Digital Light Processing
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01-03-2009, 10:07 AM


Digital Light Processing

Large-screen, high-brightness electronic project and implimentationion displays serve four broad areas of application:

(1) electronic presentations (e.g., business, education, advertising),

(2) entertainment (e.g., home theater, sports bars, theme parks, electronic cinema),

(3) status and information (e.g., military, utilities, transportation, public, sports) and (

4) simulation (e.g., training, games).

The electronic presentation market is being driven by the pervasiveness of software that has put sophisticated presentation techniques (including multimedia) into the hands of the average PC user.A survey of high-brightness (>1000 lumens) electronic project and implimentationion displays for comparing the already existing three types of project and implimentationion display technologies namely, Oil film, CRT-LCD, and AM-LCD was conducted. Developed in the early 1940s at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and later at Gretag AG, oil film project and implimentationors (including the GE Talaria) have been the workhorse for applications that require project and implimentationion displays of the highest brightness. But the oil film project and implimentationor has a number of limitations including size, weight, power, setup time, stability, and maintenance. In response to these limitations, LCD-based technologies have challenged the oil film project and implimentationor.

These LCD-based project and implimentationors are of two general types: (1) CRT-addressed LCD light valves and (2) active-matrix (AM) LCD panels. LCD-based project and implimentationors have not provided the perfect solution for the entire range of high-brightness applications. CRT-addressed LCD light valves have setup time and stability limitations. Most active-matrix LCDs used for high-bright-ness applications are transmissive and, because of this, heat generated by light absorption cannot be dissipated with a heat sink attached to the substrate. This limitation is mitigated by the use of large-area LCD panels with forced-air cooling. However, it may still be difficult to implement effective cooling at the highest brightness levels.
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11-02-2010, 07:21 PM

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.ppt   DIGITAL LIGHT PROCESSING.ppt (Size: 1.14 MB / Downloads: 370)

DIGITAL LIGHT PROCESSING (DLP) REVOLUTION IN VISION

POINTS TO DISCUSS:-
INTRODUCTION.
DIGITAL MICROMIRROR DEVICE (DMD).
ORIGIN OF DLP.
WORKING OF DLP.
DLP FEATURES.
ONE OR THREE CHIP PROJECTOR.
ADVANTAGES OF DLP.
DISAVANTAGES OF DLP.
APPLICATION OF DLP.
FUTURE OF DLP.
CONCLUSION.
INTRODUCTION:-

Up until recently, big screen project and implimentationion sets are come in two types:- CRT based project and implimentationor and the other is LCD based project and implimentationor.

CATHODE RAY TUBE:-

Cathode Ray Tube is basically a hot-cathode device. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is known to be a beam of electron emitted from a heated cathode inside a vacuum tube and accelerated by a potential difference between the cathode and anode.
An image is produced by modulating the intensity of the electron beam received by the video signal.
Cathode ray tube:-

CRT is still finding a useful device in computer gaming due to the high refresh factor and higher resolution per initial cost.
The flicker in the monitor or screen causes headaches. Due to high voltage recruitment it consumes more power and difficult to maintain.
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY:-

A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of many no of colour or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It uses very small amount of electric power then other system ,so can be used in any powered electronics devices.

Liquid crystal display:-
Drawbacks of LCD:-

1) Low contrast ratio.
2) Longer responses time then plasma and CRT.
3) In capable of viewing very low resolution images.
Applications:-
Television screen, LCD project and implimentationor, monitors
PLASMA TECHNOLOGY:-

Plasma technology is different from all other technology, here in each pixels a source is of light is produced.
The main attraction of plasma screen is the fact they are flat enough to be wall mounted, thus eliminating the need for that box or separate project and implimentationor.

Plasma technology:-
Advantages of Plasma:-
1) Flat enough to be well mounted and eliminating box or separate project and implimentationor.
2) It provides a viewing image which can view from any angle with in 160 degree.
3) No magnetic disturbances.
4) Multimedia flexibility.
Disadvantages:-
More expansive then CRT & LCD.
DIGITAL MICROMIRROR DEVICE(DMD)

A Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is simply a semiconductor switch.
A DMD chip has on its surface several thousand of microscopic mirrors arranged in a rectangular array which correspond to the pixels in the image to be displayed.
The mirror is made up of aluminum and around 16 micrometer across.

