Electrical Seminar Abstract And Report 6
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15-02-2009, 01:20 PM


Quantum Information Technology

Introduction
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This document aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, the paper begins with an introduction to classical information theory .The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined.

The EPR-Bell correlation and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient, which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory, and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are described, including key distribution, teleportation, the universal quantum computer and quantum algorithms. The common theme of all these ideas is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource.

Experimental methods for small quantum processors are briefly sketched, concentrating on ion traps, super conducting cavities, Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging based techniques, and quantum dots. "Where a calculator on the Eniac is equipped with 18000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1000 tubes and weigh only 1 1/2 tons" Popular Mechanics, March 1949. Now, if this seems like a joke, wait a second. "Tomorrows computer might well resemble a jug of water" This for sure is no joke. Quantum computing is here. What was science fiction two decades back is a reality today and is the future of computing. The history of computer technology has involved a sequence of changes from one type of physical realization to another --- from gears to relays to valves to transistors to integrated circuits and so on. Quantum computing is the next logical advancement.

Today's advanced lithographic techniques can squeeze fraction of micron wide logic gates and wires onto the surface of silicon chips. Soon they will yield even smaller parts and inevitably reach a point where logic gates are so small that they are made out of only a handful of atoms. On the atomic scale matter obeys the rules of quantum mechanics, which are quite different from the classical rules that determine the properties of conventional logic gates. So if computers are to become smaller in the future, new, quantum technology must replace or supplement what we have now. Quantum technology can offer much more than cramming more and more bits to silicon and multiplying the clock-speed of microprocessors. It can support entirely new kind of computation with qualitatively new algorithms based on quantum principles!
Money Pad, The Future Wallet
Money Pad, The Future Wallet

Introduction
"Money in the 21st century will surely prove to be as different from the money of the current century as our money is from that of the previous century. Just as fiat money replaced specie-backed paper currencies, electronically initiated debits and credits will become the dominant payment modes, creating the potential for private money to compete with government-issued currencies." Just as every thing is getting under the shadow of "e" today we have paper currency being replaced by electronic money or e-cash.

Hardly a day goes by without some mention in the financial press of new developments in "electronic money". In the emerging field of electronic commerce, novel buzzwords like smartcards, online banking, digital cash, and electronic checks are being used to discuss money. But how are these brand-new forms of payment secure? And most importantly, which of these emerging secure electronic money technologies will survive into the next century?

These are some of the tough questions to answer but here's a solution, which provides a form of security to these modes of currency exchange using the "Biometrics Technology". The Money Pad introduced here uses the biometrics technology for Finger Print recognition. Money Pad is a form of credit card or smartcard, which we name so.

Every time the user wants to access the Money Pad he has to make an impression of his fingers which will be scanned and matched with the one in the hard disk of data base server. If the finger print matches with the user's he will be allowed to access and use the Pad other wise the Money Pad is not accessible. Thus providing a form of security to the ever-lasting transaction currency of the future "e-cash".

Money Pad - A form of credit card or smart card similar to floppy disk, which is introduced to provide, secure e-cash transactions.
Buffer overflow attack:A potential problem and its Implications
Buffer overflow attack:A potential problem and its Implications

Introduction
TCP/IP

Have you ever thought of a buffer overflow attack ? It occurs through careless programming and due to patchy nature of the programs. Many C programs have buffer overflow vulnerabilities because the C language lacks array bounds checking, and the culture of C programmers encourages a performance-oriented style that avoids error checking where possible. Eg: gets and strcpy ( no bounds checking ). This paper presents a systematic solution to the persistent problem of buffer overflow attacks. Buffer overflow attack gained notoriety in 1988 as part of the Morris Worm incident on the Internet. These problems are probably the result of careless programming, and could be corrected by elementary testing or code reviews along the way.

THE ATTACK :- A (malicious) user finds the vulnerability in a highly privileged program and someone else implements a patch to that particular attack, on that privileged program. Fixes to buffer overflow attacks attempt to solve the problem at the source (the vulnerable program) instead of at the destination (the stack that is being overflowed).

StackGuard :- It is a simple compiler extension that limits the amount of damage that a buffer overflow attack can inflict on a program. The paper discusses the various intricacies to the problem and the implementation details of the Compiler extension 'Stack Guard '.

Stack Smashing Attack :- Buffer overflow attacks exploit a lack of bounds checking on the size of input being stored in a buffer array. The most common data structure to corrupt in this fashion is the stack, called a ``stack smashing attack'' .

StackGuard For Network Access :- The paper also discusses the impacts on network access to the 'Buffer Overflow Attack'.

