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E-commerce is the application of information technology to support business processes and the exchange of goods and services. E-cash came into being when people began to think that if we can store, forward and manipulate information, why can't we do the same with money. Both blanks and post offices centralise distribution, information and credibility. E-money makes it possible to decentralise these functions.

Electronic data interchange, which is the subset of e-com, is a set of data definitions that permits business forms to be exchanged electronically. The different payment schemes E-cash, Net-cash and PayMe system and also smart card technology is also. The foundation of all requirements for commerce over the world wide web is secured system of payment so various security measures are adopted over the Internet.
E-commerce represents a market worth potentiality hundreds of billions of dollars in just a few years to come. So it provides enormous opportunities for business. It is expected that in near future, electronic transaction will be as popular, if not more that the credit card purchases today.

Business is about information. It is about the right people having the right information at the right time. Exchanging the information efficiently and accurately will determine the success of the business.
There are three phases of implementation of E-Commerce.

" Replace manual and paper-based operations with electronic alternatives
" Rethink and simplify the information flows
" Use the information flows in new and dynamic ways

Simply replacing the existing paper-based system will reap new benefits. It may reduce administrative costs and improve the level of accuracy in exchanging data, but it does not address doing business efficiently. E-Commerce application can help to reshape the ways to do business
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12-03-2011, 10:43 AM

.ppt   E-Commerce Final.ppt (Size: 4.18 MB / Downloads: 197)
What is e-commerce?

• refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services
What is e-commerce?
• It also pertains to any form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact
What are the different types of e-commerce?
• Business-to-business (B2B)
• Business-to-consumer (B2C)
• Business-to-government (B2G)
• Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
• Mobile commerce (m-commerce)
What is B2B e-commerce?
Business to Business

• is simply defined as e-commerce between companies.
• This is the type of e-commerce that deals with relationships between and among businesses.
B2B Benefits
• Helps to remove barriers raised by geographic fragmentation of the market
• Helps in eliminating unnecessary inventory build-up for both buyers and sellers
• Promotes information flow and enhances transparency, supply-chain management becomes possible
• Both the buyers and sellers enjoy reduced order processing costs and lower cost of interacting with each other
B2B e-commerce
• Other Examples:
– Heinz selling ketchup to Mc Donalds
– Intel selling microprocessor to Dell
What is B2C e-commerce?
Business-to-consumer e-commerce, or commerce between companies and consumers, involves customers gathering information; purchasing physical goods (i.e., tangibles such as books or consumer products) or information goods (or goods of electronic material or digitized content, such as software, or e-books); and, for information goods, receiving products over an electronic network.
What is B2C e-commerce?
Selling and buying of goods and services via the web from web retailers to web customers
• 3 Major challenges of B2C e-commerce
• Getting browsers to buy things
• Building customer loyalty
• Fulfillment
• Getting browsers to buy things
• Getting visitors to the site if only half the battle. Whether they buy something is what determines if you win.
• Building customer loyalty
With so many sites out there, its difficult to build a strong relationship with customers
B2C can you build loyalty by:
• Focus on personalization
• Recognize customers’ individual preference
• Utilize an easy-to-use customer service application(chat, phone number, etc.)
• Fulfillment
Focus on customer satisfaction and delivery fulfillment
Fulfillment can be replaced with increased focus and investment in supply chain and logistical technologies
B2C e-commerce
• Example:
– Drugstore.com
– Beyond.com, Barnes
– Noble and ToysRus
– Dell selling laptops
B2C e-commerce
What is B2G e-commerce?

• Business-to-government e-commerce or B2G is generally defined as commerce between companies and the public sector
– Business pay taxes, file reports, or sell goods and services to Govt. agencies.
B2G e-commerce
What is C2C e-commerce?