Digital Micromirror Device:-

Each one is mounted on a yoke which in turn is connected to two support posts by compliant torsion hinges. The hinges canâ„¢t be damaged by normal shock or vibration, since it is absorbed by DMD super structure.
The advantages of this are more accurate timing and more filmic moving image.


Digital Micromirror Device:-

The advantages of this are more accurate timing and more filmic moving image.

Applications:-

Television and HDTVs
Holographic versatile discs.
Head mounted displays.
ORIGIN OF DLP:-


First DMD (Digital Micromirror Device) was invented by Larry Hornbeck in 1987.

In year 1994 Texas Instruments demonstrated the DLP (Digital Light Processing) project and implimentationor.
DIGITAL LIGHT PROCESSING(DLP)

Digital light processing (DLP) is a technology used in project and implimentationor as well as in video project and implimentationors.
It was invented in Texas instruments in 1987 by Dr. Larry Hornbeck, which creates the final link to display digital visual information.
WORKING OF DLP:-
DMD (Digital Micromirror Device) is the cornerstone of DLP (digital light processing) as CPU is the heart of computers.
It includes:-1. A light system
2. A color filter system
3. A cooling system.
4. A project and implimentationion optics.
Working of DLP:-
Depending upon the application a DLP will accept either digital or analog signal. When it receives an analog signal it converts the analog signal into digital form in DLPâ„¢s front end processor.

Working of DLP:-

The signal received goes through DLP video processor and becomes progressive red, green and blue (RGB) data. Then like other digital devices the progressive colors are formatted into entire binary bit planes of Data.
DLP PROJECTOR
DLP CHIP
DLP LIGHT PROJECTION:-

DLP FEATURES:-
Clarity (by minimizing the gaps between pixels in project and implimentationor image,DLP project and implimentationor system creates a seamless digital picture thatâ„¢s sharp at any size).
Brightness (Due to the mirror system, they use light more efficiently).
Color (eight time greater then analogue project and implimentationion system.)


DLP FEATURES:
-
Reliability (DLP is totally digital and itâ„¢s not susceptible to heat, humidity, vibration and any other environmental factors).
Minimum maintenance.
Life span (the DMD is very reliable, no maintain or alignment is required. DLP lamp can work for 8000Hr.costs around $250 to replace).
ONE OR THREE CHIP PROJECTOR:-
One-chip DLP systems use a project and implimentationion lamp to pass white light through a color wheel that sends red-green-blue colors to the DMD chip in a sequential order to create an image on-screen. Only one DMD chip is used to process the primary RGB colors.
THREE CHIP PROJECTOR:-
Three-chip DLP systems use a project and implimentationion lamp to send white light through a prism, which creates separate red, green, and blue light beams. Each beam is sent to their respective red, green, and blue DMD chip to process the image for display on-screen.
ONE CHIP PROJECTION:-
THREE CHIP PROJECTION:-
CINEMA IN DLP:-

The DLP project and implimentationor has the refresh rate double as the analog system. Films are recorded at 24Hz, which is sufficient to achieve the effect of motion but it has flickers. To avoid this DLP project and implimentationor has 48Hz refresh rate, hence greatly mitigates flickers.
DLP cinema project and implimentationion technology allows us to display images at any frame rate. This is done using the control versatility of DMD, which allows independent control of every bit. Thus human eye canâ„¢t judge the flickers.
ADVANTAGES OF DLP:-

High speed image creation then other project and implimentationors.
Noise free.
High perceived resolution (consistent picture quality).
Brighter.
Sharper (Exact mirror image of an incoming video or graphic signal resulting in project and implimentationion thatâ„¢s seamless at any resolution).

Versatile.
More reliable (display system using DLP technology are able to recreate their incoming source material with each project and implimentationion, ensuring a full-impact project and implimentationion experience that will not fade over time).
Consistent picture quality.

DISADVANTAGES OF DLP:-

Rainbow effect a major problem.

Due to the rapid change in color causes eye strain and headaches, which may hamper the viewer.
In single chip project and implimentationor system at any instant the on screen image is not total. So picture quality is not as the original image.


APPLICATION OF DLP:-

This project and implimentationor can be used as home theatre, television and film project and implimentationion.
Other application includes its high-definition image creation are photo finishing, three dimensional visual display, microscope, spectroscope and medical imaging.

