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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TRIVANDRUM
The electronic industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry in the world. Discarded electronic and electrical equipment with all of their peripherals at the end of life is termed e-waste. The quantity of e-waste generated in developed countries equals 1% of total solidwaste on an average and is expected to grow to 2% by 2010 and is one of the fastest growing waste streams.
E-waste consists of ferrous and non ferrous metals, plastic, glass, ceramics, rubber etc. E-waste is valuable source for secondary raw material but harmful if treated and discarded improperly as it contains many toxic components such as lead, cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenlys etc. The presence of lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium and hexavalent chromium and flame retardants beyond threshold quantities in e-waste classifies them as hazardous wastes.
Rather than recycle the e-waste generated, the developed countries are finding easy way out of the problem by exporting them to developing economies. Recycling e-waste in a crude manner, as is done now will lead environmental pollution. A review of the study conducted of uncontrolled dumping and crude recycling of e-waste reveals the gravity of the problem. Technologies are suggested for environmentally sound management of e-waste. Legislation is the need of the hour for enforcing environmentally sound management.
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The electronic industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry in the world. The increasing “market penetration” in developing countries, “replacement market” in developed countries and “high obsolescence rate” of electrical and electronic goods make electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) one of the fastest growing waste streams. E-waste is valuable source for secondary raw material but harmful if treated and discarded improperly as it contains many toxic components such as lead, cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenlys etc. (Bandyopadhyay, 2010).
The quantity of e-waste generated in developed countries equals 1% of total solid waste on an average and is expected to grow to 2% by 2010 (UNEP Manual, 2007).In United States alone, 1,30,000 computers and 3,00,000 cell phones are trashed each day (Anderson, 2010).The developed countries use most of the world’s electronic products and generate most of the E-waste (Basel Action Network, 2002). Rather than treat e-waste in an environmentally friendly manner, the developed countries are finding an easy way out of the problem by exporting these wastes to developing economies especially, South Asian countries (Basel Action Network, 2002).
The import of e-waste to the developing countries is in violation of the ban imposed by Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, as e-waste come under the definition of hazardous waste (Basel Convention, 1992).Following this, our country, a party to the convention, banned the import of hazardous waste including e-waste into the country. But a major source of e-waste in India is illegal imports (Sathish, 2006).
The major portion of the e-waste generated domestically as well as illegally imported are recycled in crude manner leading to pollution of the environment. Lack of legislation in our country at present is aiding this hazardous form of recycling. Therefore there is urgent need to frame and implement rules for regulating this waste and to find environmentally sound, economically viable methods for recycling and disposing of this necessary evil. The necessity of environmentally sound management of e-waste is brought out with the help of a case study of uncontrolled dumping of e-waste.
E-waste is the popular name for discarded electrical and electronic equipment with all of their peripherals at the end of their life. E-waste comprises of wastes generated from used electronic devices and household appliances which are not fit for their original intended use and are destined for recovery, recycling or disposal. Such wastes encompasses wide range of electrical and electronic devices such as computers, hand held cellular phones, personal stereos, including large household appliances such as refrigerators, air conditioners etc.
2.1 MAJOR SOURCES
Individuals and Small Businesses: The useful span of a computer has come down to about two years due to improved versions being launched about every 18 months. Often, new software is incompatible or insufficient with older hardware so that customers are forced to buy new computers.
Large corporations, Institutions and Government: Large users upgrade employee computers regularly.
Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs):OEMs generate e-waste when units coming off the production line do not meet quality standards, and must be disposed off. Some of the computer manufacturers contract with recycling companies to handle their electronic waste, which often is exported.
Besides computers, other major e waste source is the cellular phone.
2.2 INDIAN SCENARIO
The electronics industry has emerged as the fastest growing segment of Indian industry both in terms of production and exports. The share of software services in electronics and IT sector has gone up from 38.7 per cent in 1998-99 to 61.8percent in 2003-04. A review of the industry statistics show that in 1990-91,hardware accounted for nearly 50% of total IT revenues while software's share was 22%. The scenario changed by 1994-95, with hardware share falling to 38%and software share rising to 41%. This shift in the IT industry began with liberalization and the opening up of Indian markets together with which there was a change in India’s import policies vis-à-vis hardware leading to substitution of domestically produced hardware by imports.
By the end of financial year 2005-06, India had an installed base of 4.64 million desktops, about 431thousand notebooks and 89 thousand servers. According to the estimates made by the Manufacturers Association of Information Technology (MAIT), the Indian PC industry is growing at a 25% compounded annual growth rate. The e-waste inventory based on this obsolescence rate and installed base in India for the year 2005 has been estimated to be 146180.00 tonne. This is expected to exceed 8,00,000tonne by 2012. There is a lack of authentic and comprehensive data on e-waste availability for domestic generation of e-waste and the various State Pollution Control Boards have initiated the exercise to collect data on e-waste generation.
Sixty-five cities in India generate more than 60% of the total e-waste generated in India. Ten states generate 70% of the total e-waste generated in India. Maharashtra ranks first followed by Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab in the list of e-waste generating states in India.
In our country, currently some units have registered with the Ministry of Environment and Forests as possessing environmentally sound management facilities for recycling of e-waste. The list of units registered with Ministry of Environment and Forests/Central Pollution Control Board as recyclers/reprocessors having environmentally sound management facilities is given below in table 2.1(Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2010):
Table 2.1List of Recyclers/Reprocessors having registration of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India
Sl. No. Name of the Unit Waste permitted and Quantity allowed Registration Valid up to
1 Ramky E-waste Recycling Facility (Ramky Engineers Ltd.)
Maheswaram (M) R.R.Distt
e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling &Transboundary Movement) (HW(M,H&TM))Rule,2008 -10000 MTA
2 Earth Sense Recycle Pvt. Ltd.
Rangareddy District e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H&TM) Rule,2008- 1800 MTA
1 Earth Sense Recycle Pvt. Ltd.
Gurgaon e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H&TM) Rule,2008 - 1200 MTA
1 Ash Recyclers, Unit-II
Bangalore e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 - 120 MTA
2 New Port Computer Services (India) Private Limited,
Bangalore e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 500MTA
3 EWaRDD& Co.,
Bangalore e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 600MTA
4 E-R3 Solutions Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – (only printer cartridge) – 1,20,000 units
1 Eco Recycling Limited,
Thane e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 7200MTA
2 Earth Sense Recycle Pvt. Ltd.,
Thane e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 360MTA
3 Hi Tech Recycling India (P) Ltd.,
Pune e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 500MTA
1 Green Eco Management Pvt. Ltd., Alwar
e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 450MTA
1 Trishyiraya Recycling India Pvt. Ltd., Chennai e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 740MTA
2 TESAMM Private Limited,
Kancheepuram e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 –30,000MTA
3 Global E-waste Management and Services, Kancheepuram e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 387 MTA
1 TIC Group India Pvt. Ltd.,
Noida e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 1000 MTA
1 Attero Recycling Private Limited,
Haridwar e-Waste as per the Sl.No.18 of Schedule IV of HW(M,H& TM) Rule,2008 – 12,000 MTA
3. CLASSIFICATION OF E-WASTE
E-waste has been categorized into three main categories, viz. large household appliances, IT and Telecom and consumer equipment. Refrigerator and washing machine represent large household appliances, personal computer monitor and laptop represent IT and Telecom, while television represents consumer equipment. Each of these e-waste items has been classified with respect to twenty six common components, which could be found in them. These components form the “building blocks” of each item and therefore they are readily “identifiable” and “removable”. These components are metal, motor/compressor, cooling, plastic, insulation, glass, (Liquid Crystal Display) LCD, rubber, wiring/ electrical, concrete, transformer, magnetron, textile, circuit board, fluorescent lamp, incandescent lamp, heating element, thermostat, BFR-containing plastic, batteries, fluorocarbons (CFC/HCFC/HFC/HC), external electric cables, refractory ceramic fibers, radioactive substances and electrolyte capacitors. The kinds of components, which are found in refrigerator, washing machine, personal computers (PC) and televisions, are described in table 3.1.
From table 3.1 it can be seen that the range of different items seen in e-waste is diverse. However, e-waste from these items can be dismantled into relatively smaller number of common components for further treatments.
