EFFICIENT ROUTING IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE NETWORKS: THE MULTIPLE COPY CASE
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13-01-2010, 07:34 AM


EFFICIENT ROUTING IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE NETWORKS: THE MULTIPLE COPY CASE - NETWORKING

Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. There are many real networks that follow this model, for example, wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. In this context, conventional routing schemes fail, because they try to establish complete end-to-end paths, before any data is sent. To deal with such networks researchers have suggested to use flooding-based routing schemes. While flooding-based schemes have a high probability of delivery, they waste a lot of energy and suffer from severe contention which can significantly degrade their performance. Furthermore, proposed efforts to reduce the overhead of flooding-based schemes have often been plagued by large delays. With this in mind, we introduce a new family of routing schemes that spray a few message copies into the network, and then route each copy independently towards the destination. We show that, if carefully designed, spray routing
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19-07-2010, 09:05 AM

Please provide me with the coding part of this project and implimentation within 21st july 2010.

I am in very urgent need of it.

Smitha bheemaiah
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hongyush2008
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20-07-2010, 07:00 AM

Useful info for us...You are so kind to share with us...Thank you..
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11-10-2010, 05:22 PM


.doc   final docu.doc (Size: 1.28 MB / Downloads: 180)
. INTRODUCTION
WIRELESS data networks often aim at extending Internet services into the wireless domain. Services like GPRS enable Internet access through the widespread cellular infrastructure, while the deployment of WiFi 802.11 access points provides direct Internet connectivity for wireless users (mainly laptops and PDAs) that are within range.
1.1 Motivation
Additionally, self-organized (“ad hoc” or “peer-to-peer”) wireless networks have been proposed for applications where setting up a supporting, wired infrastructure might be too costly (e.g., sensor networks) or simply not an option (e.g., disaster relief, deep space networks). Despite these ongoing efforts, wireless access currently seems to give rise to inconvenience and frustration more often than providing the envisioned flexibility to the user. Cellular access is low bandwidth and expensive, while WiFi access is typically only available at a few “hotspots” that the user has to locate and move to, without real “mobile computing”. Further, ad hoc networks have yet to find much application outside the research or military community, while some dire issues regarding their scalability properties have been identified.
The reason for these failures is that many of the assumptions made in the wired world, and which are largely responsible for the success of the Internet, do not hold in the wireless environment. The concept of a connected, stable network over which data can be routed reliably rarely holds there.
Wireless signals are subject to multi-path propagation, fading, and interference making wireless links unstable and lossy.

2 Problem Definition
Additionally, frequent node mobility (e.g., as in vehicular ad hoc networks—VANETs) significantly reduces the time a “good” link exists, and constantly changes the network connectivity graph. As a result, wireless connectivity is volatile and usually intermittent, as nodes move in and out of range from access points or from each other, and as signal quality fluctuates.
In addition to the cases of wireless Internet access and ad hoc networks, the need to depart from the traditional networking practices has been recognized for a number of emerging wireless applications.
Sensor networks can significantly increase their lifetime by powering down nodes often, or by using very low power radios. This implies that many links will be down frequently, and complete end-to-end paths often will not exist. Tactical networks may also choose to operate in an intermittent fashion for LPI/LPD reasons (low probability of interception and low probability of detection). Finally, deep space networks and underwater networks often have to deal with long propagation delays and/or intermittent connectivity, as well.
These new networks are often referred to collectively as Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN). What they all share in common is that they can neither make any assumptions about the existence of a contemporaneous path to the destination nor assume accurate knowledge of the destination’s location or even address, beforehand.
Under such intermittent connectivity many traditional protocols fail (e.g., TCP, DNS, etc.). It is for this reason that novel networking architectures are being pursued that could provide mobile nodes with better service under such intermittent characteristics.
Arguably though, the biggest challenge to enable networking in intermittently connected environments is that of routing. Conventional Internet routing protocols (e.g., RIP and OSPF), as well as routing schemes for mobile ad hoc networks such as DSR, AODV, etc., assume that a complete path exists between a source and a destination, and try to discover these paths before any useful data is sent. Thus, if no end-to-end paths exist most of the time; these protocols fail to deliver any data to all but the few connected nodes.
However, this does not mean that packets can never be delivered in these networks. Over time, different links come up and down due to node mobility. If the sequence of connectivity graphs over a time interval is overlapped, then an end-to-end path might exist. This implies that a message could be sent over an existing link, get buffered at the next hop until the next link in the path comes up (e.g., a new node moves in range or an existing one wakes-up), and so on and so forth, until it reaches its destination.
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#5
21-02-2011, 05:23 PM

hi iam doing project and implimentation in efficent routing in intermittently connected mobile networks the multipule copy case flatform is dot net so pls send coding and ppt presentations
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30-03-2011, 12:08 PM


