DNA Computer Full Seminar Report Download
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#1
07-04-2009, 08:50 PM


Abstract
Silicon microprocessors have been the heart of computing world for more than forty years. Computer chip manufacturers are furiously racing to make the next microprocessor that will topple speed records. Sooner or later the physical speed and miniaturization limit of silicon microprocessors is bound to hit a wall.
Chipmakers need a new material to produce faster computing speed with fewer complexities. Itâ„¢s unbelievable where scientists have found this new material. DNA, the material our genes are made of, is being used to build the next generation of microprocessors. A nascent technology that uses DNA molecules to build computers that are faster than the worldâ„¢s most powerful human-built computers is called DNA computing. Now we are taking those tools in large numbers molecules and using them as biological computer processors.
DNA computing has a great deal of advantage over conventional silicon-based computing. DNA computers can store billions of times more data than your personal computer. DNA computers have the ability to work in a massively parallel fashion, performing many calculations simultaneously.
DNA computing has made a remarkable progress in almost every field. It has found application in fields like biomedical, pharmaceutical, information security, cracking secret codes, etc. Scientists and researchers believe that in the foreseeable future DNA computing could scale up to great heights!


If you are intested you can download it from the following link

Seminar Report in IEEE format And Ppts

Full Seminar Report Download

4sharedfile/90635344/89d54fe5/Dna_Computer.html
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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projects wizhard
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#2
07-07-2010, 05:38 PM

Sorry , this seminar and presentation file is missing. You can find the reports pdf and ppt's in the folowing links:
pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2003/CPSC601-73/Slides/05-DNA-Computing-Apps.pdf
scribddoc/30794764/Dna-Computing
scribddoc/20739791/Dna-Computing
scribddoc/31041017/DNA-Computing
scribddoc/19339680/DNA-Computer-
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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akhilm
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#3
10-07-2010, 05:54 PM

please send the report
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projects wizhard
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#4
12-07-2010, 06:17 PM

Hey, the report is availabe in the links posted. We don't send it to your mail. Please copy it from here
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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seminar surveyer
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#5
08-10-2010, 10:39 AM


.pdf   DNA Computers_ppt.pdf (Size: 76.84 KB / Downloads: 336)


Introduction To DNA Computer

• Store Billions of time more information.
• High computing speed.
• Information is encoded within ‘Deoxiribo Nucleic Acid’.
• First Demonstrated By Ad leman in 1994.


Some information about DNA

• Definition of DNA
• About nucleic acid
• Genes and chromosomes

Structure of DNA

• Strands of DNA are long polymers of millions of linked nucliotides.
• Nitrogen bases .
• 5’ to 3’ direction.
• Double Helix form.
• Purin and pirimidin bases.

Operations on DNA

• Merge
• Annealing
• Melt
• Separation by length - Electophoresis.
• Separation by sequences
• Copying / Amplification
• Append
• Detect

Conclusion

• I would like to conclude by sharing a future vision in which a single drop of water holds a veritable army of live robots for protection against various
diseases may be even cancer.
• It is still science fiction but implanting computer programs in to living creatures may not be far away.
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#6
08-10-2010, 10:45 AM


.pdf   DNA Computers.pdf (Size: 398.53 KB / Downloads: 122)


Introduction

DNA Computer can store billions of times more information then your PC hard drive and solve complex problems in a less time.We know that computer chip manufacturers are racing to make the next microprocessor that will more faster. Microprocessors made of silicon will eventually reach their limits of speed and miniaturization. Chips makers need a new material to produce faster computing speeds.
To understand DNA computing lets first examine how the conventional computer process information. A conventional computer performs mathematical operations by using electrical impulses to manipulate zeroes and ones on silicon chips. A DNA computer is based on the fact the information is “encoded” within deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as as patterns of molecules known as nucleotides. By manipulating the how the nucleotides combine with each other the DNA computer can be made to process data. The branch of computers dealing with DNA computers is called

DNA Computing.

The concept of DNA computing was born in 1993, when Professor Leonard Adleman, a mathematician specializing in computer science and cryptography accidentally stumbled upon the similarities between conventional computers and DNA while reading a book by James Watson. A little more than a year after this, In 1994, Leonard M. Adleman, a professor at the University of Southern California, created a storm of excitement in the computing world when he announced that he had solved a famous computation problem. This computer solved the traveling salesman problem also known as the “Hamiltonian path" problem,which is explained later. DNA was shown to have massively parallel processing capabilities that might allow a DNA based computer to solve hard computational problems in a reasonable amount of time.
There was nothing remarkable about the problem itself, which dealt with finding the shortest route through a series of points. Nor was there anything special about how long it took Adleman to solve it — seven days — substantially greater than the few minutes it would take an average person to find a solution. What was exciting about Adleman’s achievement was that he had solved the problem using nothing but deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and molecular chemistry.