Table 3.1 Components of E-waste
Metal Motor/ compressor Cooling Plastic Insulation Glass CRT LCD Rubber Wiring/electrical Concrete Transformer Magnetron Textile Circuit board Fluorescent lamp Incandescent lamp Heating element Thermostat BFR containing plastic Batteries CFC,HCFC,HFC,HC Electric cables Refractory ceramic fibres Radioactive substances Electrolyte capacitors
Large household appliances
- - √
- - - - - - √
- - -
- - √
- - - √
- - √
- - - √
- - º
IT & Telecom
(base & keyboard) √
- - - - - √
- - √
- - - - - √
- - -
(monitor) - - - √
- - √
- - - - - - √
- - - - - - - √
- - -
Laptop - √
- - - √
- - √
- - - √
- - -
- - √
- - √
- - √
- - √
- - - - √
- - √
- - -
3.2 COMPOSITION OF E-WASTE
Composition of e-waste is very diverse and differs in products across different categories. It contains more than 1000 different substances, which fall under “hazardous” and “non-hazardous” categories. Broadly, it consists of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, glass, wood & plywood, printed circuit boards, concrete and ceramics, rubber and other items. Iron and steel constitutes about50% of the e-waste followed by plastics (21%), non ferrous metals (13%) and other constituents. Non-ferrous metals consist of metals like copper, aluminium and precious metals e.g. silver, gold, platinum, palladium etc. The presence of elements like lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium and hexavalent chromium and flame retardants beyond threshold quantities in e-waste classifies them as hazardous waste. The possible constituents of concern found in the three main categories described in 3.1 are given in table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Possible Hazardous Substances in Components of E-waste
Possible hazardous content
Cooling Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
Plastic Phthalate plasticizer, brominated flame retardants (BFR)
Insulation Insulation ODS in foam, asbestos, refractory ceramic fiber
Cathode Ray Tube Lead, Antimony, Mercury, Phosphor
Liquid Crystal Display Mercury
Rubber Phthalate plasticizer, BFR
Wiring / electrical Phthalate plasticizer, BFR, Lead
Circuit Board Lead, Beryllium, Antimony, BFR
Fluorescent lamp Mercury, Phosphorous, Flame retardants
BFR-containing plastic BFRs
Batteries Lead, Lithium, Cadmium, Mercury
External electric cables BFRs, plasticizers
Electrolyte capacitors Glycol, other unknown substances
The substances within the above mentioned components, which cause most concern are the heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and chromium(VI), halogenated substances (e.g. CFCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, plastics and circuit boards that contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs). BFR can give rise to dioxins and furans during incineration. Other materials and substances that can be present are arsenic, asbestos, nickel and copper. These substances may act as catalysts to increase the formation of dioxins during incineration.
3.3 HEALTH EFFECTS OF SOME COMMON CONSTITUENTS IN E-WASTE
The health effects of heavy metals and certain compounds found commonly in components of e-waste are described below:
Lead is used in glass panels and gaskets in computer monitors and in solder in printed circuit boards and other components.
Lead causes damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood systems, kidney and reproductive system in humans. It also affects the endocrine system, and impedes brain development among children. Lead tends to accumulate in the environment and has high acute and chronic effects on plants, animals and micro organisms (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003).
Cadmium occurs in surface mounted device (SMD) chip resistors, infra-red detectors, and semiconductor chips. Some older cathode ray tubes contain cadmium.
Toxic cadmium compounds accumulate in the human body, especially the liver, kidneys pancreas, thyroid (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003, Basel Action Network, 2002).
It is estimated that 22 % of the yearly world consumption of mercury is used in electrical and electronic equipment. Mercury is used in thermostats, sensors, relays, switches, medical equipment, lamps, mobile phones and in batteries. Mercury, used in flat panel displays, will likely increase as their use replaces cathode ray tubes.
Mercury can cause damage to central nervous system as well as the foetus. The developing foetus is highly vulnerable to mercury exposure (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003). When inorganic mercury spreads out in the water, it is transformed to methylated mercury which bio-accumulates in living organisms and concentrates through the food chain, particularly via fish (Basel Action Network, 2002).
3.3.4. Hexavalent Chromium/Chromium VI
Chromium VI is used as corrosion protector of untreated and galvanized steel plates and as a decorative or hardener for steel housings.
Chromium VI can cause damage to DNA and is extremely toxic in the environment. Long term effects are skin sensitization and kidney damage(Metcalf & Eddy, 2003).
3.4.5. Plastics (including PVC)
The largest volume of plastics (26%) used in electronics has been poly vinyl chloride (PVC). PVC elements are found in cabling and computer housings. Many computer moldings are now made with the somewhat more benign acrylonitrile butadiene (ABS) plastic. Dioxins are released when PVC is burned (Basel Action Network, 2002)..
3.4.6 Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs)
BFRs are used in the plastic housings of electronic equipment and in circuit boards to prevent flammability. BFRs are persistent in the atmosphere and show bioaccumulation. Concerns are raised considering their potential to toxicity (Basel Action Network, 2002).
Barium is a soft silvery-white metal that is usedprotect users from radiation.
Studies have shown that short-term exposure to barium causes brain swelling, muscle weakness, damage to the heart, liver, and spleen(Basel Action Network, 2002).
Beryllium is commonly found on motherboards and finger clips.
Exposure to beryllium can cause lung cancer. Beryllium also causes a skin disease that is characterised by poor wound healing and wartlike bumps. Studies have shown that people can develop beryllium disease many years following the last exposure. It is used as a copper-beryllium alloy to strengthen connectors.
Barium is a soft silvery-white metal that is used to protect users from radiation.
3.4.9. Phosphor and additives
Phosphor is an inorganic chemical compound that is applied as a coat on the interior of the CRT faceplate. Phosphor affects the display resolution and luminance of the images that is seen in the monitor.
The phosphor coating on cathode ray tubes contains heavy metals, such as cadmium, and other rare earth metals, for example, zinc, vanadium as additives. These metals and their compounds are very toxic. This is a serious hazard posed for those who dismantle CRTs by hand.
3.4. NEED FOR GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT
The saying waste is misplaced wealth is true in the case of e-waste. The recyclability of e-waste and the precious metals that can be extracted from the waste make recycling a lucrative business. But recycling using environmentally sound means costly business and so majority of the e-waste is recycled via the informal sector. Informal recycling involves minimal use of technology and is carried out in the poorer parts of big cities. The standard recycling drill involves physically breaking down components often without any protective gear, burning poly vinyl chloride (PVC) wires to retrieve copper, melting of lead and mercury laden parts. The extraction of gold and copper requires acid processing. The plastic parts, which contain brominated flame retardants (BFR) are also broken into small pieces prior to recycle. All these processes release toxic fumes into the atmosphere and polluted water into soil and water bodies leading to contamination. Most of those who work in the recycling sector are the urban poor with low literacy lacking awareness of the hazards of the toxic e-wastes. Children and women are routinely involved in the operations. Most of the work is done by bare hands. Waste components which do not have resale value are openly burnt or disposed off in open dumps (Kurian, 2007).
Rapid pace of product obsolescence resulting in short life span of computers and other electronic equipments coupled with exponential increase in consumption of such products will result in the doubling of waste over next five to six years. The toxicity of constituents in e-waste, lack of environmentally sound recycling infrastructure and the large scale current practice of informal recycling highlight the urgent need for guidelines for environmentally sound management of e-waste.
4. METHODOLOGY FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF E-WASTE
4.1. E-WASTE COMPOSITION AND RECYCLE POTENTIAL
The composition of e-waste and its recyclable potential is specific for each appliance. In order to handle this complexity, the parts/materials found in e-waste may be divided broadly into six categories as follows:
Iron and steel, used for casings and frames
Non-ferrous metals, especially copper used in cables, and aluminum
Glass used for screens, windows
Plastic used as casing, in cables and for circuit boards
Others (rubber, wood, ceramic etc.)
Overview of the composition of the appliances in the three categories mentioned earlier is given in table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Average Weight and Composition of Selected Appliances (Typical)
Appliances Average weight (kg) Fe % weight Non Fe- metal % weight Glass % weight Plastic % weight Electronic components % weight Others % weight
Refrigerators and freezers 48 .0 64.4 6 .0 1.4 13 .0 0.2 15.0
Personal computer 29.6 20.0 24 15 23.0 17.3 0.7
TV sets 36.2 5.3 5.4 62 22.9 0.9 3.5
The recovery potential (typical values) of items of economic value from refrigerator, personal computer and television are given in tables 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 respectively.
Table 4.2 Recoverable Quantity of Materials in a Refrigerator
Material Type % (by weight)
Ferrous Metals 46.61
Non-Ferrous Metals 4.97
Spent Foam 7.60
Mixed Waste 1.30
Table 4.3 Recoverable Quantity of Materials in a Personal Computer
Elements Content (% of total weight) Content (Kg) Recycling efficiency (%) Recoverable weight of element (kg)
Plastics 23 6.25 20% 1.251
Lead 6 1.71 5% 0.086
Aluminum 14 3.85 80% 3.084
Germanium 0.0016 0.00 0% 0
Gallium 0.0013 0.00 0% 0
Iron 20 5.57 80% 4.455
Tin 1 0.27 70% 0.192
Copper 7 1.88 90% 1.696
Barium 0.0315 0.01 0% 0
Nickel 0.8503 0.23 0% 0
Zinc 2 0.60 60% 0.360
Tanialum 0.0157 0.0046 0% 0
Indium 0.0016 0.00047 60% 0.00026
Vanadium 0.0002 0.00 0% 0
Beryllium 0.0157 0.0046 0% 0
Gold 0.0016 0.00047 99% 0.00043
Europium 0.0002 0.00 0% 0
Tritium 0.0157 0.00 0% 0
Ruthenium 0.0016 0.00047 80% 0.00035
Cobalt 0.0157 0.0047 85% 0.00363
Palladium 0.0003 0.00 0077 95% 0.000077
Manganese 0.0315 0.01 0% 0
Silver 0.0189 0.0156 98% 0.00504
Antimony 0.0094 0.00 0% 0
Bismuth 0.0063 0.00 0% 0
Chromium 0.0063 0.00 0% 0
Cadmium 0.0094 0.00 0% 0
Selenium 0.0016 0.00047 70% 0.0003
Niobium 0.0002 0.00045 0% 0
Yttrium 0.0002 0.00 0% 0
Mercury 0.0022 0.00 0% 0
Arsenic 0.0013 0.00 0% 0
Silica 24.8803 6.77 0% 0
Table 4.4 Recoverable Quantity of Materials in a Television
Elements % by weight Recoverable Weight of element (Kg)
Aluminium 1.2 0.4344
Copper 3.4 1.2308
Lead 0.2 0.0724
Zinc 0.3 0.1086
Nickel 0.038 0.0138
Iron 12 4.344
Plastic 26 9.412
Glass 53 19.186
4.2. ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUSNESS OF E-WASTE
The hazardous nature of e-waste is determined by identifying the e-waste category item (identification includes the waste items and year of manufacture), identifying the e-waste composition or its components, identifying possible hazardous content in the e-waste and identifying whether the e-waste component is hazardous or the entire e-waste item is hazardous.
4.3.RECYCLING, REUSE AND RECOVERY OPTIONS
The composition of e-waste consists of diverse items like ferrous and non ferrous metals, glass, plastic, electronic components and other items and it is also revealed that e-waste consists of hazardous elements. Therefore, the major approach to treat e-waste is to reduce the concentration of these hazardous chemicals and elements through recycle and recovery. In the process of recycling or recovery, certain e-waste fractions act as secondary raw material for recovery of valuable items. The recycle and recovery includes the following unit operations.
Removal of parts containing dangerous substances (CFCs, Hg switches, PCB); removal of easily accessible parts containing valuable substances(cable containing copper, steel, iron, precious metal containing parts, e.g. contacts).
(ii) Segregation of ferrous metal, non-ferrous metal and plastic
This separation is normally done in a shredder process.
(iii) Refurbishment and reuse
Refurbishment and reuse of e-waste has potential for those used electrical and electronic equipments which can be easily refurbished to put to its original use.
(iv) Recycling/recovery of valuable materials
Ferrous metals in electrical are furnaces, non-ferrous metals in smelting plants, precious metals in separating works.
(v) Treatment/disposal of dangerous materials and waste
Shredder light fraction is disposed of in landfill sites or sometimes incinerated (expensive), CFCs are treated thermally, PCB is incinerated or disposed of in underground storages, Hg is often recycled or disposed of in underground landfill sites.
4.4. TREATMENT &DISPOSAL OF E-WASTE
The presence of hazardous elements in e-waste offers the potential of increasing the intensity of their discharge in environment due to landfilling and incineration. The potential treatment &disposal options based on the composition are given below:
1) Incineration 2) Landfilling
The literature review reveals that degradation processes in landfills are very complicated and run over a wide time span. At present it is not possible to quantify environmental impacts from E-waste in landfills for the following reasons:
• Landfills contain mixtures of various waste streams
• Emission of pollutants from landfills can be delayed for many years
One of the studies on landfills reports that the environmental risks from landfilling of e-waste cannot be neglected because the conditions in a landfill site are different from a native soil, particularly concerning the leaching behavior of metals. In addition it is known that cadmium and mercury are emitted in diffuse form or via the landfill gas combustion plant. Although the risks cannot be quantified and traced back to e-waste, landfilling does not appear to be an environmentally sound treatment method for substances, which are volatile and not biologically degradable (Cd, Hg, CFC), persistent (PCB) or with unknown behaviour in a landfill site (brominated flame retardants). As a consequence o fthe complex material mixture in e-waste, it is not possible to exclude environmental (long-term) risks even in secured landfilling.
Advantage of incineration of e-waste is the reduction of waste volume and the utilization of the energy content of combustible materials. Some plants remove iron from the slag for recycling. By incineration some environmentally hazardous organic substances are converted into less hazardous compounds. Disadvantage of incineration are the emission to air of substances escaping fluegas cleaning and the large amount of residues from gas cleaning and combustion.
There is no available research study or comparable data, which indicates the impact of e-waste emissions into the overall performance of municipal waste incineration plants. Waste incineration plants contribute significantly to the annual emissions of cadmium and mercury. In addition, heavy metals not emitted into the atmosphere are transferred to slag and exhaust gas residues and can reenter the environment on disposal. Therefore, e-waste incineration will increase these emissions, if no reduction measures like removal of heavy metals from are taken.
5. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND E-WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Environmentally sound E-waste treatment technologies (EST) are used at three levels as described below:
1. 1stlevel treatment
2. 2ndlevel treatment
3. 3rdlevel treatment
All the three levels of e-waste treatment are based on material flow. The material flows from 1stlevel to 3rd level treatment. Each level treatment consists of unit operations, where e-waste is treated and output of 1stlevel treatment serves as input to 2ndlevel treatment. After the third level treatment, the residues are disposed of either in Treatment, Storage, Disposal Facility (TSDF) or incinerated. The efficiency of operations at first and second level determines the quantity of residues going to TSDF or incineration. The simplified version of all the three treatments is shown in figure 5.1.EST at each level of treatment is described in terms of input, unit operations, output and emissions.
Figure 5.1: Simplified Version of EST for E-waste
5.2. EST FOR 1ST LEVEL TREATMENT
5.2.1 Input: e-waste items like TV, refrigerator and Personal Computers (PC)
5.2.2 Unit Operations:
There are three units operations at first level of e-waste treatment.
1.Decontamination - The first treatment step is to decontaminate e-waste and render it nonhazardous. This involves removal of all types of liquids and gases (if any)under negative pressure, their recovery and storage.
2. Dismantling - Manual/mechanized breaking
3.Segregation - Components are segregated into hazardous and nonhazardous components of e-waste fractions to be sent for 3rd level treatment.
All the three unit operations are dry processes, which do not require usage of water.
1. Segregated hazardous wastes like CFC, Hg Switches, batteries and capacitors
2. Decontaminated e-waste consisting of segregated non-hazardous e-waste like plastic, CRT, circuit board and cables
5.2.4.Emissions: The emissions coming out of 1st level treatment is given in table 5.1.
Table 5.1 Emissions from 1st level E-waste treatment
Emissions Dismantling Segregation
Air √ (fugitive) X
Noise √ √
Land/ Soil Contamination due to
Generation of hazardous waste √ √
5.3. ESTFOR 2ND LEVEL TREATMENT
5.3.1. Input: Decontaminated E-waste consisting segregated non hazardous e-waste like plastic, CRT, circuit board and cables.
There are three unit operations at second level of E-waste treatment.
3. Special treatment Processes comprising of
(i) CRT treatment consisting of separation of funnels and screen glass.
(ii) Electromagnetic separation
(iii) Eddy current separation
(iv) Density separation using water
The two major unit operations are hammering and shredding. The major objective of these two unit operations is size reduction. The third unit operation consists of special treatment processes. Electromagnetic and eddy current separation utilizes properties of different elements like electrical conductivity, magnetic properties and density to separate ferrous, non ferrous metal and precious metal fractions. Plastic fractions consisting of sorted plastic after 1stlevel treatment, plastic mixture and plastic with flame retardants after second level treatment, glass and lead are separated during this treatment. The efficiency of this treatment determines the recovery rate of metal and segregated-waste fractions for third level treatment. The simplified version of this treatment technology showing combination of all three unit operations is given in Figure 5.2.
1. The technology for sorting, treatment, including recycling and disposal of E-waste is fully based on dry process using mechanical operations.