DLP VS LCD

DLP has much higher pixels then LCD called fill factor. Due to this fill factor the DLP gives a much good image as original image and it gives a good resolution to the image.
DLP produces much smoother image as compared to the LCD system.
DLP has high contrast ratio and efficient use of light.
Light efficiency of DLP is more then LCD.
DLP VS LCD:-
CONCLUSION:-

Understand it.
Plan it.
Implement it.
Use it.
Refine it and
Support it.


THANK U¦¦..
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12-04-2011, 12:29 PM


.docx   DLP.docx (Size: 2.5 MB / Downloads: 96)
ABSTRACT
Sights and sounds in our world are analog, yet when we electronically acquire, store, and communicate these analog phenomena, there are significant advantages in using digital technology. This was first evident with audio as it was transformed from a technology of analog tape and vinyl records to digital audio CDs.
Video is now making the same conversion to digital technology for acquisition, storage, and communication. Witness the development of digital CCD cameras for image acquisition, digital transmission of TV signals (DBS), and video compression techniques for more efficient transmission, higher density storage on a video CD, or for video conference calls. The natural interface to digital video would be a digital display. But until recently, this possibility seemed as remote as developing a digital loudspeaker to interface with digital audio. Now there is a new MEMS-based project and implimentationion display technology called Digital Light Processing (DLP) that accepts digital video and transmits to the eye a burst of digital light pulses that the eye interprets as a color analog image.
Digital Light Processing technology provides all digital project and implimentationion displays that offer superior picture quality in terms of resolution, brightness, contrast, and color fidelity. This paper provides an overview of the digital light processing that have been developed by Texas Instruments for the all-digital display.
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO DLP:

Digital Light Processing is a revolutionary new way to project and implimentation and display information. Based on the Digital Micro mirror Device developed by Texas Instruments, DLP creates the final link to display digital visual information. DLP technology is being provided as subsystems or "engines" to market leaders in the consumer, business, and professional segments of the project and implimentationion display industry. In the same way the compact disc revolutionized the audio industry, DLP will revolutionize video project and implimentationion.
DLP has three key advantages over existing project and implimentationion technologies. The inherent digital nature of DLP enables noise-free, precise image quality with digital gray scale and color reproduction. Its digital nature also positions DLP to be the final link in the digital video infrastructure. DLP is more efficient than competing transmissive liquid crystal display (LCD) technology because it is based on the reflective DMD and does not require polarized light. Finally, close spacing of the micro mirrors causes video images to be project and implimentationed as seamless pictures with higher perceived resolution. For movie project and implimentationion, a computer slide presentation, or an interactive, multi-person, worldwide collaboration—DLP is the only choice for digital visual communications, today and in the future.
The world is rapidly moving to an all-digital communications and entertainment infrastructure. DMD and DLP technologies are introduced in the context of that infrastructure.
1.2 INTRODUCTION TO DMD:
Figure 1 The DMD microchip lies at the heart of the DLP system. It consists of an array of digital light Switches that accept electrical words as their inputs and output optical words. Surrounding the DMD are the necessary functionalities to take a digital source and project and implimentation its undegraded image to a project and implimentationion screen or hardcopy surface. These functionalities include image processing, memory, Reformatting, timing control, a light source, and project and implimentationion optics. The input to the DLP system is a digital source (e.g., from a computer or DBS satellite receiver) or it may be NTSC video converted to digital.
The basic building block of DLP technology is the DMD pixel, a reflective digital light switch. It is the equivalent of the electrical switch or gate in memory or microprocessor technologies. Unlike its electrical counterpart, however, the DMD light switch involves not only the electrical domain but also the mechanical and optical domains. Responding to an electrical input signal, the DMD light switch uses electromechanical action to interact with incident light and to switch that light into time-modulated light bundles at its output. This switching scheme is called binary pulse width modulation and is used to produce the sensation of gray scale to the observer's eye.
In the near future, most of the technologies necessary to achieve an all-digital communications and entertainment infrastructure will be available at the right performance and price levels. This will make an all-digital infrastructure chain such as the one shown in Figure 3commercially viable. The All-Digital Infrastructure
The links in this chain include capture, compression, transmission, reception, decompression, hearing, and viewing. But the final link is missing-an all-digital display. Digital images received today must be translated into analog signals for viewing on today's analog televisions. The digital display block shown in Figure 1 accepts a digital signal, but unlike analog displays of today, it outputs to the eye of the viewer an optical signal that is also digital. The viewer Perceives the digital signal as an analog signal, in essence performing the digital-to-analog (D/A) Conversion physiologically. An all-digital display possesses a degree of image stability and noise immunity that is inherently attributable to its digital nature.[1] Consider a digital word that is input electronically to the display. That word is converted into an optical word that is nearly immune to environmental, aging and manufacturing influences. DLP provides the all-digital project and implimentationion display solution, accepting a digital electrical input and outputting a digital optical image. Figure 2 shows the functional elements of such a system. The Missing Link in the All-Digital Infrastructure
2. DIGITAL MICRO MIRROR DEVICE
DMD Architecture
The world is rapidly moving to an all-digital communications and entertainment infrastructure.
DMD and DLP technologies are introduced in the context of that infrastructure.
2.1 The Mirror as a Switch
The address circuit and electromechanical superstructure of each pixel support one simple function, the fast and precise rotation of an aluminum micro mirror, 16 μm square, through angles of +10 and p;10 degrees. Figure 4 illustrates the architecture of one pixel, showing the mirror as semitransparent so that the structure underneath can be observed.
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14-04-2011, 10:06 AM