• Consumer-to-consumer e-commerce or C2C is simply commerce between private individuals or consumers
• This means that a consumer sells something to another consumer with the help of an online business
• Napster model (a protocol for sharing files between users used by chat forums similar to IRC) and other file exchange and later money exchange models
• classified ads at portal sites such as Excite Classifieds and eWanted (an interactive, online marketplace where buyers and sellers can negotiate and which features “Buyer Leads & Want Ads”).
How is the Internet relevant to e-commerce?
• The Internet allows people from all over the world to get connected inexpensively and reliably. As a technical infrastructure, it is a global collection of networks, connected to share information using a common set of protocols.
• Also, as a vast network of people and information, the Internet is an enabler for e-commerce as it allows businesses to showcase and sell their products and services online and gives potential customers, prospects, and business partners access to information about these businesses and their products and services that would lead to purchase
• Aside from reducing the cost of doing business what are the advantages of e-commerce for businesses?
• Aside from reducing the cost of doing business what are the advantages of e-commerce for businesses?
• Aside from reducing the cost of doing business what are the advantages of e-commerce for businesses?
• How is e-commerce helpful to the consumer?
• In C2B transactions, customers/consumers are given more influence over what and how products are made and how services are delivered, thereby broadening consumer choices.
• How is e-commerce helpful to the consumer?
• E-commerce allows for a faster and more open process, with customers having greater control.
• How is e-commerce helpful to the consumer?
• E-commerce makes information on products and the market as a whole readily available and accessible, and increases price transparency, which enable customers to make more appropriate purchasing decisions
• What are the existing practices in developing countries with respect to buying and paying online?
A. Traditional Payment Methods
● Cash-on-delivery. Many online transactions only involve submitting purchase orders online. Payment is by cash upon the delivery of the physical goods.
● Bank payments. After ordering goods online, payment is made by depositing cash into the bank account of the company from which the goods were ordered. Delivery is likewise done the conventional way.
• What are the existing practices in developing countries with respect to buying and paying online?
B. Electronic Payment Methods
● Innovations affecting consumers, include credit and debit cards, automated teller machines (ATMs), stored value cards, and e-banking.
● Innovations enabling online commerce are e-cash, e-checks, smart cards, and encrypted credit cards. These payment methods are not too popular in developing countries. They are employed by a few large companies in specific secured channels on a transaction basis.
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29-08-2011, 03:28 PM

.ppt   lecture11.ppt (Size: 2.65 MB / Downloads: 152)
Electronic Commerce
Essential Materials

e-Business models
How to
Build an e-Commerce site
Attract and keep customers
Get Paid
Manage the e-commerce business
Secure the site
e-Business Implementations
Application Service Provider (ASP)
What exactly is e-Commerce?
What is B2B e-Commerce?
Can I start my own e-Commerce site?
How do I accept payments by credit card?
How do I get customers to visit my site?
Do I have to accept credit cards?
How to succeed in e-Commerce?
Any more questions about e-Commerce?
What is e-Commerce?
Electronic Commerce (EC) or “e-Business”
Buying and Selling goods or services on the Internet (WWW)
What is the latest development? M-Commerce?
What is ASP?
Application Service Provider
Also means Active Server Page (HTML)
A company offers individuals or enterprises to host their applications or services on this ASP company. (low budgets for small companies, outsourcing for large companies)
The importance
Dedicated line – A point-to-point, hard wire connection between two service locations.
Leased line – A telecommunications line dedicated to a particular customer along predetermined routers.
Outsourcing – The transfer of components or large segments of an internal IT infrastructure, staff, processes or applications to an external resource such as Application service provider (ASP).
e-Business solutions
e-Business Models
Storefront model
Auction model
Portal Model
Dynamic Pricing Models
B2B Exchanges
B2B Service Providers
Storefront Model
The storefront model combines transaction processing, security, online payment which allows merchants to sell their products to the customers on the Web.
Many famous storefront model companies are Business-to-Consumer (B2C) companies.
Health and beauty products
Sell tickets
Storefront Model
Allow companies to conduct business 24-by-7 (all-day, everyday).
One of the most commonly used model is “shopping cart”
An order-processing technology that allows user to accumulate the shopping list and continue shopping.
Supported by product catalog, merchant server and database technology.
Shopping Cart Example
Shopping Cart Sotware
Storefront Model
Another model is “online shopping mall” which provides a wide selection of products and services.
Customers can purchase items from many stores in a single transaction.
Offer speed and add convenience
Shopping Mall Example
Auction Model
Internet User can login to the online auction sites, either bidder or seller.
Sellers post their items and wait for the buyers to bid.
Auction sites get commission on every successful auction.
E.g. most profitable: ebay.com
HK: auction.timway.com
Reverse Auction model
Allow buyer to set the price, epurchasingagent.com
Auction Model Example
Portal Model
Allow visitors to find everything within the website.
Horizontal Portal
Wide-ranged of topics
E.g. google.com, yahoo.com
Vertical Portal
Offer specific information on a single area of interest.
E.g. webmd.com (medical information)
Dynamic Pricing Model
Name-your-price Business Model
Customers choose their price for the products or services (priceline.com).
Comparison Pricing Model
Customers poll some merchants and find the lowest prices (bottomdollar.com)
Demand-Sensitive Pricing Model
Enables customers to get better services and prices. (mobshop.com)
Bartering Model
Exchange items (ubarter.com)
Pricing model example
B2B Exchanges
Define as buying, selling, partnering, bartering or trading conducted between two or more business (B2B).
Goldman Sachs has estimated that B2B will generate $1.5 trillion in revenues by 2004.
Allow Business to buy, sell, auction, barter and distribute products and services.
ework.com (Exchange employee)
itoi.com (Industry to Industry)
biz2biz.com (Business to Business)
icgcommerce.com, tradeaccess.com
seminar paper
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28-03-2012, 12:49 PM


