Electric Lithium Ion Car full report
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21-02-2010, 01:38 PM



.doc   Electric Lithium Ion CAr.doc (Size: 334.5 KB / Downloads: 220)

Abstract:
The ELIICA is a revelation of a concept car made in Japan that is totally electric. The ELIICA short form for Electric Lithium Ion CAr was developed and created by Prof. Hiroshi Shimizu of Keio University, Tokyo. The ELIICA is powered by lithium ion batteries and uses eight 60kw in-wheel drive motors to provide the equivalent of 800hp. The in-wheel drive eliminates the need for the power transmission devices connecting the engine and the wheels that are necessary in conventional cars. Because all the wheels are driven, spin is minimized and the vehicle can be easily controlled, even under difficult road conditions. The amazing factor about this car is its performance. It can accelerate from 0 to 100km/h in just 4 seconds. The car has recorded a top speed of 370km/h (230mph), although it could hit 400 km/h (250mph) in the correct conditions. The electric car ELIICA requires 10hours to charge fully
INTRODUCTION
The ELIICA is a demonstration car made in Japan that is totally electric. The ELIICA short form for Electric Lithium Ion CAr was developed and created by Prof. Hiroshi Shimizu of Keio University, Tokyo. ELIICA is powered by lithium ion batteries and uses eight 60kw in-wheel drive motors to provide the equivalent of 800hp.The ELIICA is just five meters long, 2.5 ton weight bullet shaped and in-wheel drive eliminates the need for the power transmission devices connecting the engine and the wheels that are necessary in conventional cars. The motor, reduction gears, wheel bearing and braking system are integrated in a single unit and the suspension arm adapter is attached to the outer motor casing. That is how ELIICA hits .8G in acceleration. Because all the wheels are driven, spin is minimized and the vehicle can be easily controlled, even under difficult road conditions. The amazing factor about this car is its performance. It can accelerate from 0 to 100km/h in just 4 seconds. The car has recorded a top speed of 370km/h (230mph), although it could hit 400 km/h (250mph) in the correct conditions. The electric car ELIICA requires 10hours to charge fully
ELECTRIC CAR
The block diagram of an electric car
Accelerator
Rechargable Batteries
Controller
Electric Motor
* Wheels
ELECTRIC CAR
The inside representation of Eliica
PERMANENT
MAGNET MOTOR
AUXILIARY POSER SOURS
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THE PLATFORM OF ELIICA
LITHIUM ION BATTERIES
Lithium ion batteries are the fastest and promising battery chemistry today, which offers higher capacities. Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential and provides the largest energy density for weight. The energy density of lithium ion is typically twice that of the standard nickel cadmium. The high cell voltage of 3.6 - 4.1 volts allows battery pack designs with only one cell.
Lithium ion is a low maintenance battery. There is no memory and no scheduled cycling is required to prolong the batteries life. In addition self -discharge is less than half compared to nickel cadmium, making lithium ion well suited for modern fuel gauge applications. Lithium ion cells cause little harm when disposed. Another special feature about this cell is its fast charging, 300-500 charge cycles
Eliica uses L.I. batteries with serial no-18650 (18 is its diameter and 650 is its length in mm) which gives an output of 4.1v, 80Ah per cell.2 cells constitute one packet, such 84 packets are in ELIICA In addition auxiliary power sources are there when there is need
CONTROLLER
The controller takes power from batteries and delivers it to the motor. The accelerator pedal hooks to a pair of potentiometers 1 (variable resistors) and these potentiometers provide the signal that tell the controller how much power is supposed to deliver. The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped), full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal) or any power level in between The controller converts the dc power in to ac supply. Controller creates 3 pseudo sine waves by pulsing the dc voltage on and off. Six sets of transistors are used for generation of pulsed waves & reversing the polarities. Most controllers pulse the power more than 15,000times per second, in order to keep the pulsation outside the range of human hearing. The pulsed current causes the motor housing to vibrate at that frequency, so by pulsing at more than 15,000 cycles per second, the controller and motor are silent to the human ears. Controller also recharges the batteries at the time of braking using the principle of regenerative braking. So the function of controller can be summarized in to following Three purposes
1. Converts dc supply into ac supply
2. Delivers power supply to motor from batteries according to the accelerator position
3. Recharging the batteries
ELECTRIC MOTOR
ELIICA is driven with eight 100 watt motors each connected to the eight wheels. These motors are given power equally from the controller.ELIICA uses permanent magnet synchronous motor for its propulsion, because of its high accelerating torque, variable speed, better stability, less maintenance and high efficiency. When the accelerator pedal is pressed proportionate charge flows to the motors from the battery pack and provides the necessary thrust to move the vehicle. As the motors are running at the same time, there will be better control and speed
Charging system
The controller maintains charging system. There are two ways of charging
1. Normal charging
2. Regenerative braking
IN normal charging Lithium ion battery is connected to appropriate charging voltage .There are two kinds of charging system
Plug-in charging
Magna charge system
Plug in charging
In plug in charging a cable is connected from the charger to the socket in the car The charger is a box separate box located under the hood or could even be a free standing unit that is separate . from the car
This charging system sends electricity to the car using an inductive paddle. The paddle acts as one half of a transformer. The other half is inside the car. When you insert the paddle it forms the complete transformer with the slot and power transfers to the car.
One advantage of magna charging system is that there are no exposed electrical contacts. Other advantage is the ability to pump a significant amount of current to into the car very quickly
DIMENSIONS
Length 5100mm
Width 1900mm
Height 1365mm
Ground Clearance 130mm
Passengers 5
Weight 2400kg
Driving System Electric Driving by Secondary Batteries
Battery Type Lithium-Ion
Capacity 31kWh
Voltage 332V
Motor Type Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Max Torque lOONm x 8Wheels
Max Power lOOkW x 8Wheels
Max Rev 12000rpm
Base Rev 730rpm
Inverter Type PWM
Size 300(L) x 330(W) x 150(H)mm
Weight 17kg
Brake First/Second/Fourth Axes Steered
Performance 8 Wheel Disc Brake with Regenerative Control
Top Speed (Target) 400km/h
0-400m Acceleration 15.3sec
Range 200km
Charging Time 4 Minutes to Recharge from None to 70%
FUTURE
About two third of ELIICA's cost is dominated by the battery price, If we could reduce cost of the Lithium ion batteries ELIICA could be affordable to the layman in the future, as it is going to conquer the world of automobile. The charging time for the batteries is now 10 hours. Research is going on to decrease the charging time Presently ELIICA has recorded a top speed of 370 km/h. Research is going on to increase that to 400 km/h
The future of battery electric vehicles depends primarily upon the availability of batteries with high energy densities, power density, long life, and reasonable cost as all other aspects such as motors, motor controllers, and chargers are fairly mature and cost competitive with Internal Combustion Engine components.
CONCLUSION
It is sure that the introduction of Eliica will change the face of the automobile industry. As now a day nothing will run without the presence of electricity in its direct form or indirect form, Eliica is a proud achievement for the electrical field. Research and developments are going on in the ELIICA to make it more economical and efficient.
REFERENCES
*ieee.orq
'kazstyle.com
'newscientist.com
'eliica.com
* 123auto.com
'howstuffsworks.com
¢IEEE Spectrum
OVERVIEW
1. Introduction.
2. Electric car.
a. Lithium Ion Batteries.
b. Controller.
c. Electric Motor.
3. Charging System.
4. Dimensions
5. Future
6. Conclusion.
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