Design and Fabrication of GearBox full report
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01-04-2010, 09:19 PM

Design and Fabrication of GearBox
AIM: To design and fabricate a automobile gearbox

To design a Helical gear box
Study of various gear manufacturing processes
Fabrication of gear box
Representation of Gearbox
Market Survey
Market research was done at following places regarding type and cost calculation of the Gearbox.

Sokhi heli-wom gears in Ghaziabad
Hi-tech gears in Manesar
Junk market in Mayapuri

A transmission or gearbox provides speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device using gear ratios, including for a motor vehicle partly because of the limitations of internal combustion engines. Torque converters, hydraulics, electrical power and hybrid configurations may also be used for the same purpose.

Uses of Gearbox
Gearbox has different uses at different places.
In Automobiles, engine speed is about 5000 rpm ,but wheels rotate at 1000 rpm.Machine tool spindle rotates at 50 rpm while the motor is at 1440 rpm.
Automobile gearbox can have variable output and input speeds ,and few reduction ratios in between.
Gearbox types
It can be classified as
Manual Gearbox can be further divided as
Synchromesh and Non Synchromesh
Non synchromesh includes Confusedliding mesh type

Synchromesh GearBox

Constant Mesh Gearbox where diagonal cut helical gear sets are constantly "meshed" together, and a dog clutch is used for changing gears. On synchromesh boxes, friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used in addition to the dog clutch. This type of gearbox is used in modern cars and trucks these days.
Material Selection
Keeping in mind cost effectiveness. It was intended to design a general purpose Gearbox, where cheaper materials would be used.
So, Plain Carbon Steel will be used for moving components and Cast iron for Frames and bodies ,because of intricate shape they can be easily casted.
Materials contd.
Plain Carbon Steel with 0.4% carbon or EN8 material is selcted for shaft.
Further,Hot rolled being cheaper than cold rolled and heat treated materials , hot rolled will be selcted.
For gears : 30 Ni 4 Cr 1 is selected with Sut=1500Mpa
For gears, additonal cheap alloying element,such as manganese (0.87%),to make it Strong , giving ultimate strength of 600 Mpa.(P.S.G Design data book 1.13)

Automatic Gearbox
This type of transmission are easy to use.  Automatic transmission  will select an appropriate gear ratio without any operator intervention .
Sun and planet gear are mainly used

Design of Automobile Gearbox
Gearbox are incorporated to match performance of variable speed internal combustion engine.
Lowest reduction ratio is needed at highest speed of operation, and vice versa, values of these reduction ratio lies b/w 3.5 to 4.5 for cars and 5 to 7 for commercial vehicles.Gearbox provides reduction ratio between 1:1 to 1:4 for cars to 1:1 to 1:7 for commercial vehicles.

Special features of Automobile Gear box
Universally accepted number of gear ratios is 4.These four are in geometric progression, However ,overdrive gear is provided to enhance performance at higher speeds
Additional reduction ratio is provided to enhance performance during higher gradient operation.

Results Obtained
Gear Ratios
Gantt Chart
Designing of gears and shafts has been done and near
future we will be starting with fabrication of gearbox.

P.S.G Design Data book
Handbook for engineers
Material Science By Rk Rajput
Mechanical System Design By S.P . Patil
Theory of machine By Khurmi & Gupta
Machine Design By Khurmi & Gupta

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.doc   gear box report.doc (Size: 461.5 KB / Downloads: 441)


A gearbox, also known as a gear case or gear head, is a gear or a hydraulic system responsible for transmitting mechanical power from a prime mover (an engine or electric motor) into some form of useful output.
A gearbox is a set of gears for transmitting power from one rotating shaft to another. They are used in a wide range of industrial, automotive and home machinery application.
Gear heads are available in different sizes, capacities and speed ratios. Their main function is to convert the input provided by an electric motor into an output of lower RPM and higher torque.
Functions of a Gearbox
A gearbox is precisely bored to control gear and shaft alignment.
It is used as a housing/container for gear oil.
It is a metal casing for protecting gears and lubricant from water, dust and other contaminants.
Gearbox Specifications
There are a number of performance specifications which must be considered while choosing a gearbox for different industrial applications. Some of the important specifications are :
Gear ratio : The ratio may be specified as x : 1, where x is an integer.
Output torque
Maximum input power
Maximum input speed
Gearing arrangement
Reducer output
Shaft Alignment
The Gearbox (Transmission)
Types of gearing:
Various types of gearing are used on a motor vehicle. The gearboxes employ one or more of the following:
1- Spur, teeth parallel to axis, used on sliding mesh.
2- Helical, teeth inclined to axis to form helix.
3- Double helical, two sets of opposing helical teeth.
4- Epicyclic or planetary, spur or helical gears rotating about centers which are not stationary.
Gear ratio (single gear train):
The gear ratio, or velocity ratio, between a pair of gear wheels is in inverse ratio to the number of teeth on each. Thus:
NB/NA = DA/DB= nA/nB
NB = NA (nA/nB)
NA= rev per min of gear A, nA = number of teeth on A
NB = rev per min of gear B, nB = number of teeth on B
DA = Diameter of gear A
DB = Diameter of gear B

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.doc   How Does a Gearbox Work.doc (Size: 79.5 KB / Downloads: 215)
How Does a Gearbox Work?

1. A gearbox is a method of transmitting energy from one mechanical device to another. It works by increasing the torque while at the same time reducing the speed. Torque generates power by twisting and bending solid material. The gearbox is located in the power shaft, and every gear in the gearbox has a specific purpose in the operation of the vehicle. Each level of speed has a relative gear that gives your vehicle the right amount of speed and torque. A gear ratio is used to determine the level of force in each gear, and once this ratio is set, it cannot be changed.

A manual gearbox works when the clutch is pressed down. This allows the gearshift to be put into any desired gear. Most manual transmissions have five or six gears in their gear box.

When the gears in the gearbox are shifted into a higher gear, the gearbox gives the vehicle more power while using less fuel. This works because the gearbox rotates the drive shaft, alternating the torque and power.

When the gears are shifted into a lower gear, your vehicle will run at a lower speed. Gears engage the drive shaft at different points along the way. When the gear is lower, it will engage the drive shaft closer to the gearbox.

An automatic transmission's gearbox works in concert with the accelerator, brakes and drive shaft. The transmission in an automatic vehicle is more expensive and can be more difficult to maintain and replace. Automatic transmissions use the programmed gear ratio, and spin the drive shaft according to how much power is coming from the accelerator. When the brake in the vehicle is applied, the gearbox decreases the speed by using counterweights to slow the drive shaft.

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27-02-2011, 02:40 PM

please send the report for refference, Am Asst.Professor from Dr.MGR University,
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We are using a tata 207 DI gear box as our model .Please tell how to explain the design and working of gear box?
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