Abstract
Intermittently connected mobile networks arewireless networks where most of the time there does not exista complete path from the source to the destination. There aremany real networks that follow this model, for example, wildlifetracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hocnetworks, etc. In this context, conventional routing schemes fail,because they try to establish complete end-to-end paths, beforeany data is sent.To deal with such networks researchers have suggestedto use flooding-based routing schemes. While flooding-basedschemes have a high probability of delivery, they waste a lot ofenergy and suffer from severe contention which can significantlydegrade their performance. Furthermore, proposed efforts toreduce the overhead of flooding-based schemes have often beenplagued by large delays. With this in mind, we introduce a newfamily of routing schemes that “spray” a few message copies intothe network, and then route each copy independently towardsthe destination. We show that, if carefully designed, sprayrouting not only performs significantly fewer transmissions permessage, but also has lower average delivery delays than existingschemes; furthermore, it is highly scalable and retains goodperformance under a large range of scenarios.Finally, we use our theoretical framework proposed in [1]to analyze the performance of spray routing. We also use thistheory to show how to choose the number of copies to be sprayedand how to optimally distribute these copies to relays.Index Terms—routing, ad-hoc networks, intermittent connectivity,delay tolerant networks.
I. INTRODUCTION
Wireless data networks often aim at extending Internetservices into the wireless domain. Services like GPRS enableInternet access through the widespread cellular infrastructure,while the deployment of WiFi 802.11 access points providesdirect Internet connectivity for wireless users (mainly laptopsand PDAs) that are within range. Additionally, self-organized(“ad hoc” or “peer-to-peer”) wireless networks have beenproposed for applications where setting up a supporting,wired infrastructure might be too costly (e.g. sensor networks)or simply not an option (e.g. disaster relief, deep spacenetworks).Despite these ongoing efforts, wireless access currentlyseems to give rise to inconvenience and frustration more oftenthan providing the envisioned flexibility to the user. Cellularaccess is low bandwidth and expensive, while WiFi access istypically only available at a few “hotspots” that the user has tolocate and move to, without real “mobile computing”. Further,ad hoc networks have yet to find much application outsidethe research or military community, while some dire issuesregarding their scalability properties have been identified [2].The reason for these failures is that many of the assumptionsmade in the wired world, and which are largelyresponsible for the success of the Internet, do not hold inthe wireless environment. The concept of a connected, stablenetwork over which data can be routed reliably rarely holdsthere. Wireless signals are subject to multi-path propagation,fading, and interference making wireless links unstable andlossy. Additionally, frequent node mobility (e.g. as in vehicularad hoc networks—VANETs [3]) significantly reducesthe time a “good” link exists, and constantly changes thenetwork connectivity graph. As a result, wireless connectivityis volatile and usually intermittent, as nodes move in and outof range from access points or from each other, and as signalquality fluctuates.In addition to the cases of wireless Internet access andad hoc networks, the need to depart from the traditionalnetworking practices has been recognized for a number ofemerging wireless applications. Sensor networks can significantlyincrease their lifetime by powering down nodesoften, or by using very low power radios. This implies thatmany links will be down frequently, and complete end-toendpaths often won’t exist [4]. Tactical networks may alsochoose to operate in an intermittent fashion for LPI/LPDreasons (low probability of interception and low probabilityof detection) [5]. Finally, deep space networks [6] and underwaternetworks [7] often have to deal with long propagationdelays and/or intermittent connectivity, as well. These newnetworks are often referred to collectively as Delay TolerantNetworks . What they all share in common is thatthey can neither make any assumptions about the existenceof a contemporaneous path to the destination nor assumeaccurate knowledge of the destination’s location or evenaddress, beforehand.Under such intermittent connectivity many traditional protocolsfail ). It is for this reason thatnovel networking architectures are being pursued that couldprovide mobile nodes with better service under such intermittentcharacteristics . Arguably though, the biggestchallenge to enable networking in intermittently connectedenvironments is that of routing. Conventional Internet routing2protocols (e.g. RIP and OSPF), as well as routing schemesfor mobile ad-hoc networks such as DSR, AODV, etc. ,assume that a complete path exists between a source and adestination, and try to discover these paths before any usefuldata is sent. Thus, if no end-to-end paths exist most of thetime, these protocols fail to deliver any data to all but the fewconnected nodes.

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02-02-2012, 03:28 PM

EFFICIENT ROUTING IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE NETWORKS: THE MULTIPLE COPY CASE


.docx   BasePaper-efficient routing.docx (Size: 152.92 KB / Downloads: 31)
I. INTRODUCTION

WIRELESS data networks often aim at extending Internet services into the wireless domain. Services like GPRS enable Internet access through the widespread cellular infra¬structure, while the deployment of WiFi 802.11 access points provides direct Internet connectivity for wireless users (mainly laptops and PDAs) that are within range. Additionally, self-or¬ganized (“ad hoc” or “peer-to-peer”) wireless networks have been proposed for applications where setting up a supporting, wired infrastructure might be too costly (e.g., sensor networks) or simply not an option (e.g., disaster relief, deep space net¬works).