StackGuard prevents changes to active return addresses by either :-

1. Detecting the change of the return address before the function returns, or
2. Completely preventing the write to the return address. MemGuard is a tool developed to help debug optimistic specializations by locating code statements that change quasi-invariant values.

STACKGUARD OVERHEAD

" Canary StackGuard Overhead
" MemGuard StackGuard Overhead
" StackGuard Macrobenchmarks

The paper presents the issues and their implications on the 'IT APPLICATIONS' and discusses the solutions through implementation details of 'Stack Guard'.
Robotic Surgery

Robotic Surgery

Introduction
The field of surgery is entering a time of great change, spurred on by remarkable recent advances in surgical and computer technology. Computer-controlled diagnostic instruments have been used in the operating room for years to help provide vital information through ultrasound, computer-aided tomography (CAT), and other imaging technologies. Only recently have robotic systems made their way into the operating room as dexterity-enhancing surgical assistants and surgical planners, in answer to surgeons' demands for ways to overcome the surgical limitations of minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery.

The Robotic surgical system enables surgeons to remove gallbladders and perform other general surgical procedures while seated at a computer console and 3-D video imaging system acrossthe room from the patient. The surgeons operate controls with their hands and fingers to direct a robotically controlled laparoscope. At the end of the laparoscope are advanced, articulating surgical instruments and miniature cameras that allow surgeons to peer into the body and perform the procedures.

Now Imagine : An army ranger is riddled with shrapnel deep behind enemy lines. Diagnostics from wearable sensors signal a physician at a nearby mobile army surgical hospital that his services are needed urgently. The ranger is loaded into an armored vehicle outfitted with a robotic surgery system. Within minutes, he is undergoing surgery performed by the physician, who is seated at a control console 100 kilometers out of harm's way. The patient is saved. This is the power that the amalgamation of technology and surgical sciences are offering Doctors.

Just as computers revolutionized the latter half of the 20th century, the field of robotics has the potential to equally alter how we live in the 21st century. We've already seen how robots have changed the manufacturing of cars and other consumer goods by streamlining and speeding up the assembly line.

We even have robotic lawn mowers and robotic pets now. And robots have enabled us to see places that humans are not yet able to visit, such as other planets and the depths of the ocean. In the coming decades, we will see robots that have artificial intelligence,coming to resemble the humans that create them. They will eventually become self-aware and conscious, and be able to do anything that a human can. When we talk about robots doing the tasks of humans, we often talk about the future, but the future of Robotic surgery is already here.
Swarm intelligence & traffic Safety
Swarm intelligence & traffic Safety

Introduction
An automotive controller that complements the driving experience must work to avoid collisions, enforce a smooth trajectory, and deliver the vehicle to the intended destination as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, satisfying these requirements with traditional methods proves intractable at best and forces us to consider biologically -inspired techniques like Swarm Intelligence.

A controller is currently being designed in a robot simulation program with the goal of implementing the system in real hardware to investigate these biologically-inspired techniques and to validate the results. In this paper I present an idea that can be implemented in traffic safety by the application of Robotics & Computer Vision through Swarm Intelligence.

We stand today at the culmination of the industrial revolution. For the last four centuries, rapid advances in science have fueled industrial society. In the twentieth century, industrialization found perhaps its greatest expression in Henry Ford's assembly line. Mass production affects almost every facet of modern life. Our food is mass produced in meat plants, commercial bakeries, and canaries.

Our clothing is shipped by the ton from factories in China and Taiwan. Certainly all the amenities of our lives - our stereos, TVs, and microwave ovens - roll off assembly lines by the truck load. Today, we're presented with another solution, that hopefully will fare better than its predecessors. It goes by the name of post-industrialism, and is commonly associated with our computer technology with Robots and Artificial Intelligence.

Robots are today where computers were 25 years ago. They're huge, hulking machines that sit on factory floors, consume massive resources and can only be afforded by large corporations and governments. Then came the PC revolution of the 1980s, when computers came out of the basements and landed on the desktops. So we're on the verge of a "PR" revolution today - a Personal Robotics revolution, which will bring the robots off the factory floor and put them in our homes, on our desktops and inside our vehicles.
Smart card

Cellular through remote control switch

Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA)

HVAC

Electronics Meet Animal Brains

Satellite Radio

Satellite Radio

Introduction
We all have our favorite radio stations that we preset into our car radios, flipping between them as we drive to and from work, on errands and around town. But when travel too far away from the source station, the signal breaks up and fades into static. Most radio signals can only travel about 30 or 40 miles from their source. On long trips that find you passing through different cities, you might have to change radio stations every hour or so as the signals fade in and out.

Now, imagine a radio station that can broadcast its signal from more than 22,000 miles (35,000 kill) away and then come through on your car radio with complete clarity without ever having to change the radio station.