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DIGITAL LIGHT PROCESSING
WHY THIS?

In our world, sights & sounds are analog, we can acquire, store and communicate in digital media.
• This was first evident with audio as it was transformed from a technology of analog tape and vinyl records to digital audio CDs.
• Video is now making the same conversion to digital technology for acquisition, storage, and communication.
• Witness the development of digital CCD cameras for image acquisition, digital transmission of TV signals (DBS), and video compression techniques for more efficient transmission, higher density storage on a video CD, or for video conference calls
• But until recently, this possibility seemed as remote as developing a digital loudspeaker to interface with digital audio. Now there is a new MEMS-based project and implimentationion display technology called Digital Light Processing(DLP)
DLP OBJECTIVE:
 Digital Light Processing (DLP) that accepts digital video and transmits to the eye a burst of digital light pulses that the eye interprets as a color analog image.
 Digital Light Processing technology provides all-digital project and implimentationion displays that offer superior picture quality in terms of resolution, brightness, contrast, and color fidelity
ADVANTAGES:
DLP has three key advantages over existing project and implimentationion technologies.
 The inherent digital nature of DLP enables noise-free, precise image quality with digital gray scale and color reproduction.
 Its digital nature also positions DLP to be the final link in the digital video infrastructure.
 DLP is more efficient than competing transmissive liquid crystal display (LCD) technology
ELEMENTS OF DLP:
 DMD
 DLP project and implimentationor system includes
i. memory and signal processing to support a fully digital approach
ii. light source
iii. a cooling system and
iv. illumination and project and implimentationion optics.
DMD
• Dmd means digital micromirror device. It is the cornerstone of DLP.
• A DMD can be described simply as a semiconductor light switch.
• Thousands of tiny, square, 16 x 16Êmm mirrors, fabricated on hinges a top a static random access memory (SRAM) make up a DMD as shown in figure1.
• Each pixel of information is mapped directly to its own mirror in a 1:1 ratio, giving exact, digital control.
• If the signal is 640 x 480 pixels, the central 640 x 480 mirrors on the device will be active.
• The other mirrors outside of this area will simply be turned to the off position.
• By electrically addressing the memory cell below each mirror with the binary bit plane signal, each mirror on the DMD array is electrostatically tilted to the on or off positions.
• The technique that determines how long each mirror tilts in either direction is called pulse width modulation (PWM).
• The mirrors are capable of switching on and off more than 1000 times a second. This rapid speed allows digital gray scale and color reproduction.
DIGITAL SQUARE-PIXEL PROJECTED IMAGE:
• Optical light from the project and implimentationion lamp is directed at the DMD.
• When the mirrors are in the on position, they reflect light through the project and implimentationion lens and onto the screen to form a digital, square-pixel project and implimentationed image.
• The off position mirror reflects light away from the project and implimentationion lens to a light absorber so no light reaches the screen at that particular pixel, producing a square, dark pixel image.
• The mirror pixels reflect light to the screen or away from it based on their position. By using a color filter system and by varying the amount of time each of the 508,800 DMD mirror pixels is on, a full-color, digital picture is project and implimentationed onto the screen.
• DLP offers a scalable project and implimentationion solution for displaying a digital signal, thus completing an all-digital infrastructure as shown in Figure 3.
• DLP is accurate reproduction several combinations of different gray scale levels for each of the primary colors and the resultant digitally created of gray scale and color levels.
• The higher DMD fill factor gives a higher perceived resolution, and this, combined with the progressive scanning, creates a project and implimentationed image that is much more natural and life like This digitized photograph of a parrot was used to demonstrate the seamless, film like than conventional project and implimentationion displays .
Reliability:
• DLP systems have successfully completed a series of regulatory, environmental, and operational tests. Standard components with proven reliability were chosen to construct the digital electronics used to drive the DMD.
• No significant reliability degradation has been identified with either the illumination or project and implimentationion optics.
• Most of the reliability concerns are focused on the DMD because it relies on moving hinge structures. Hinge failure is not a factor in DMD reliability.