RELATED WORK
One approach to deal with very sparse networks or connec-tivity “disruptions” [5] is to reinforce connectivity on demand, by bringing for example additional communication resources into the network when necessary (e.g., satellites, UAVs, etc.). Similarly, one could force a number of specialized nodes (e.g., robots) to follow a given trajectory between disconnected parts of the network [18], [19]. In yet other cases, connectivity might be predictable, even though its intermittent (e.g., planetary and satellite movement in Inter-planetary Networks—IPN [6]). Tra-ditional routing algorithms could then be adapted to compute shortest delivery time paths by taking into account future con¬nectivity [20], [21]. Nevertheless, such approaches are orthog¬onal to our work; our aim is to study what can be done when connectivity is neither enforced nor predictable, but rather op¬portunistic and subject to the statistics of the mobility model followed by nodes.


SPRAY ROUTING
In this section, we explore the problem of efficient routing in intermittently connected mobile networks (ICMNs), and de-scribe our proposed solution, Spray routing. Our problem setup consists of a number of nodes moving inside a bounded area ac¬cording to a stochastic mobility model. Additionally, we assume that the network is disconnected at most times, and that trans¬missions are faster than node movement (i.e., it takes less time to transmit a message using the wireless medium—ignoring queueing delay—than to move it physically for the same dis¬tance using node mobility1).


PERFORMANCE OF SPRAY ROUTING
In this section, we will analyze the delay of Spray routing. In addition to the intrinsic value of such a theoretical analysis, which is the ability to predict the performance of the schemes in a larger range of scenarios than simulations or experiments can, we also need this theory to do system design. First, we would like to know what is the right number of copies to be sprayed, in order to achieve good performance for Spraying algorithms. Without this number spraying performance could be as bad as that of Direct Transmissions or Epidemic routing in different scenarios


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23-02-2012, 04:47 PM

to get information about the topic Efficient routing in intermittently connected mobile networks full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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19-11-2012, 01:42 PM

EFFICIENT ROUTING IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE NETWORKS: THE MULTIPLE COPY CASE



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Abstract—

Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. There are many real networks that follow this model, for example, wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. In this context, conventional routing schemes fail, because they try to establish complete end-to-end paths, before any data is sent. To deal with such networks researchers have suggested to use flooding-based routing schemes. While flooding-based scheme shave a high probability of delivery, they waste a lot of energy and suffer from severe contention which can significantly degrade their performance. Furthermore, proposed efforts to reduce the overhead of flooding-based schemes have often been plagued by large delays. With this in mind, we introduce a new family of routing schemes that “spray” a few message copies into the network, and then route each copy independently towards the destination. We show that, if carefully designed, spray routing not only performs significantly fewer transmissions per message, but also has lower average delivery delays than existing schemes; furthermore, it is highly scalable and retains good performance under a large range of scenarios. Finally, we use our theoretical framework proposed in our 2004paper to analyze the performance of spray routing. We also use thistheory to show how to choose the number of copies to be sprayedand how to optimally distribute these copies to relays.

INTRODUCTION

WIRELESS data networks often aim at extending Internetservices into the wireless domain. Services like GPRSenable Internet access through the widespread cellular infrastructure,while the deployment of WiFi 802.11 access pointsprovides direct Internet connectivity for wireless users (mainlylaptops and PDAs) that are within range. Additionally, self-organized(“ad hoc” or “peer-to-peer”) wireless networks havebeen proposed for applications where setting up a supporting,wired infrastructure might be too costly (e.g., sensor networks)or simply not an option (e.g., disaster relief, deep space networks).Despite these ongoing efforts, wireless access currentlyseems to give rise to inconvenience and frustration more oftenManuscript received August 29, 2005; revised June 25, 2006, and December7, 2006; approved by IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING Editor S.Palazzo. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science
Foundation under Grant CNS-0520017.T. Spyropoulos was with INRIA, Sophia Antipolis, France, and is now withETH, Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland (e-mail: spyropoulos@tik.ee.ethz.ch).

SYSTEM STUDY

EXISTING SYSTEM

Epidemic routing extends the concept of flooding in intermittently connected mobile networks.
It is one of the first schemes proposed to enable message delivery in such networks. Each node maintains a list of all messages it carries, whose delivery is pending.
Whenever it encounters another node, the two nodes exchange all messages that they don’t have in common.
The nodes, which received the message copy, now acts as source and distributes message copies to all nodes with in its transmission, range.
Single-copy schemes generate and route only one copy per message (in contrast to flooding schemes that essentially send a copy to every node), in order to significantly reduce the number of transmissions.
Although they might be useful in some situations, single-copy schemes do not present desirable solutions for applications that require high probabilities of delivery and low delays.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

Spray and Wait bounds the total number of copies and transmissions per message without compromising performance.
Under low load, Spray and Wait results in much fewer transmissions and comparable or smaller delays than flooding-based schemes.
• Under high load, it yields significantly better delays and fewer transmissions than flooding-based schemes.

FEASIBILITY STUDY

All project and implimentations are feasible given unlimited resources and infinite time. It is both necessary and prudent to evaluate the feasibility of the project and implimentation at the earliest possible time. Feasibility and risk analysis is related in many ways. If project and implimentation risk is great , the feasibility listed below is equally important.
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