2. The pre-comminuting stage includes separation of Plastic, CRT and remaining non CRT based e-waste. Equipments like hammer mill and shear shredder will be used at comminuting stage to cut and pulverize e-waste and prepare it as a feedstock to magnetic and eddy current separation.
Figure 5.2 Process Flow Chart of Non CRT Based E-Waste Treatment
3. A heavy-duty hammer mill grinds the material to achieve separation of inert materials and metals.
4. After separation of metals from inert material, metal fraction consisting of ferrous and non-ferrous metals are subjected to magnetic current separation. After separation of Ferrous containing fraction, Non-ferrous fraction is classified into different non-metal fractions, electrostatic separation and pulverization.
5. The ground material is then screened and de dusted subsequently followed by separation of valuable metal fraction using electrostatic, gravimetric separation and eddy current separation technologies fractions of copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), residual fractions containing gold (Au), silver (Ag) and other precious metals. This results in recovery of clean metallic concentrates, which are sold for further refining to smelters. Sometimes water may be used for separation at last stage.
6. Electric conductivity-based separation separates materials of different electric conductivity (or resistivity) mainly different fractions of non-ferrous metals from E-waste. Eddy current separation technique has been used based on electrical conductivity for non ferrous metal separation from e-waste. Its operability is based on the use of rare earth permanent magnets. When a conductive particle is exposed to an alternating magnetic field, eddy currents will be induced in that object, generating a magnetic field to oppose the magnetic field. The interactions between the magnetic field and the induced eddy currents lead to the appearance of electro dynamic actions upon conductive non-ferrous particles and are responsible for the separation process.
7. The efficacy of the recycling system is dependent on the expected yields/output of the recycling system. The expected yields/ output from the recycling system are dependent on the optimization of separation parameters. These parameters are given below:
• Particle size
• Particle shape
• Feeding rate/ RPM
• Optimum operations
Figure 5.3Non- ferrous Metal Distribution vs. Size Range for PC Scrap
Figure 5.3.2 shows the non- ferrous metal distribution (which forms the backbone of financial viability of recycling system) as a function of size range for PC scrap. It can be seen that aluminum is mainly distributed in the coarse fractions (+6.7 mm), but other metals are mainly distributed in the fine fractions (−5 mm). Size properties are essential for choosing an effective separation technique. Therefore, eddy current separator is best for granular nonferrous materials having size greater than 5mm. The eddy current separation will ensure better separation of Al fraction in comparison to fraction containing Cu, Ag and Au.
8. Particle shape is dependent on comminuting and separation.
9. The feeding rate can be optimized based on the speed and width of the conveyor.
184.108.40.206. CRT Treatment Technology
The salient features of CRT treatment technology are given below.
1. CRT is manually removed from plastic/ wooden casing.
2. Picture tube is split and the funnel section is then lifted off the screen section and the internal metal mask can be lifted to facilitate internal phosphor coating.
3. Internal phosphor coating is removed by using an abrasive wire brush and a strong vacuum system to clean the inside and recover the coating. The extracted air is cleaned through an air filter system to collect the phosphor dust.
Different types of splitting technology used are given below.
• NiChrome hot wire cutting
• Thermal shock
• Laser cutting
• Diamond wire method
• Diamond saw separation
• Water-jet separation
5.3.3.Output: The output from the 2nd level treatment technology is given below.
1. Ferrous metal scrap (secondary raw material)
2. Non ferrous metal scrap, mainly copper and aluminum
3. Precious metal scrap mainly silver, gold, & palladium
4. Plastic consisting of sorted plastic, plastic with flame retardants and plastic mixture
5. Glass fraction (secondary raw material)
6. Lead (secondary raw material)
5.3.4. Emissions: The emissions coming out of 2nd level treatment is given in table 5.2.
Table 5.2 Emissions from 2ndLevel E-wastes Treatment
Unit Operations / Emissions Dismantling Shredding Special Treatment Process
Air √(fugitive) √ (fugitive) X √ (fugitive) √ (fugitive) X
Water X X √ X X
Noise √ √ √ √ √ X
Land/ Soil Contamination due to spillage √ √ √ √ √ √
Generation of hazardous waste √ √ √ X X X
5.4. EST FOR 3RD LEVEL TREATMENT
The hazardous material separated during the 1st level treatment and the output from the 2ndlevel is subjected to the 3rd level treatment. This facility need not always exists with the first two treatment locations, but may be located at different places. The treatment includes recycle /recovery of valuable materials using processes like smelting, refining etc.
The input, output and unit operations at 3rd level treatment are described in table 5.3.
Input/ WEEE Residues Unit Operation/ Disposal/ Recycling Technique Output
Sorted Plastic Recycling Plastic Product
Plastic Mixture Energy Recovery/ Incineration Energy Recovery
Plastic Mixture with BFR Incineration Energy Recovery
CRT Breaking/ Recycling Glass Cullet
Lead bearing residue Secondary Lead Smelter Lead
Ferrous metal scrap Secondary steel/ iron recycling Iron
Non Ferrous metal Scrap Secondary copper and aluminum smelting Copper/ Aluminum
Precious Metals Au/ Ag separation Gold/ Silver
Batteries (Lead, Acid/ Nickel metal Hydride (Ni-MH) and Li – ion Lead recovery and smelting remelting and separation Lead
CFC Recovery/ Reuse and Incineration CFC/ Energy recovery
Oil Recovery/ Reuse and Incineration Oil recovery/ energy
Capacitors Incineration Energy recovery
Mercury Separation and Distillation Mercury
Table 5.3 Input, Output and Unit Operations at 3rdLevel Treatment
6. CASE STUDY OF RECYCLING AND DUMPING OF E-WASTE
A case study of environmental contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, southeast China done by Anna Leung, Zong Wei Cai and Ming Hung Wong in 2005 reported in the Journal of Material Cycles Waste Management is briefly described below:
Guiyu is made up of several villages located in the Chaozhou region of Guangdong Province, 250km northeast of HongKong. Since 1995, the traditionally rice-growing community has become an e-waste recycling center for e-waste arriving from the United States, Hong Kong and from other countries. In Guiyu, recycling operations consist of toner sweeping, dismantling electronic equipment, selling computer monitor yokes to copper recovery operations, plastic chipping and melting, burning wires to recover copper, heating circuit boards over honeycombed coal blocks and using acid chemical strippers to recover gold and other metals. Not all activities are related to recovery; some include open burning of unwanted e-waste and their open dumping. Operations for the recovery of copper wires through the burning of polyvinyl chloride and flame retardant-protected cables(i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) can release toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs/PBDDs) and furans(PCDFs/PBDFs) and the open burning of computer casings and circuit boards stripped of metal parts can produce toxic fumes and ashes containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which have been widely used as plasticizers, as coolants and lubricants in transformers and capacitors, and as hydraulic and heat exchange fluids, may also be present in the e-waste stream. In the study, the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 98.2 to 514 μg/kg in the sediment samples and from 93.7 to 593 μg/kg in the soil samples. The concentration of polychlorinated bi phenyls (PCBs) varied from 5.3 to 743 μg/kg in the sediment samples and from 22.7 to 102 μg/kg in the soil samples. The highest concentration of poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) observed was 32.3 μg/kg in sediment and 1169 μg/kg in the soil. Concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium detected in the sediment ranged from 0.1 to .9 mg/kg, chromium from 3.4 to 43.5 mg/kg, copper from 6.3 to 528 mg/kg, nickel 11.3 to 120 mg/kg, lead 39.4 to 316 mg/kg and zinc 45.2 to 249 mg/kg. Concentration of cadmium detected in the soil ranged from nil to 3.1 mg/kg, chromium from 3.4 to 74.9 mg/kg, copper from 9.2 to 712 mg/kg, nickel 8.4 to 185 mg/kg, lead 55.4 to 104 mg/kg and zinc 78 to 258 mg/kg.
6.1. MATERIALS AND METHODS
6.1.1 Sampling Sites
A preliminary survey of contaminant levels in Guiyu, located in Guangdong Province, China, was conducted in August 2003. Sediment samples were collected from two duck ponds (A & B) and at three different places along the Lianjiang River (River 1, River 2, River 3). Duck ponds A and B are located near open fields where dumping and open burning of e-waste and acid leaching of printed circuit boards are carried out. River 1 is located alongside a residential area away from the dumpsite but near printed circuit heating workshops. River 2 site is located near the open fields. River 3 site is in Heping town, located about 16km downstream from Guiyu. Soil was collected from a burnt plastic dump site and from a printer roller dump site. A reservoir located in the northern part of Guiyu, approximately 6km from the central e-waste processing region where impacts from e-waste were expected to be smaller, served as a control site. Both soil and sediment were collected from this site.
