106 Gr. B 1 1.021 SA 105M 1 1.021 SA 193M Gr. B7 1 1.021 Therefore Hydrostatic test Pressure at the top of the Vessel = 1.021 MPa = 10.40 kg/cm2 Say = 11.00 kg/cm2 21. TOLERANCES (UG 80 & UG81) Shell Tolerances (UG80) Inside diameter of vessel = 610.00 mm Corrosion allowance = 3.00 mm Design pressure = 0.785MPa Allowable stress for shell material, S = 138 MPa Nominal shell thickness = 10.000 mm As per UG80 (a) (1), the difference between the maximum and minimum inside diameters at any cross section shall not exceed 1% of nominal diameter at the cross section under consideration. Corroded inside diameter of vessel = 616 mm Ovality (DmaxDmin) = 1% of I.D. (Corroded) = 6.16 mm Provided tolerance = 6.00 mm Check for adequacy of shell thickness considering maximum possible diameter. Possible inside diameter of vessel = 622 mm (in corroded condition) Radius of vessel = 311.000 mm Design thickness of shell t = PR/(SE0.6P) + CA = 4.775 mm Required design thickness is less than the specified thickness considering maximum possible diameter. Possible inside diameter of vessel = 622 mm (in corroded condition) Radius of vessel = 311.000 mm Design thickness of shell t = PR/(SE0.6P) + CA = 7.775 mm Required design thickness is less than the specified thickness 10mm, hence safe. Head Tolerance (UG81) As per UG81 (a), the maximum outside deviation from the specified shape shall not exceed 1.25% of nominal ID and maximum inside deviation from specified shape shall not exceed 5/8% of nominal ID. Corroded I.D. of head = 616.00 mm i) Maximum outside deviation = 1.25 % of Corroded I.D. = 7.70 mm Provided tolerance = 7.00 mm ii) Maximum inside deviation = 5/8% of Corroded I.D. = 3.85 mm Provided tolerance = 3.00 mm 22. DESIGN OF LIFTING LUGS (1) IS 800 : 1984 Code of practice for general construction in steel. (2) Strength of materials by Domkundwar. DESIGN DATA Lifting Load = 400.000 Kgs Dynamic factor = 2.00 Design Load = 800.000 Kgs Number of lifting lug = 2 Nos. Material of Lifting Lug = SA 516M Gr. 485 Yield strength fy = 260.000 MPa Allowable tensile & compressive stress = 0.60 x fy = 171.600 MPa (As per IS 800 cl. 4.1.1. Allowable bending stress = 0.45 x fy = 171.600 MPa (As per IS 800 cl.6.4.1.) Allowable bending stress = 0.66 x fy = 171.600 MPa (As per IS 800 cl. 6.2.1) NOMENCLATURE P : Load on each lug in N : Angle made by lifting force with the axis in degree F : Horizontal force in N R : Lifting force in N M1, M2 : Bending moment induced in lug Nmm T : Thickness of lifting lug in mm T : Breadth of lifting lug in mm L : Distance from lug hole centre to top of lug in mm Ss : Shear stress in MPa St : Tensile stress in MPa Sc : Compressive stress in MPa Sb : Bending stress in MPa Ssa : Allowable shear stress in MPa = 117.000 MPa Sta : Allowable tensile stress in MPa = 156.000 MPa Sca : Allowable compressive stress in MPa =156.000 MPa Sba : Allowable bending stress in MPa = 171.600 MPa DESIGN CALCULATION P = Lifting load / 2 = 3924.000 N = 15.00 (Assumed) F = P x tan = 1051.433 N R = F / sin = 4062.424 N I = Length of lug = 10.000 mm E = Weld joint efficiency = 0.65 L = Distance from lug hole centre to top of lug = 90.00 mm PART A Bending moment M1 = P x t / 2 = 19620.00 Nmm M2 = F x L = 94628.94 Nmm Total bending moment M1 + M2 = 114248.9 Nmm Section modulus Z = t2 x 1 / 6 = 2250.000 mm3 Induced Bending stress Sb = (M1 + M2) / Z Sb = 50.777 MPa Total tensile stress in the lug. (Sb / Sba) + (St /Sta) < 1 = 0.296 + 0.019 = 0.315 < 1 HENCE SAFE PART B : a) Shear stress of welding part Length of the weld = 260.000 mm Fillet weld = 8.000 mm Area of weld, Aw = 0.707 x Fillet weld x length of weld = 1470.560 mm2 Shear stress = P / Aw = 2.668 MPa (a) b) Shear stress due to break away of welding part Shear stress = F /Aw = 0.715 MPa (b) Total shear stress Total shear stress = (a) + (b) = 3.383 MPa Allowable shear stress for the weld = Ssa x E = 76.05 MPa Induced shear stress < Allowable shear stress. HENCE SAFE CHECK FOR STRESS INDUCED IN THE SHELL AT THE POINT OF ATTACHMENT OF PAD WITH THE SHELL At the edge of pad, as per Annex G. Notation from G.2.2. Cx = Half length of rectangular loading area in longitudinal direction, in mm. = 45.00 mm C f = Half length of rectangular loading area in circumferential direction, in mm. = 4.00 mm. D = Mean dia of vessel, in mm. = 610 + 10 D = 620.00 mm t = Analysis thickness of vessel shell = 10.00 mm t1 = Analysis thickness of pad plate = 10.00 mm. L = Length of cylindrical part = 1000.00 mm r = Mean radius of cylinder = 310.00 mm Cf/ Cx = 0.09 Cx / r = 45/310 = 0.15 2Cx / L = (2 x 45) / 1000 = 0.09 W = 800*9.81 / 2 W = 3924.00 N 64r/t (Cx/r)2 = 64 x 252 / 8 (45/252)2 = 41.806 M f / W = 0.150 (as per figure G.2.2.6) Mx / W = 0.075 (as per figure G.2.2.7) N f t/W = 0.130 (as per figure G.2.2.8) Nx t/W = 0.130 (as per figure G.2.2.9) M f = 0.15 W = 588.60 N Mx = 0.075 W = 294.30 N N f =  0.128 W/t =  50.23 N/mm. Nx =  0.130 W/t =  51.01 N/mm. Circumferential Stress = Nf/t + 6 Mf/ t2 = 48.903 N / mm2 (Compression) =  40.339 N/mm2 (Tension) Longitudinal Stress = Nx/t + 6 Mx / t2 = 12.557 N / mm2 (Compression) =  22.759 N / mm2 (Tension) Primary membrane stress S = (PR/t + 0.6P)/E S = 24.81 N/mm2 Total induced tensile stress = 86.27 N / mm2 Allowable tensile stress = 156.000 N/mm2 Total induced tensile stress = 86.27 N / mm2 < 156.000 N/mm2 HENCE SAFE 23.DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORT. As per PD 5500: 2006, Annex G Design pressure = 0.785 MPa 0.785 N/mm2 Pressure due to static head at mid span = 0.011 MPa 0.011 N/mm2 Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 1000.00 Kg/m3 I.D. of Vessel = 0.000 mm 0.000 mm Inside Radius of Vessel, ri = 0.000 mm 0.000 mm Vessel Length (W.L. to W.L.), L = 1000.00 mm 1000.00 mm Depth of head, b = 0.850 mm 0.850 mm Thickness of shell, t = 0.0000 mm 0.0000 mm Thickness of head = 10.000 mm 10.000 mm Mean radius ® = 0.000 mm 0.000 mm A = 200.000 mm 200.000 mm b1 = 50.000 mm 50.000 mm b2 = 50.000 mm 50.000 mm Distance between saddle (Ls) = 600.000 mm 600.000 mm Distance from base to centerline of vessel (B) = 221.000 mm 221.000 mm Reactions per support arising from seismic load Seismic force * (B / Ls) = 0.000 N 0.000 N Reactions per support arising due to Vessel Weight and Seismic W1 = Max. [Operating wt. & Hydrotest Wt.] + Seismic Load W1 = 0.000 kgs = 0.00 N At Mid Span from equation G.7 M3 = {W,L/4} {((1 + 2 (r2 â€œ b2)/L2)/(1 + 4b/3L)) â€œ (4A/L)} = 0.00 Ibsinch = 0 Nmm At the supports from equation G.8 M4 = W,A {((1 â€œ ((1 â€œ A/L + (r2 â€œ b2)/L2)/(2AL)) â€œ (1 + 4b/3L)} = 0.00 Ibsinch = 0 Nmm i) At mid span The stress at the highest point of cross section from equation G.9 F1 = (Pmr/2t) â€œ (M3/*r2t) = psi N.mm Check for condition when the vessel is full of product with zero top pressure i.e. Pm = 0.011 N/mm2 f1 = psi N.mm2 The stress at the lowest point of cross section from equation G. 10 F2 = (Pmr/2t) â€œ (M3/*r2t) = psi N.mm2 ii) At Supports The stress near the equator from equation G. 11 F3 = (Pmr/2t) â€œ (M3/*r2t) = psi N.mm2 Where, K1 = 0.107 from table G.2 For = 120 Since A > r/2 and the shell is not stiffened The stress at the lowest point of crosssection from equation G. 12 F4 = (Pmr/2t) â€œ (M3/*r2t) = psi N.mm2 Allowable Direct stresses The stress intensity acting at the point should be taken as = Max (S1S2 ; S1 + 0.5 P ; S2 + 0.5 P) Where S1 and S2 are principle stresses For this the stress intensity should not exceed f i.e. maximum allowable stress For SA 516 Gr. 70 max. allowable stress f = 45 psi F = 0.31 N/mm2 The primary membrane circumferential stress i) at the highest point of cross section q S = Pr/t = = psi N.mm2 ii) at the lowest point of cross section The primary membrane Stress intestates involving the longitudinal stress are (S  Sz) and (Sz + 0.5P) A) At mid point B) I) at highest point of cross section (S  Sz) = #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! = #DIV/0! psi  #DIV/0! N.mm (Sz + 0.5 P) = #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! 56.893 psi 0.39 N.mm2 B) At the supports i) at Equator ii) (SSz) = #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! = #DIV/0! psi  (Sz + 0.5 P) = #DIV/0! + 0.5 x 0.785 = #DIV/0! psi  Maximum stress induced = #DIV/0! psi  #DIV/0! Limits for the longitudinal compressive stress (Y.2.5.3 & A.3.5) Calculate compressive stress should not exceed x S x f Where, K = Pe/Pyss = #DIV/0! Where, Pe = 1.21 x Ex t2/r2 = #DIV/0! psi  Pyss = 2 x S x f x t/r = #DIV/0! psi  = #DIV/0! From fig A2 in terms of K with S and f for this case K = Pe/Pyss, Using equation 3.24 and 3.25 of 3.6.4 Where, E = modulus of elasticity = 30457980 psi = 210000 N/mm2 S = A factor relating f to effective yield point of material, for carbon steel S = 1.4 = 1.40 (As per 3.6.1) f = 44.97 psi = 0.31 N/mm2 From Fig. A.2 = 0.45 + 0.00625 K = #DIV/0! x S x f = #DIV/0! Psi = #DIV/0! N/mm2 i.e. Allowable compressive stress as in this case there is no longitudinal compressive stress #DIV/0! #DIV/0! Tangential shearing Stresses at the support (G.3.3.2.4) A = 7.874 inch = 200.00 mm r/2 = 0.0000 inch = 0 mm A > r/2, Equation G. 13 Tangential shearing Stress in the Shell q = [(K3W1) / (rt)] [(L2A) / {(L + (4b/3)}] = #DIV/0! Psi = #DIV/0! N/mm2 From Table G.3, for = 120 K3 = 1.171 Allowable tangential shearing stresses = Min[0.8f, (0.06Et)/r] = #DIV/0! Psi = #DIV/0! N/mm2 #DIV/0! Circumferential stresses : (G.33.2.5.1 & Y.2.7) Maximum stress Maximum value of the circumferential stress occur in the region of the saddle support. Therefore as per G.3.3.2.5.1, Thickness of saddle plate (t1) = thickness of shell plate (t) And b2 = b1 + 10 t. t = 0.315 inch = 8.00 mm b2 = 1.969 inch = 50.00 mm Stress at the lowest point of crosssection Equation G.16 In the region at the edge of saddle plate where the thickness is t + t for = 120 F5 = [K5 W1]/[(t+t1)b2] = 0 psi 0.00 N/mm2 Where, K5 factor from table G.5, for = 120 When saddle is welded to vessel as per G.3.3.2.5.1 divide K5 by 10 K5 = 0.076 In the region at the edge of saddle plate where the thickness is t & for = 132 F5 = [K5 W1] [tb2] = #DIV/0! Psi = Where, K5 factor From table G.5, for = 132 when saddle is welded to vessel as per G.3.3.2.5.1 divided K5 by 10 As per G.3.3.3.2.5 when the saddle is welded to the vessel. The value of f5 should not exceed f #DIV/0! Stress at the horn of saddles L/r = #DIV/0! #DIV/0! F6 = [w1/(4tb2)][(12k6w1r)/(Lt2)] Since saddle plate has been extended by 12â„¢and has a width value b2,the stress at the edge of the extended saddle plate and the edge of the extended saddle plate should be determind. Stress at the edge of saddle = 120 Thickness = shell thickness (t) + saddle thickness (t1) t = 0.315 inch = 8.00 mm b2 = 1.969 inch = 50.00 mm = 120 A/r = #DIV/0! K6 = #DIV/0! From table G.4 F6 = #DIV/0! Psi = #DIV/0! N/mm2 Stress at the edge of saddle = 132 Thickness = shell thickness (t) t = 0.000 inch = 0.000 inch b = 1.969 inch = 50.00 mm = 132 A/r = #DIV/0! K6 = 0.031 from table G.4 Numerical value of circumferential stress f6 should not exceed 1.25f #DIV/0! Check for adequacy of web plate From pressure vessel hand book by Eugene f. megyesy The saddle at the lowest section must be resist the horizontal force (F).the effective cross section of the saddle to resist this load is 1/3 of the vessel radius ® F = k11w1 Where K11 = constant depend on contact angle = 0.204 r/3 = 0.000 inch = 0.000 mm web plate thickness = 0.315 inch = 8.00 mm contact angle = 120 w1 = load on each saddle force F = 0.000 lbs effective area of web plate = (r/3)* web plate thickness = 0.000 inch2 = 0.000 mm2 Induced stress due to force F = effective area of web plate = #DIV/0! Psi = #DIV/0! N/mm2 Allowable stress = 2/3 allowable tensile stress = 29.98 psi = 0.21 N/mm2 #DIV/0! Design of base plate (reference pressure vessel design manually by D.R.Moss ) Length of base plate A = 18.504 inch = 470.00 mm Width of base plate F = 1.969 inch = 50.00 mm Thickness of base plate tb = 0.315 inch = 8.00 mm Area of base plate Ab=A*F = 36.425 inch2 = 23500 mm2 Bearing pressure Bp = W1/Ab = 0.000 psi = 0.00 N/mm2 Induced bending stress fb = 3W1F/(4Atb2) = 0.000 psi = 0.00N/mm2 Allowable bending stress = 2/3*allowable tensile stress = 29.98 psi = 0.21 N/mm2 Induced bending stress<Allowable bending stress .Hence thickness of base plate is adequate Number of ribs (Reference pressure vessel design manual by D.R.MOSS) Length of the base plate A = 18.504 inch = 470.00 mm Number of ribs n = (A/24)+1 = 1.77 Nos. Provided no. ribs = 2 Nos. Conversion factor: 1 N/MM2 = 145.038 psi. 1 N =0.225 lbs 24.SEISMIC ANALYSIS Design pressure p = 8.00 psi. Inside diameter of vessel d = 0.000 inch Overall height of vessel H = 3.396 ft Distance between bottom T.L to C.G Of vessel L = 530.00 mm = 20.866 inch Allowable stress for shell material S = 45 psi. Nominal shall thickness t = 0.000 inch Thickness of shall in corroded condition t1 = 0.000 inch Operating weight of vessel W1 = 400 lbs Hydro test weight of vessel W2 = 600 lbs Uniform operating weight of vessel w = 118 lbs/ft As per IS 18931984 Seismic zone = III As per seismic coefficient method, Horizontal seismic coefficient a h = ÃƒÅ¸ l a0 = 0.072 Where, Coefficient depending upon the soil foundation ÃƒÅ¸ = 1.2(Table 3) Important factor l = 1.5 (Table 4) Basic horizontal seismic coefficient a 0 = 0.04(Table 2) For Operating Condition: Horizontal seismic force F = W l a h = 29 lbs Moment induced at the bottom tangent line Mo = F L = 601 inlb For Hydro test condition: Horizontal seismic force F = w1 a h = 43 lbs Moment induced at the bottom tangent line Mo = FL = 901 inlb Note: Seismic load is included in saddle design calculation hence separate seismic analysis is not required Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion



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