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mangalsitm
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#7
20-11-2010, 11:28 AM

thank you for this report
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mangalsitm
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#8
20-11-2010, 11:34 AM

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seminar surveyer
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#9
22-11-2010, 10:17 AM

hello mangalsitm,

what is this ?? we couldn't understand.
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mangalsitm
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#10
23-11-2010, 04:04 PM

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rhgdiuhgidg ghidhgidhgkjdgndkj dghjdiughdiughdh,m ngiguhdyiugydjid noghdeiud
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mangalsitm
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23-11-2010, 04:12 PM

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FSJDV VSUVGSUBHB H,ODHUGFHJKMNT6DR8MOP79KMO-YRH9O 5I7Y\/
.\
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#12
24-11-2010, 10:14 AM

hi mangalsitm,
what you want to say?
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frozenashish
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#13
17-02-2011, 01:17 PM


i want a full seminar and presentation report on dna computing

plz provide me

thanking you

yours sincerlely
ashish singh
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vijaykumar098
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#14
25-03-2011, 11:39 PM

seminar and presentation report on DNA Computers
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seminar class
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#15
26-03-2011, 03:22 PM


.doc   DNA computing.DOC (Size: 1.95 MB / Downloads: 58)
ABSTRACT
“Everything looks good when it is mounted on a chip.”
To challenge the limits of speed and miniaturization scientists of silicon chip the biochip has been invented and made up of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). The function of 0’s and 1’s are done by the specified combinations of the four nucleotides. Their speed is billion times faster. As its processing is parallel and not serial it can compute problem with large possibilities much faster. With application in various fields of genetics basically DNA recognition as well as chemistry development of medicines and detecting diseases it has more utilities.
Biological and mathematical operations have some similarities, despite their respective complexities:
1. The very complex structure of a living being is the result of applying simple operations to initial information encoded in a DNA sequence;
2. The result f(w) of applying a computable function to an argument w can be obtained by applying a combination of basic simple functions to w.
For the same reasons that DNA was presumably selected for living organisms as a genetic material, its stability and predictability in reactions, DNA strings can also be used to encode information for mathematical systems.
1. INTRODUCTION TO DNA COMPUTER
Computer chip manufactures are furiously racing to make the next microprocessor that will topple speed records. Sooner or later, though, this competition is bound to hit a wall. Microprocessor made of silicon will eventually reach their limits of speed and miniaturization. Chip makers need a new material to produce faster computing speeds. You won’t believe where scientists have found the new material they need to build the next generation of microprocessors. Millions of natural supercomputers exist inside living organisms, including your living body.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, the material our genes are made of, have the potential to perform calculations many faster than the world’s most powerful human-built computers.
What is a DNA Computer?
Research in the development of DNA computers is really only at its beginning stages, so a specific answer isn't yet available. But the general sense of such a computational device is to use the DNA molecule as a model for its construction. Although the feasibility of molecular computers remains in doubt, the field has opened new horizons and important new research problems, both for computer scientists and biologists. The computer scientist and mathematician are looking for new models of computation to replace with acting in a test tube.
The massive parallelism of DNA strands may help to deal with computational problems that are beyond the reach of ordinary digital computers not because the DNA strands are smarter, but because they can make many tries at once. It's the parallel nature of the beast. For the biologist, the unexpected results in DNA computing indicate that models of DNA computers could be significant for the study of important biological problems such as evolution. Also, the techniques of DNA manipulation developed for computational purposes could also find applications in genetic engineering. DNA computer can’t be still found at your local electronics store yet. The technology is still in their development, and didn’t exist as concept before a decade. In 1994, LEONARD ADELMAN introduced the idea of using DNA to solve complex mathematical problems.
Adelman, computer scientist at the university of Southern California, came to the conclusion that DNA had computational potential after reading the book “MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE GENE” written by JAMES WASTON, who co-discovered the structure of DNA in 1953.In fact, DNA is more similar to computer. DNA is very similar to a computer hard drive in how it stores permanent information about your genes.
2. HAMILTON PATH PROBLEM