6.1.2. Sample Collection and Preparation
Samples were collected from each study site at a depth of0–10cm using a stainless steel shovel. All samples we restored in clean polyethylene bags (Ziploc) to minimize sample contamination and were kept in ice-filled coolers at approximately 4°C for transport to the laboratory, where they were transferred and wrapped in aluminum foil and stored at −20°C. Soil and sediment samples were freeze dried; sieved (<1mm) to remove stones, roots, and coarse materials; and then stored in a desiccator prior to analysis.
6.2. SAMPLE ANALYSES
The soil samples from burnt plastic dump site and printer roller dump site, reservoir and sediment samples from duck ponds A & B, River sites 1,2& 3 were analyzed for PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals.
6.2.1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
5 g of sample was extracted was extracted with acetone and dichloromethane and concentrated in rotary evaporator. The extract was analysed using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry analysis.
6.2.2. Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls
Sample was extracted was extracted with acetone and dichloromethane and analysed using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry analysis.
6.2.3. Poly Brominated Diphenyl Ethers
PBDE analyses were conducted using a gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry method.
6.2.4. Heavy Metals
The samples were finely ground and 0.250 g of each sample was used for the determination of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations by microwave digestion.
6.3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The total concentration and individual concentrations of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and heavy metals in the sediment and soil samples are shown.
Total PAH concentrations in the sediment ranged from 98.2 to 514μg/kg. The highest concentration was at duck pond A. Both duck ponds A and B are located approximately20m from a road; therefore, the elevated PAHs of these sediment samples may be partly attributed to PAH emissions from vehicular traffic in addition to the open burning of e-waste in the surrounding fields. Interestingly, the concentration of the sediment at the reservoir was higher than at the residential site (river-1). A possible explanation for the higher concentration at the reservoir may be the burning of incense and paper offerings, which is a Chinese custom for paying respect to ancestors. Many graves were seen on the hills surrounding the reservoir and below the water level; the area became a reservoir only a few years ago. The total PAH concentration of sediment collected from river-2, located in Guiyu, was approximately four times that of the sediment collected from within the residential area (river-1) and approximately twice the concentration of the sediment collected from the Lianjiang River in the town of Heping, approximately 16km downstream. The concentrations of the seven USEPA carcinogenic PAHs in the sediments ranged from 13.2 (reservoir) to 122μg/kg (duck pond A) and accounted for 6% (reservoir) to32% (river-2) of the total PAH concentrations. With the exception of the reservoir, the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs were similar (23.7%–31.5%). Benzo(a)pyrene accounted for 16%, 14%, 12%, and 5% of the total carcinogenic compounds for river-2, duck pond B, duck pond A and river-1, respectively. It was not detected in river-3 or the reservoir.
Concentration of PAHs in sediment is shown in table 6.1.
Table 6.1 Concentration of PAHs in Sediment (μg/kg dry wt)
USEPA PAHs Duck pond A
Duck pond B River-1 River-2 River-3 Reservoir
Naphthalene 27.3 18.5 18.1 25.8 13.7 23.2
Acenaphthylene ND ND ND ND ND ND
Acenaphthene 75.4 ND 1.9 6.4 9.2 46.9
35.8 13.3 2.2 16.6 ND 12.6
Phenanthrene 110 67.9 25.5 67.3 35.5 55.3
22.0 ND 1.7 5.9 4.6 10.9
Fluoranthene 65.4 57.2 12.1 48.4 41.0 45.1
41.0 35.0 8.6 43.0 32.1 32.4
15.2 18.7 3.8 23.6 13.3 5.6
Chrysene 34.4 43.5 11.3 46.1 30.6 7.6
14.4 12.8 1.5 17.5 ND ND
Benzo(b + k)fluoranthene
42.2 ND 11.3 ND ND ND
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene ND ND ND ND ND ND
15.7 18.7 ND 24.1 ND ND
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 15.6 22.1 ND 26.7 ND ND
∑ 16 PAHs
514 308 98.2 352 180 240
∑7 Carcinogenic PAHs
122 93.8 28.0 111 43.8 13.2
% Carcinogenic PAHs 23.7 30.5 28.5 31.7 24.4 5.5
Table 6.2 lists some of the most toxic and environmentally prevalent PCB congeners found in the sediment samples. The samples were analysed for a total of 66 PCB congeners, which included three dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-105, -118, and -157) and all seven indicator PCBs (PCB-28,-52, -101, -118, -138, -153, -180). The indicator PCBs are known to be persistent in the environment and also to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The total PCB concentration of duck pond A was comparable to that of duck pond B, and both were below the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline of 34.1μg/kg, whereas there was a large variation between the sediment collected from the two different locations of the Lianjiang River. River-2, in the vicinity of e-waste dumping and open burning, was highly contaminated by PCBs, with levels 53 times those at river-1, located near a residential area. PCBs were not detected in the sediments from the reservoir and river-3, located approximately 16km downstream of Guiyu in the town of Heping.
Table 6.2Concentration of PCBs in Sediment (μg/kg dry wt)
IUPAC number Sediment
Pond A Duck
Pond B River 1 River 2
PCB-1 ND ND ND ND
PCB-2 ND ND ND ND
PCB-3 ND ND ND 2.39
Total mono PCBs ND ND ND 2.39
PCB-4 ND ND ND 33.6
PCB-6 ND ND ND 10.1
PCB-8 ND ND ND 66.6
PCB-9 ND ND ND 4.52
PCB-15 ND ND ND 23.5
Total di PCBs ND ND ND 122
PCB-16 0.22 ND ND 47.7
PCB-18 ND ND ND 40.3
PCB-19 ND ND ND 10.1
PCB-20 ND ND ND 39.2
PCB-22 ND ND ND 18.8
PCB-25 ND ND ND 5.28
PCB-27 ND ND ND 7.09
PCB-28 ND ND ND 115
PCB-29 ND ND ND 0.98
PCB-34 ND ND ND 0.53
Total di PCBs ND ND ND 294
PCB-40 ND 0.24 0.33 31.3
PCB-42 ND ND ND 14.7
PCB-44 0.28 0.24 0.33 31.3
PCB-47 ND 0.23 0.21 27.1
PCB-52 0.29 0.27 0.42 33.5
PCB-56 0.10 0.17 0.46 2.25
PCB-66 0.31 0.22 0.79 8.57
PCB-67 ND ND ND 0.94
PCB-69 ND ND ND ND
PCB-71 ND ND ND 13.0
PCB-74 ND 0.11 0.27 6.46
Total tetra PCBs 1.91 2.69 5.11 258
PCB-82 ND 0.06 ND 0.70
PCB-87 0.15 0.11 0.42 2.40
PCB-92 ND ND ND 1.34
PCB-93 ND ND ND 8.16
PCB-99 0.18 0.11 0.30 3.22
PCB-101 0.28 ND 0.90 6.74
PCB-105 ND ND ND 2.41
PCB-110 ND 0.06 ND 0.70
PCB-118 0.33 0.20 1.06 6.29
PCB-119 ND ND ND 0.17
Total penta PCBs 1.66 1.14 4.92 43.9
PCB-128 ND ND 0.37 1.43
PCB-134 ND ND ND 0.32
PCB-136 ND ND 0.13 0.59
PCB-138 0.48 0.21 1.09 5.68
PCB-144 ND ND 0.14 0.81
PCB-146 ND ND ND 0.72
PCB-147 ND ND ND 0.19
PCB-151 ND ND 0.14 0.72
PCB-153 0.32 0.15 0.87 4.56
PCB-157 ND ND ND 0.44
PCB-158 ND ND ND 0.65
Total hexa PCBs 1.34 0.67 4.04 15.9
PCB-173 ND ND ND ND
PCB-174 ND ND ND 0.46
PCB-177 ND ND ND 0.27
PCB-179 ND ND ND 0.17
PCB-180 ND 0.14 0.24 1.15
PCB-187 ND ND ND 0.42
PCB-190 ND ND ND 0.73
PCB-191 ND ND ND ND
Total hepta PCBs ND 0.14 0.32 5.20
PCB-194 ND ND ND ND
PCB-195 ND ND ND ND
PCB-199 ND ND ND ND
PCB-203 ND ND ND ND
Total octa PCBs ND ND ND ND
PCB-206 ND ND ND ND
PCB-207 ND ND ND ND
PCB-208 ND ND ND ND
Total nona PCBs ND ND ND ND
PCB-209 ND ND ND ND
Total deca PCBs ND ND ND ND
Total PCBs 5.3 4.7 14.1 743
Total indicator PCBsa 1.7 1.0 4.6 173
PCB WHO –TEQb 3.27 2.04 1.06 1.09
PCB, polychlorinated biphenyls; IUPAC, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry;
WHO-TEQ,World Health Organization/toxic equivalent
aTotal indicator PCBs sum of concentrations of PCB-28, -52, -101, -118, -138, -153, -180
bPCB WHO-TEQ sum of WHO-TEQ concentrations of PCB-105, -118, -157
A total of 43 mono- to hepta-brominated substituted poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners were detected in the sediment collected from river-2.Although the data were limited, it appears that the river sediment was contaminated by e-waste activities such as dumping, dismantling, and open burning.