.doc   E COMM FINAL.doc (Size: 342.5 KB / Downloads: 44)


E-commerce is a relatively new phenomenon. During its short history, many of the systems that provide the functionality of e-commerce have been developed in ad hoc ways. The result is e-commerce systems that in many cases do not provide the desired functionality for the customer or the business. We have reached a point, however, when we can look more carefully at what functions an e-commerce system should provide and how those functions should be organized. The purpose of this paper is to present a model of e-commerce systems that can be used as a framework for analyzing system characteristics



Electronic commerce, or e-commerce, refers to economic activity that occurs online. E-commerce includes all types of business activity, such as retail shopping, banking, investing and rentals.
Even small businesses that provide personal services, such as hair and nail salons, can benefit from e-commerce by providing a website for the sale of related health and beauty products that normally are available only to their local customers.


Although e-commerce once required an expensive interface and personal security certificate, this is no longer the case. Virtual storefronts are offered by a variety of hosting services and large Internet presences that offer simple solutions to vendors who have little or no online experience. Tools for running successful e-commerce websites are built into the hosting servers, eliminating the need for the individual merchant to redesign the wheel. These tools include benefits such as virtual shopping carts, inventory and sales logs and the ability to accept a variety of payment options, including secure credit card transactions.

Early e-commerce was stunted by security fears, but improved technology has made millions of people worldwide feel comfortable buying online. Seeing the vast potential in online commerce, most credit card companies helped allay fears by guaranteeing that cardholders would not be held responsible for fraudulent charges as a result of online shopping. All of these factors have helped e-commerce become a booming industry.

The popularity of online commerce is understandable, considering the time and hassle involved in running from store to store, searching for an item. It not only takes valuable time and energy, but using transportation usually costs money. Shopping online whenever the mood strikes — even in the middle of the night — has many advantages. Not only is it convenient to shop at a myriad of vendors from the comfort of a computer chair, it’s also a snap to find the best deal by allowing certain shopping sites to sift through all of the sellers.

When you get down to the actual elements of commerce and commercial transactions, things get slightly more complicated because you have to deal with the details. However, these details boil down to a finite number of steps. The following list highlights all of the elements of a typical commerce activity. In this case, the activity is the sale of some product by a retailer to a customer:
• If you would like to sell something to a customer, at the very core of the matter is the something itself. You must have a product or service to offer. The product can be anything from ball bearings to back rubs. You may get your products directly from a producer, or you might go through a distributor to get them, or you may produce the products yourself.