Adelman is often called the inventor of the DNA computers. His article in a 1994 issue of Journal Science outlined how to use DNA to solve a well-known mathematical problem, called the “Directed Hamilton Path problem”, also known as the “Traveling Salesman Problem”. The goal of the problem is to find the shortest route between a numbers of cities, going through each city only once. As you add more cities the problem becomes more difficult. Figure 2.1 shows a diagram of the Hamilton path problem. The objective is to find a path from start to end going through all the points only once. This problem is difficult for the conventional (serial logic) computers because they try must try each path one at a time. It is like having a whole bunch of keys and trying to see which fits into the lock. Conventional computers are very good at math, but poor at “key into lock” problems. DNA based computers can try all the keys at the same time (massively parallel) and thus are very good at key into lock problems, but much slower at simple mathematical problems like multiplication. The Hamilton path problem was chosen because every key-into-lock problem can be solved as a Hamilton Path Problem.
The following algorithm solves the Hamilton Path Problem, regardless of the type computers used.
1. Generate random paths through the graph.
2. Keep only those paths that begin with the start city (A) and conclude with the end city (G).
3. Because the graph has 7 cities, keep only those paths with 7 cities.
4. Keep only those paths that enter all cities at least once.
5. Any remaining paths are solutions.
The key to solving the problem was using DNA to perform the five steps in solving the above algorithm.
These interconnecting blocks can be used to model DNA:
DNA likes to form long double helices:
The two helices are joined by “bases”, which will be represented by coloured blocks. Each base binds only to one other specific base. In our example, we will say that each coloured block will bind only with the block of same colour. For example, if we only had red coloured blocks, they would form a long chain like this:
Any other colour will not bind with red:
3.PROGRAMMING OF THE PROBLEM USING DNA
STEP 1: Create a unique DNA sequence for each city A through G. For each path, for example, from A to B, creates a linking pieces of DNA that matches the last half of A and first half of B:
Here the red block represents the city a, while the orange block represents the city B. The half-red half-orange block connecting the two other blocks represents the path from A to B.
In a test tube, all different pieces of DNA will randomly link with each other, forming paths through the graph.
STEP 2: Because it is difficult to "remove" DNA from solution, the target DNA, the DNA which started from A and ended at G was copied over and over again until the test tube contained a lot of it relative to other random sequences. This is essentially the same as removing all the other pieces. Imagine a sock drawer which initially contains one or two coloured socks. If you put in a hundred black socks, the chances are that all you will get if you reach in is black socks.
STEP 3: Going by weight, the DNA sequences which were 7 "cities" long were separated from the rest. A "sieve" was used which would allow smaller pieces of DNA to pass quickly, while larger segments are slowed down. the procedure used actually allows you to isolate the pieces which are precisely cities long from any shorter or longer paths.
STEP 4: To ensure that the remaining sequences went through each of cities, “sticky” pieces of DNA attached to magnets were used to separate the DNA. The magnets were used to ensure that the target DNA remained in the test tube, while the unwanted DNA was washed away. First, the magnets kept all the DNA which went through city A in the test tube, then B, then C, and D, and so on. In the end, the only DNA which remained in the tube was that which went through all seven cities.
STEP 5: all that was left to sequences the DNA, revealing the path from A to B to C to D to E to F to G.
4. WORKING OF DNA
DNA is the major information storage molecule in living cells, and billions of years of evolution have tested and refined both this wonderful informational molecule and highly specific enzymes that can either duplicate the information in DNA molecules or transmit this information to other DNA molecules. Instead of using electrical impulses to represent bits of information, the DNA computer uses the chemical properties of these molecules by examining the patterns of combination or growth of the molecules or strings. DNA can do this through the manufacture of enzymes, which are biological catalysts that could be called the 'software' used to execute the desired calculation.
DNA computers use deoxyribonucleic acids--A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine) and T (thymine)--as the memory units, and recombinant DNA techniques already in existence carry out the fundamental operations. In a DNA computer, computation takes place in test tubes or on a glass slide coated in 24K gold. The input and output are both strands of DNA, whose genetic sequences encode certain information. A program on a DNA computer is executed as a series of biochemical operations, which have the effect of synthesizing, extracting, modifying and cloning the DNA strands.
The only fundamental difference between conventional computers and DNA computers is the capacity of memory units: electronic computers have two positions (on or off), whereas DNA has four (C, G, A or T). The study of bacteria has shown that restriction enzymes can be employed to cut DNA at a specific word(W). Many restriction enzymes cut the two strands of double-stranded DNA at different positions leaving overhangs of single-stranded DNA. Two pieces of DNA may be rejoined if their terminal overhangs are complementary. Complements are referred to as 'sticky ends'. Using these operations, fragments of DNA may be inserted or deleted from the DNA.
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