The heavy metal concentrations measured in sediment are shown in Table 6.3 together with some soil quality standards. Cu, Pb, and Zn were the most abundant metals among the environmental samples. E-waste, such as printed circuit boards dumped along the bank of Lianjiang River, may be responsible for the high Cu concentration atriver-2. The Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations for river-2 exceeded the respective Dutch optimum values. For the reservoir soil, the heavy metal concentrations were below or close to the limits for the natural background as defined by the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards. The concentrations of heavy metals at duck pond A and duck pond B were very similar, however, Cr at duck pond B was twice that of duck pond A. The Pb contents of the duck ponds were slightly higher than the Pb content of the reservoir sediment.
Table 6.3 Heavy Metal Concentration in Sediment (mg/kg dry wt)
Sampling site Heavy metals
Cr Cu Ni Pb Zn
ND 21.2 32.2 20.6 57.7 79.6
0.3 43.5 30.9 20.8 53.1 84.5
0.1 17.6 113 10.1 316 86.8
0.9 29.2 528 120 94.3 249
0.5 27.3 20.1 12.6 118 175
ND 3.4 9.2 8.4 55.4 78.0
ND 3.4 9.2 8.4 55.4 78.0
Soil quality standards
0.8 100 36 35 85 140
12 380 190 210 530 720
Grade I (natural background)
0.2 90 35 40 35 100
Grade II (agricultural and related use)
0.3 200 100 50 300 250
Grade III (industrial activity)
1 300 400 200 500 500
The soil PAH concentrations were highest at the printer roller dump site and were dominated by two- and three-ring compounds. The concentration profile for the soil collected from the burnt plastic dump site differed from the printer roller dump site. The total PAH concentration at the reservoir was low compared to the other sites. Of the sediment and soil samples, soil from the burnt plastic dump site was the most toxic because the concentration of carcinogenic compounds contributed to 43%of the total concentration. The target set by the Dutch government for unpolluted soil is20–50μg/kg. Therefore, as all of the soils sampled were above 50μg/kg, the soils were considered to be polluted by PAHs. As there are many open e-waste burning sites in Guiyu, it was postulated that PAHs would be transported atmospherically by wind and subsequently deposited on land. Concentration of PAHs in the soil collected is given in table 6.4.
Table 6.4Concentration of PAHs in soil (μg/kg dry wt)
USEPA PAHs Burnt plastic Printer roller Reservoir
Naphthalene 45.4 294 27.3
ND 14.2 0.7
Acenaphthene 6.6 64.6 7.5
9.7 36.5 4.0
58.8 131 23.1
9.7 9.7 2.1
Fluoranthene 39.1 16.4 9.6
41.0 27.3 8.5
23.7 ND 1.6
Chrysene 48.3 ND 4.3
56.5 ND 4.9
Benzo(a)pyrene 22.7 ND ND
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene 4.5 ND ND
29.1 ND ND
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 34.5 ND ND
∑ 16 PAHs
428 593 93.7
∑7 Carcinogenic PAHsa
185 ND 10.8
% Carcinogenic PAHs 43.2 ND 11.6
The concentration of PCBs in soil collected is given in table 6.5.
Table 6.5 Concentration of PCBs in soil
(μg/kg dry wt)
IUPAC number soil
Dump site Printer roller
PCB-1 ND ND
PCB-2 ND ND
PCB-3 ND ND
Total mono PCBs ND ND
PCB-4 ND ND
PCB-6 ND ND
PCB-8 ND ND
PCB-9 ND ND
PCB-15 ND ND
Total di PCBs ND ND
PCB-16 ND 7.00
PCB-18 ND 8.27
PCB-19 ND 0.84
PCB-20 ND 14.4
PCB-22 ND 3.25
PCB-25 ND ND
PCB-27 ND ND
PCB-28 ND 22.5
PCB-29 ND ND
PCB-34 ND ND
Total di PCBs ND 55.1
PCB-40 0.48 5.33
PCB-42 ND 2.06
PCB-44 0.48 5.33
PCB-47 ND 3.79
PCB-52 0.87 5.79
PCB-56 0.34 ND
PCB-66 0.57 2.01
PCB-67 0.94 ND
PCB-69 ND ND
PCB-71 13.0 ND
PCB-74 6.46 1.41
Total tetra PCBs 5.99 38.0
PCB-82 0.29 ND
PCB-87 0.60 0.46
PCB-92 0.31 ND
PCB-93 0.90 1.08
PCB-99 0.63 0.39
PCB-101 1.31 0.84
PCB-105 0.51 0.76
PCB-110 0.29 0.30
PCB-118 1.01 0.92
PCB-119 ND ND
Total penta PCBs 8.14 5.87
PCB-128 0.41 0.23
PCB-134 ND ND
PCB-136 0.20 ND
PCB-138 1.50 0.82
PCB-144 ND ND
PCB-146 0.41 ND
PCB-147 ND ND
PCB-151 ND ND
PCB-153 0.91 0.40
PCB-157 ND ND
PCB-158 0.21 ND
Total hexa PCBs 6.32 2.96
PCB-173 ND ND
PCB-174 0.12 ND
PCB-177 ND ND
PCB-179 ND ND
PCB-180 0.43 0.21
PCB-187 0.25 ND
PCB-190 0.51 ND
PCB-191 ND ND
Total hepta PCBs 2.04 0.21
PCB-194 ND ND
PCB-195 ND ND
PCB-199 ND ND
PCB-203 0.18 ND
Total octa PCBs 0.18 ND
PCB-206 ND ND
PCB-207 ND ND
PCB-208 ND ND
Total nona PCBs ND ND
PCB-209 ND ND
Total deca PCBs ND ND
Total PCBs 22.7 102
Total indicator PCBsa 6.0 31
PCB, polychlorinated biphenyls; IUPAC, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry;
WHO-TEQ,World Health Organization/toxic equivalent
aTotal indicator PCBs sum of concentrations of PCB-28, -52, -101, -118, -138, -153, -180
The soil at the waste printer roller dumpsite also exhibited a notable presence of PCBs (102μg/kg. The concentration was almost twice the allowable level of 60μg/kg for PCBs in ambient soil stipulated by the former USSR Ministry ofHealth in 1991.
A total of 43 poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners were detected in soil collected from the burnt plastic dump site.The analyses indicated that PBDE mono- to hepta-brominated congeners in soil had concentrations ranging from 0.26 to824μg/kg dry wt. The concentrations of the highly lipophilic BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 congeners in the soil samples ranged from 2.70 to 615μg/kg andwere generally higher than the levels in the sediment collected from the Lianjiang River. Soil from the burnt plastic site had a BDE-183concentration that was almost 70 times that of soil fromthe printer roller dump site. PBDE concentrations in the soil at the dumping sites of Guiyu were approximately 10–60 times those reported elsewhere.
Cu, Pb, and Zn were the most abundant metals among the environmental samples. Cu concentrations at the printer roller dump site (712 mg/kg) exceeded the new Dutch list action value of 190mg/kg. There were no other values that exceeded the Dutch action level with regard to the other heavy metals, however, the Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations for the burnt plastic dump site, and the printer roller dump site exceeded the respective Dutch optimum values. For the reservoir soil, the heavy metal concentrations were below or close to the limits for the natural backgroundas defined by the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards. Heavy metal concentration in the soil samples collected is given table 6.6.
Table 6.6 Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil Samples (mg/kg dry wt)
Sampling site Heavy metals
Cr Cu Ni Pb Zn
Burnt plastic dump site
1.7 28.6 496 155 104 258
Printer roller dump site
3.1 74.9 712 87.4 190 –
ND 3.4 9.2 8.4 55.4 78.0
Soil quality standards
0.8 100 36 35 85 140
12 380 190 210 530 720
Grade I (natural background)
0.2 90 35 40 35 100
Grade II (agricultural and related use)
0.3 200 100 50 300 250
Grade III (industrial activity)
1 300 400 200 500 500
Of the study sites, the most seriously polluted were the burnt plastic and printer roller dump sites. From the results study conducted, there was a better awareness of the hazardous implications of e-waste recycling on the environment and human health. Based on the data it was concluded that the analyses of environmental and human samples collected from the area would show significant contamination by various substances resulting directly from crude and inappropriate e-waste recycling practices.