Is an electronic commerce business model in which consumers (individuals) offer products and services to companies and the companies pay them. This business model is a complete reversal of traditional business model where companies offer goods and services to consumers.
This kind of economic relationship is qualified as an inverted business type. The advent of the C2B scheme is due to major changes:
• Connecting a large group of people to a bidirectional network has made this sort of commercial relationship possible. The large traditional media outlets are one direction relationship whereas the internet is bidirectional one.
• Decreased cost of technology : Individuals now have access to technologies that were once only available to large companies ( digital printing and acquisition technology, high performance computer, powerful software)


Business model that works by offering basic Web services, or a basic downloadable digital product, for free, while charging a premium for advanced or special features.


Business model used in strategic management and services marketing that treats service provision as an industrial process, subject to industrial optimization procedures

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.doc   What is Ecommerce.doc (Size: 39.5 KB / Downloads: 36)

What is Ecommerce - an overview

In its simplest form ecommerce is the buying and selling of products and services by businesses and consumers over the Internet. People use the term "ecommerce" to describe encrypted payments on the Internet.
Sometimes these transactions include the real-time transfer of funds from buyer to seller and sometimes this is handled manually through an eft-pos terminal once a secure order is received by the merchant.
Internet sales are increasing rapidly as consumers take advantage of lower prices offer by wholesalers retailing their products. This trend is set to strengthen as web sites address consumer security and privacy concerns.

Benefits of E-Commerce

E-commerce can provide the following benefits over non-electronic commerce:
• Reduced costs by reducing labour, reduced paper work, reduced errors in keying in data, reduce post costs
• Reduced time. Shorter lead times for payment and return on investment in advertising, faster delivery of product
• Flexibility with efficiency. The ability to handle complex situations, product ranges and customer profiles without the situation becoming unmanageable.
• Improve relationships with trading partners. Improved communication between trading partners leads to enhanced long-term relationships.
• Lock in Customers. The closer you are to your customer and the more you work with them to change from normal business practices to best practice e-commerce the harder it is for a competitor to upset your customer relationship.
• New Markets. The Internet has the potential to expand your business into wider geographical locations.

Banks were slow at first to embrace Internet technologies citing security fears. More recently though in the drive for higher profits and greater shareholder return they have been moving more and more of their business online.
Mostly this transition has gone smoothly. The only real difficulty is phishing scams where people are tricked into logging into a web site designed to look like their bank, but instead traps their login details. Banks have warned people not to click links in their email to login into the bank's web site, but to type the URL into their browser window every time.
In Australia banks will soon issue a usb device required in conjunction with a PIN to access a bank account. This will tighten security further.

Imagine a web site that would allow your customers to place an order for your goods and when they sent their order to you, your stock or inventory database was updated immediately, outwards goods were notified and the customer was sent an advice from packing staff when the goods were shipped.
Many businesses do each of these things but few join them together or "integrate" them. As businesses become familiar with the Internet, it won't take long for business people to see that their order-taking, stock control and delivery systems should be merged into one seamless function.
Indeed Microsoft Retail Manager offers precisely this function. Maintain one database in your store and synchronise it in real time with your online database... meaning your web site is constantly up to date.
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12-04-2012, 04:50 PM


.doc   2.Introduction to Project.doc (Size: 79.5 KB / Downloads: 35)

Project Aim
Objective of E-Commerce is a system of selling Electronic Item or one can perches a Electronic Item Provided in the Site according to their wishes so this project and implimentation provides customer to buy a thing that he/she need.
The goal of this system is to provide more facilities to the customers for online inquiry and place order for and also satisfy the requirements of customers.

Project Definition
“E-Commerce” is designed to be the most user friendly as all the entry forms are given self explanation. In this system three groups are there: one is Administrator, second is Branch Administrator and third is Customer. Customer can place orders & can also give feedback, branch_admin can manage some data and generate some reports and Administrator can manage all the details and generate all types of reports.