• It has also passed a barrage of tests meant to simulate actual DMD environmental operating conditions, including thermal shock, temperature cycling, moisture resistance, mechanical shock, vibration, and acceleration testing.
• Based on thousands of hours of life and environmental testing, the DMD and DLP systems exhibit inherent reliability.
Conclusion
• DLP is an optical system driven by digital electronics. The digital electronics and optics converge at the DMD. Using a video or graphics input signal, DLP creates a digitally project and implimentationed image with unprecedented picture quality.
• The digital nature of DLP enables digital gray scale and color reproduction and also positions DLP to be the final link in the digital video infrastructure. Finally, DLP has the ability to create seamless, film like images. DLP makes images look better.
• For movie project and implimentationion, a computer slide presentation, or an interactive, multi-person, worldwide collaboration—DLP is the only choice for digital visual communications, today and in the future.
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ABSTRACT
• Electronic project and implimentationion display technology for high-brightness applications had its origins on the Gretag Eidophor,an oil film-based project and implimentationion system developed in the
Early 1940s.
• More recently in response to various to various limitations of LCD technology high brightness system have been developed based on Digital Light Processing technology.
• A heart of the DLP project and implimentationion display is the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD).
• DMD is a semiconductor based array of fast reflective digital light switches that precisely control a light source using a binary pulse width modulation technique.
• Key word used in this paper
o DMDBig Grinigital Micro mirror Device.
o DLP: Digital Light Processing.
o SLM: Spatial Light Modulation.
o MEMS: Spatial Light Modulate Micro-electromechanical Systems.
o DIPD: Digital Image Projection Displays.
INTRODUCTION
 Digital light processsing system is based on the same principle as a prism .
 where white light is broken into different color through refraction.
 DLP is based on two general type
 CRT- addressed LCD light valves
 Active-matrix(AM)LCD panels
• The brightness(lumes) is plotted against the brightness efficiency(lumens/
watt).
• Three types of project and implimentationion display technologies are compaired in figure1
o OIL-FILM
o CRT-LCD
o AM-CLD
Introduction
• As well as to provide superior image quality under the most demanding environmental conditions, high-brightness project and implimentationion display systems have been developed based on digital light processing technology.
• DLP is based on a micro-electromechanical system(MEMS) device known as the digital micromirror device(DMD).
• The DMD,invented in 1987 at texas instruments, is a semiconductor-based array of fast,reflective digital light switches that precisely control a light source using a binary pulse width modulation technique.
• It can be combined with image processing, memory.a light source and optics to form a DLP system (figure2) capable of project and implimentationing large, bright,seamless,high-contrast color images.
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11-05-2012, 05:29 PM

Digital Light Processing



Digital Light Processing, a technology that led to miniaturisation of project and implimentationors, has a potential to replace the ageing film-based project and implimentationion of movies in theatres.
Although initially developed for project and implimentationion processes , and over the years, has spawned a new category of small, ultra-portable mobile project and implimentationors .It is based around a specialised optical semiconductor chip-Digital Micro mirror Device (DMD)

Being mirror-based, DLP systems use light very efficiently. That helps DLP images achieve outstanding brightness, contrast ratio and black levels. DLP images are also known for their crisp detail, smooth motion, and excellent color accuracy and consistency. Also, DLP-based TVs are probably the most resistant to screen burn-in.

The DLP chip is probably the world's most sophisticated light switch. It contains a rectangular array of up to 2 million hinge-mounted microscopic mirrors; each of these micro mirrors measures less than one-fifth the width of a human hair. The 3-chip system found in DLP Cinema project and implimentationion systems is capable of producing no fewer than 35 trillion colours.

Although initially developed for project and implimentationion processes, DLP is now used in telecommunications, scientific instrumentation, volumetric displays, holographic data storages, lithography and medical imaging.
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