7. STRATEGIES FOR COMBATING E- WASTE
Separate legislation for dealing with waste electrical and electronic equipments to control aspects of production, recycle, reuse and disposal is need of the hour. Many countries have such laws in place. In India, draft e-Waste (Management and Handling) Rules have been published by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India on 14.5.2010.
7.2. EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY (EPR)
Traditionally, the legislative approach toward environmental problems has been one of ‘command and control’, largely addressing ‘end-of-pipe’ pollution problems. Now, the emphasis is changing towards producer responsibility whereby those who produce good sare then responsible for the environmental impacts throughout the whole of their life cycle, from resource extraction to recycling, reuse and disposal (Nnorom et.al, 2008). Implementation of EPR in the developing countries has become necessary in the light of the present high level of trans-boundary movement of e-waste into the developing countries and the absence of basic or state-of the-art facilities for sound end-of-life material/energy recovery and disposal of e-waste.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD) defined EPR as “an environmental policy approach in which a producers’ responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of a products life cycle including its final disposal”
The main goals of EPR are:
• waste prevention and reduction;
• product reuse;
• increased use of recycled materials in production;
• reduced natural resource consumption;
• internalization of environmental costs into product prices
• energy recovery when incineration is considered appropriate
Under EPR, the producer is expected to take back all electrical and electronic equipment at the end of their life.
7.3.REDUCTION IN USE OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (ROHS)
This aims at reducing the hazardous substances entering the atmosphere while dismantling the e-waste by prescribing threshold limits for use of such substances in e-waste.
Electronic and electrical equipments cannot be avoided in today’s world. So also is the case of waste electronic and electrical equipments. As long as this is a necessary evil, it has to be best managed to minimize its adverse impacts on environment. Through innovative changes in product design under EPR, use of environmentally friendly substitutes for hazardous substances, these impacts can be mitigated. A legal framework has to be there for enforcing EPR, RoHS for attaining this goal. Adoption of environmentally sound technologies for recycling and reuse of e-waste along with EPR and RoHS offers workable solution for environmentally sound management of e-waste.
Bandhopadhyay, A. (2010) “Electronic Waste Management: Indian Practices and Guidelines” International Journal of Energy and Environment 1(5) pp. 193-807
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal – Document accessed in 10/2010
E-Waste Volume II, E-Waste Management Manual – United Nations Environment Program – accessed in 10/2010
Kurian Joseph (2007), “Electronic Waste Management in India-Issues and Strategies” Proc. On Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium
Mark Anderson (2010) What an E-waste” IEEE-spectrum, September, 2010
Nnorom I.C., Osibanjo O (2008) “Overview of Electronic Waste (e-waste) Management Practices and Legislation in the Developed Countries” Journal of Resource Conservation and Recycling 52(2008) 843-858
Sathish Sinha (2006) E-waste Time to Act Now –Toxic Alert, accessed in 10/2010
The Basel Action Network “Exporting Harm – The High Tech Trashing of Asia” accessed in 10/2010
Waste Water Engineering (2003), Metcalf and Eddy fourth edition
moef.nic.in- website of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
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24-12-2010, 03:26 PM
E Waste Final.pdf (Size: 450.03 KB / Downloads: 279)
Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or electronic devices. Environmental groups claim that the informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems. Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame retardants. Activists claim that even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes. Scrap industry and USA EPA officials agree that materials should be managed with caution, but that environmental dangers of unused electronics have been exaggerated by groups which benefit from increased regulation.
"Electronic waste" may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners. This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal. Others define the re-usables (working and repairable electronics) and secondary scrap (copper, steel, plastic, etc.) to be "commodities", and reserve the term "waste" for residue or material which was represented as working or repairable but which is dumped or disposed or discarded by the buyer rather than recycled, including residue from reuse and recycling operations. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently commingled (good, recyclable, and non-recyclable), several public policy advocates apply the term "e-waste" broadly to all surplus electronics. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) includes discarded CRT monitors in its category of "hazardous household waste" but considers CRTs set aside for testing to be commodities if they are not discarded, speculatively accumulated, or left unprotected from weather and other damage.
Debate continues over the distinction between "commodity" and "waste" electronics definitions. Some exporters may deliberately leave difficult-to-spot obsolete or non-working equipment mixed in loads of working equipment (through ignorance, or to avoid more costly treatment processes). Protectionists may broaden the definition of "waste" electronics. The high value of the computer recycling subset of electronic waste (working and reusable laptops, computers, and components like RAM) can help pay the cost of transportation for a large number of worthless "electronic commodities" Problems
Rapid change in technology, low initial cost, and planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast-growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Dave Kruch, CEO of Cash For Laptops, regards electronic waste as a "rapidly expanding" issue. Technical solutions are available, but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics, and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied. An estimated 50 million tons of E-waste is produced each year. The USA discards 30 million computers each year and 100 million phones are disposed of in Europe each year. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that only 15-20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest of these electronics go directly into landfills and incinerators. Global trade issues
Increased regulation of electronic waste and concern over the environmental harm which can result from toxic electronic waste has raised disposal costs. The regulation creates an economic disincentive to remove residues prior to export. Critics of trade in used electronics maintain that it is too easy for brokers calling themselves recyclers to export unscreened electronic waste to developing countries, such as China, India and parts of Africa, thus avoiding the expense of removing items like bad cathode ray tubes (the processing of which is expensive and difficult). The developing countries are becoming big dump yards of e-waste due to their weak laws. Proponents of international trade point to the success of fair
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16-02-2011, 02:56 PM
Electronic waste seminar.docx (Size: 348.74 KB / Downloads: 171)
Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic equipment contains some very serious contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium and brominated flame retardants. Even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste involves significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes.
Definition "Electronic waste" may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners. This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal. Others define the re-usables (working and repairable electronics) and secondary scrap (copper, steel, plastic, etc.) to be "commodities", and reserve the term "waste" for residue or material which was represented as working or repairable but which is dumped or disposed or discarded by the buyer rather than recycled, including residue from reuse and recycling operations. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently commingled (good, recyclable, and non-recyclable), several public policy advocates apply the term "e-waste" broadly to all surplus electronics. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) includes discarded CRT monitors in its category of "hazardous household waste". but considers CRTs set aside for testing to be commodities if they are not discarded, speculatively accumulated, or left unprotected from weather and other damage.
Debate continues over the distinction between "commodity" and "waste" electronics definitions. Some exporters may deliberately leave difficult-to-spot obsolete or non-working equipment mixed in loads of working equipment (through ignorance, or to avoid more costly treatment processes). Protectionists may broaden the definition of "waste" electronics. The high value of the computer recycling subset of electronic waste (working and reusable laptops, computers, and components like RAM) can help pay the cost of transportation for a large number of worthless "commodities".
Rapid technology change, low initial cost, and planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast-growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Dave Kruch, CEO of Cash For Laptops, regards electronic waste as a "rapidly expanding" issue. Technical solutions are available, but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics, and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied.
In the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills comes from discarded electronics, while electronic waste represents only 2% of America's trash in landfills. The EPA states that unwanted electronics totaled 2 million tons in 2005. Discarded electronics represented 5 to 6 times as much weight as recycled electronics. The Consumer Electronics Association says that U.S. households spend an average of $1,400 annually on an average of 24 electronic items, leading to speculations of millions of tons of valuable metals sitting in desk drawers. The U.S. National Safety Council estimates that 75% of all personal computers ever sold are now gathering dust as surplus electronics. While some recycle, 7% of cellphone owners still throw away their old cellphones.
Surplus electronics have extremely high cost differentials. A single repairable laptop can be worth hundreds of dollars, while an imploded cathode ray tube (CRT) is extremely difficult and expensive to recycle. This has created a difficult free-market economy. Large quantities of used electronics are typically sold to countries with very high repair capability and high raw material demand, which can result in high accumulations of residue in poor areas without strong environmental laws. Trade in electronic waste is controlled by the Basel Convention. The Basel Convention Parties have considered the question of whether exports of hazardous used electronic equipment for repair or refurbishment are considered as Basel Convention hazardous wastes, subject to import and export controls under that Convention. In the Guidance document produced on that subject, that question was left up to the Parties, however in the working group all of the Parties present believed that when material is untested, or contains hazardous parts that would need to be replaced as part of the repair process, then the Convention did apply.