Satellite Radio or Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) is a subscriber based radio service that is broadcast directly from satellites. Subscribers will be able to receive up to100 radio channels featuring Compact Disk digital quality music, news, weather, sports. talk radio and other entertainment channels.

Satellite radio is an idea nearly 10 years in the making. In 1992, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a spectrum in the "S" band (2.3 GHz) for nationwide broadcasting of satellite-based Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS).. In 1997. the FCC awarded 8-year radio broadcast licenses to two companies, Sirius Satellite Radio former (CD Radio) and XM Satellite Radio (former American Mobile Radio). Both companies have been working aggressively to be prepared to offer their radio services to the public by the end of 2000. It is expected that automotive radios would be the largest application of Satellite Radio.

The satellite era began in September 2001 when XM launched in selected markets. followed by full nationwide service in November. Sirius lagged slightly, with a gradual rollout beginning _n February, including a quiet launch in the Bay Area on June 15. The nationwide launch comes July 1.
Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence

Introduction
THE PRINCIPLE OF SEARCH

DRAKE EQUATION

N = R * x f p x n e x f l x f i x f c x L
The terms in the equation can be explained as follows

o N - Number of communicative civilizations
o R* - Average rate of formation of stars over the lifetime of the galaxy (10 to 40 per year)
o fp - Fraction of those stars with planets (0 < fp <1, estimated at 0.5 or 50 percent)
o ne - Average number of earth-type planets per planetary system (0 < ne <1, estimated at 0.5 or 50 percent)
o fl - Fraction of those planets where life develops (0 < fl <1, estimated at 1 or 100 percent)
o fi - Fraction of life that develops intelligence (0 < fi <1, estimated at 0.1 or 10 percent)
o fc - Fraction of planets where intelligent life develops technology such as radio (0 < fc <1, estimated at 0.1or 10 percent)
o L - Lifetime of the communicative civilization in years (estimates are highly variable, from 100s to 1000s of years, approximately 500 years for example purposes)

BASIC PROBLEMS IN SEARCH

" How to search such a large area of sky
" Where to look on the radio dial for ET
" How to make the best use of the limited radio-telescope resources available for SETI Large vs. Small Areas of Sky

Wide-field search - In this method large chunks of the sky are searched at a low resolution within a short period of time.

Targeted search - In this method, intensive investigations of a limited number of sun-like stars are made for ET signals.

What's the Frequency?

In the 1- to 10-gigahertz (GHz) range of frequencies, there are two frequencies: 1.42 GHz, caused by hydrogen atoms, and 1.65 GHz, caused by hydroxyl ions. This area is called as the water hole. Limited Radio-telescope Resources
" Conduct limited observing runs on existing radio telescopes
" Conduct SETI analyses of radio data acquired by other radio astronomers (piggyback or parasite searches)
" Build new radio telescopes that are entirely dedicated to SETI research
Line-Reflect-Reflect Technique
Line-Reflect-Reflect Technique

Introduction
LRR- LINE REFLECT REFLECT is a new self-calibration procedure for the calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA). VNA measure the complex transmission and reflection characteristics of microwave devices. The analyzers have to be calibrated in order to eliminate systematic errors from the measurement results.

The LRR calibration circuits consist of partly unknown standards, where L symbolizes a line element and R represents a symmetrical reflection standard. The calibration circuits are all of equal mechanical length. The obstacle, a symmetrical-reciprocal network is placed at three consecutive positions. The network consists of reflections, which might show a transmission. The calibration structures can be realized very easily as etched structures in microstrip technology. During the calibration [G], [H], which represents the systematic errors of the VNA is eliminated in order to determine the unknown line and obstacle parameters.

MICROWAVE DEVICES

Microwave devices are devices operating with a signal frequency range of 1-300GHz. A microwave circuit ordinarily consists of several microwave devices connected in some way to achieve the desired transmission of a microwave signal. The various microwave solid state devices are,
* Tunnel diodes
These are also known as Esaki diodes. It is a specially made PN junction device which exhibits negative resistance over part of the forward bias characteristic. Both the P and the N regions are heavily doped. The tunneling effect is a majority carrier effect and is very fast. It is useful for oscillation and amplification purposes. Because of the thin junction and shot transit time, it is useful for microwave applications in fast switching circuits.
* Transferred electron devices
These are all two terminal negative resistance solid state devices which has no PN junction. Gunn diode is one of the transferred electron devices and which works with the principle that there will be periodic fluctuations in the current passing through an n-type GaAs substrate when the applied voltage increases a critical value i.e. 2-4Kv/cm.
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jinujames20
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16-10-2010, 01:23 PM

gas insulated substation
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