Project Scope & Objectives:
Registration of Customer and Administrator.
Satisfy the requirements of customers.
Manage all the details of system.
Prepare details about every product.
Manage order by customers and delivery of it.
Administrator reviews the record of details.
Suggestions and query by client.
Maintain all information about customer and admin.


MVC Model ( Model -Controller-View):
Model–view–controller (MVC) is a software architecture,[1] currently considered an architectural pattern used in software engineering. The pattern isolates "domain logic" (the application logic for the user) from the user interface (input and presentation), permitting independent development, testing and maintenance of each (separation of concerns).

Overview Of model:
Though MVC comes in different flavors, control flow is generally as follows:
1. The user interacts with the user interface in some way (for example, by pressing a mouse button).
2. The controller handles the input event from the user interface, often via a registered handler or callback, and converts the event into an appropriate user action, understandable for the model.
3. The controller notifies the model of the user action, possibly resulting in a change in the model's state. (For example, the controller updates the user's shopping cart.)[4]
4. A view queries the model in order to generate an appropriate user interface (for example the view lists the shopping cart's contents). The view gets its own data from the model. In some implementations, the controller may issue a general instruction to the view to render itself. In others, the view is automatically notified by the model of changes in state (Observer) that require a screen update.


The MySQL database has become the world's most popular open source database because of its high performance, high reliability and ease of use. It is also the database of choice for a new generation of applications built on the LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP / Perl / Python.) Many of the world's largest and fastest-growing organizations including Facebook, Google, Adobe, Alcatel Lucent and Zappos rely on MySQL to save time and money powering their high-volume Web sites, business-critical systems and packaged software.

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03-05-2012, 01:21 PM


.pdf   9598_019964Ch1.pdf (Size: 917.19 KB / Downloads: 116)


Even today, some considerable time after the so called ‘dot com/Internet
revolution’, electronic commerce (e-commerce) remains a relatively new,
emerging and constantly changing area of business management and
information technology. There has been and continues to be much publicity
and discussion about e-commerce. Library catalogues and shelves are
filled with books and articles on the subject. However, there remains a
sense of confusion, suspicion and misunderstanding surrounding the area,
which has been exacerbated by the different contexts in which electronic
commerce is used, coupled with the myriad related buzzwords and acronyms.
This book aims to consolidate the major themes that have arisen
from the new area of electronic commerce and to provide an understanding
of its application and importance to management.

As with e-commerce, e-business (electronic business) also has a number of
different definitions and is used in a number of different contexts. One of
the first to use the term was IBM, in October 1997, when it launched a
campaign built around e-business. Today, major corporations are rethinking
their businesses in terms of the Internet and its new culture and capabilities
and this is what some see as e-business.

Some analysts and on-line business people have decided that e-business is
infinitely superior as a moniker to e-commerce. That’s misleading and distracts
us from the business goals at hand. The effort to separate the E-commerce
and E-business concepts appears to have been driven by marketing
motives and is dreadfully thin in substance.
Here’s the important thing: E-commerce, E-business or whatever else you
may want to call it is a means to an end.9

It is important to identify the key drivers of e-commerce to allow a comparison
between different countries. It is often claimed that e-commerce is
more advanced in the USA than in Europe. These key drivers can be measured
by a number of criteria that can highlight the stages of advancement
of e-commerce in each of the respective countries. The criteria that can
determine the level of advancement of e-commerce are summarised in
Table 1.1 and can be categorised as:

The previous sections have included discussions about what e-commerce is
and its impact, but what are the benefits of e-commerce? What does it offer
and why do it? The benefits of e-commerce can be seen to affect three
major stakeholders: organisations, consumers and society.

Benefits of e-commerce to organisations

International marketplace. What used to be a single physical marketplace
located in a geographical area has now become a borderless marketplace
including national and international markets. By becoming e-commerce
enabled, businesses now have access to people all around the world. In
effect all e-commerce businesses have become virtual multinational

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