Like virgin material mining and extraction, recycling of materials from electronic scrap has raised concerns over toxicity and carcinogenicity of some of its substances and processes. Toxic substances in electronic waste may include lead, mercury, and cadmium. Carcinogenic substances in electronic waste may include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Capacitors, transformers, and wires insulated with or components coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC), manufactured before 1977, often contain dangerous amounts of PCBs.
Up to 38 separate chemical elements are incorporated into electronic waste items. Many of the plastics used in electronic equipment contain flame retardants. These are generally halogens added to the plastic resin, making the plastics difficult to recycle. Due to the flame retardants being additives, they easily leach off the material in hot weather, which is a problem because when disposed of, electronic waste is generally left outside. The flame retardants leach into the soil and recorded levels were 93 times higher than soil with no contact with electronic waste. The unsustainability of discarding electronics and computer technology is another reason commending the need to recycle or to reuse electronic waste.
When materials cannot or will not be reused, conventional recycling or disposal via landfill often follow. Standards for both approaches vary widely by jurisdiction, whether in developed or developing countries. The complexity of the various items to be disposed of, the cost of environmentally approved recycling systems, and the need for concerned and concerted action to collect and systematically process equipment are challenges. One study indicates that two thirds of executives are unaware of fines related to environmental
Increased regulation of electronic waste and concern over the environmental harm which can result from toxic electronic waste has raised disposal costs. The regulation creates an economic disincentive to remove residues prior to export. In extreme cases, brokers and others calling themselves recyclers export unscreened electronic waste to developing countries, avoiding the expense of removing items like bad cathode ray tubes (the processing of which is expensive and difficult).
Defenders of the trade in used electronics say that extraction of metals from virgin mining has also been shifted to developing countries. Hard-rock mining of copper, silver, gold and other materials extracted from electronics is considered far more environmentally damaging than the recycling of those materials. They also state that repair and reuse of computers and televisions has become a "lost art" in wealthier nations, and that refurbishing has traditionally been a path to development. South Korea, Taiwan, and southern China all excelled in finding "retained value" in used goods, and in some cases have set up billion-dollar industries in refurbishing used ink cartridges, single-use cameras, and working CRTs. Refurbishing has traditionally been a threat to established manufacturing, and simple protectionism explains some criticism of the trade. Works like "The Waste Makers" by Vance Packard explain some of the criticism of exports of working product, for example the ban on import of tested working Pentium 4 laptops to China, or the bans on export of used surplus working electronics by Japan.
Opponents of surplus electronics exports argue that lower environmental and labor standards, cheap labor, and the relatively high value of recovered raw materials leads to a transfer of pollution-generating activities, such as burning of copper wire. In China, Malaysia, India, Kenya, and various African countries, electronic waste is being sent to these countries for processing, sometimes illegally. Many surplus laptops are routed to developing nations as "dumping grounds for e-waste". Because the United States has not ratified the Basel Convention or its Ban Amendment, and has no domestic laws forbidding the export of toxic waste, the Basel Action Network estimates that about 80% of the electronic waste directed to recycling in the U.S. does not get recycled there at all, but is put on container ships and sent to countries such as China. This figure is disputed as an exaggeration by the EPA, the Institute for Scrap Recycling Industries, and the World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association.
Guiyu in the Shantou region of China, Delhi and Bangalore in India as well as the Agbogbloshie site near Accra, Ghana have electronic waste processing areas. Uncontrolled burning, disassembly, and disposal can cause a variety of environmental problems such as groundwater contamination, atmospheric pollution, or even water pollution either by immediate discharge or due to surface runoff (especially near coastal areas), as well as health problems including occupational safety and health effects among those directly involved, due to the methods of processing the waste. Thousands of men, women, and children are employed in highly polluting, primitive recycling technologies, extracting the metals, toners, and plastics from computers and other electronic waste.
Proponents of the trade say growth of internet access is a stronger correlation to trade than poverty. Haiti is poor and closer to the port of New York than southeast Asia, but far more electronic waste is exported from New York to Asia than to Haiti. Thousands of men, women, and children are employed in reuse, refurbishing, repair, and remanufacturing, sustainable industries in decline in developed countries. It is held that denying developing nations access to used electronics denies them affordable products and internet access.
Opponents of the trade argue that developing countries utilize methods that are more harmful and more wasteful. An expedient and prevalent method is simply to toss equipment onto an open fire, in order to melt plastics and to burn away unvaluable metals. This releases carcinogens and neurotoxins into the air, contributing to an acrid, lingering smog. These noxious fumes include dioxins and furans. Bonfire refuse can be disposed of quickly into drainage ditches or waterways feeding the ocean or local water supplies.
In June 2008, a container of electronic waste, destined from the Port of Oakland in the U.S. to Sanshui District in mainland China, was intercepted in Hong Kong by Greenpeace. Concern over exports of electronic waste were raised in press reports in India, Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Nigeria.
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31-03-2011, 02:29 PM
e-waste.ppt (Size: 1.68 MB / Downloads: 198)
WHAT IS E-WASTE?
Electronic waste or e-waste is any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic appliance after their useful service life.
It is a point of concern considering that many components of such equipments are considered toxic and are not bio-degradable
SOURCES OF E-WASTE
IT and Telecom equipments
Large household appliances
Toys , leisure and sports equipments
Electrical and Electronic equipments
IS IT A HAZARDOUS WASTE?
E-Waste contains several different substances and chemicals, many of which are toxic (Pb,Cd,Hg,Be) and are likely to create adverse effect on environment and health.
When brominated flame retardant plastic or cadmium containing plastics are landfilled, both polybrominated dlphenyl ethers (PBDE) and cadmium may leach into the soil and groundwater. It has been found that significant amounts of lead ion are dissolved from broken lead containing glass, such as the cone glass of cathode ray tubes, gets mixed with acid waters and are a common occurrence in landfills.
DO YOU KNOW……..
E-Toxic components in computers contains heavy metals like Pb and Cd and pvc coated copper cables and palstics computer casings that releases highly toxic dioxns and furans…
Cellular phones contains lead cadmium mercury and arsenic . It has been estimated that 500 millions phones ready for disposal and still today cellphones e-waste has not be taken for diposal
EFFECT ON ENVIR0NMENT
Pollution of ground water
Acidification of soils
E-Waste accounts for 40 percent of thelead and 75 percent of the heavy metalsfound in landfills
RECYCLING OF E-WASTE
TREATMENT OPTION OF E-WASTE:-
TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY USED:-
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evergreen.ppt (Size: 1.32 MB / Downloads: 147)
E-waste is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their “useful life”.This includes
Computers and their peripherals
Where does it come from?
Households and Small businesses
Large businesses, Institutions and Governments
How big is the problem?
Electronic products often contain hazardous and toxic materials that pose environmental risks if they are land filled or incinerated.
Televisions, video and computer monitors use cathode ray tubes (CRTs), which have significant amounts of lead.
Printed circuit boards contain primarily plastic and copper, and most have small amounts of chromium, lead solder, nickel, and zinc.
In addition, many electronic products have batteries that often contain nickel, cadmium, and other heavy metals. Relays and switches in electronics, especially older ones, may contain mercury.
Also, capacitors in some types of older and larger equipment that is now entering the waste stream may contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs
Effects of E-waste constituent on health
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30-06-2012, 05:09 PM
E – WASTE MANAGEMENT
E - Waste Management.ppt (Size: 3.59 MB / Downloads: 70)
" Electronic waste, "e-waste" or "Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" ("WEEE") is a waste consisting of any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic appliance.
It is a point of concern considering that many components of such equipment are considered toxic and are not biodegradable
Sources of E-Waste
IT & Telecom Equipments
Large Household Appliances
Small Household Appliances
Consumer & Lighting Equipments
Electrical & Electronic Tools
Toys, Leisure & Sports Equipment
Monitoring & Control Instruments
Identification of the E-waste category item.
Identification of the E-waste composition or its determination
Identification of possible hazardous content in E-waste
Identification of whether the E-waste component is hazardous or the entire E-waste item is hazardous
Segregation & Treatment
Problems with Existing System
Market Issues – A severe lack of “market intelligence”
Obsolescence Issues – Some electronic devices have relatively short life spans
Feedstock Collection Issues – No standardized methods currently exist for executing successful e-waste collection events
Feedstock Management Issues – Labeling information
Design Issues – Many electronic devices are not designed for disassembly and maintenance
Changes can be made in the production process, which will reduce waste generation.
Improved operating and maintenance procedures
Recovery and reuse:
This technique could eliminate waste disposal costs, reduce raw material costs and provide income from a salable waste.
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03-12-2012, 12:11 PM
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