Embedded Systems and Information Appliances
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
computer science crazy
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 3,048
Joined: Dec 2008
#1
21-09-2008, 10:58 AM


Definition
Embedded system is a combination of computer hardware, software and, perhaps, additional mechanical parts, designed to perform a specific function.

Embedded systems are usually programmed in high level language that is compiled (and/or assembled) into an executable ("machine") code. These are loaded into Read Only Memory (ROM) and called "firmware", "microcode" or a "microkernel". The microprocessor is 8-bit or 16-bit.The bit size refers to the amount of memory accessed by the processor. There is usually no operating system and perhaps 0.5k of RAM. The functions implemented normally have no priorities. As the need for features increases and/or as the need to establish priorities arises, it becomes more important to have some sort of decision making mechanism be part of the embedded system. The most advanced systems actually have a tiny, streamlined OS running the show, executing on a 32-bit or 64-bit processor. This is called RTOS.



Embedded Hardware
All embedded system has a microprocessor or microcontroller for processing of information and execution of programs, memory in the form of ROM/RAM for storing embedded software programs and data, and I/O interfaces for external interface. Any additional requirement in an embedded system is dependent on the equipment it is controlling. Very often these systems have a standard serial port, a network interface, I/O interface, or hardware to interact with sensors and activators on the equipment.



Embedded Software
C has become the language of choice for embedded programmers, because it has the benefit of processor independence, which allows the programmer to concentrate on algorithms and applications, rather than on the details of processor architecture. However, many of its advantages apply equally to other high-level languages as well. Perhaps the greatest strength of C is that it gives embedded programmers an extraordinary degree of direct hardware control without sacrificing the benefits of high-level languages. Compilers and cross compilers are also available for almost every processor with C.

Any source code written in C or C++ or Assembly language must be converted into an executable image that can be loaded onto a ROM chip. The process of converting the source code representation of your embedded software into an executable image involves three distinct steps, and the system or computer on which these processes are executed is called a host computer.First, each of the source files that make an embedded application must be compiled or assembled into distinct object files.Second, all of the object files that result from the first step must be linked into a final object file called the relocatable program.
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
SUMANSHU
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1
Joined: Oct 2009
#2
03-10-2009, 10:55 PM

ya.i wanna more detail on topic embedded system and application appliances
Reply
Electrical Fan
Active In SP
**

Posts: 438
Joined: Aug 2009
#3
04-10-2009, 03:23 PM

man read this en.wikipediawiki/Embedded_system for understanding basic
then read this



Introduction

Embedded system is a combination of computer hardware, software and,
perhaps, additional mechanical parts, designed to perform a specific function.

Embedded systems are usually programmed in high level language that is
compiled (and/or assembled) into an executable (machine) code. These are
loaded into Read Only Memory (ROM) and called firmware, microcode or a
microkernel . The microprocessor is 8-bit or 16-bit.The bit size refers to the
amount of memory accessed by the processor. There is usually no operating
system and perhaps 0.5k of RAM. The functions implemented normally have no
priorities. As the need for features increases and/or as the need to establish
priorities arises, it becomes more important to have some sort of decision making
mechanism be part of the embedded system. The most advanced systems actually
have a tiny, streamlined OS running the show, executing on a 32-bit or 64-bit
processor. This is called RTOS.


Embedded Systems and Information Appliances

All embedded system has a microprocessor or micro controller for
processing of information and execution of programs, memory in the form of
ROM/RAM for storing embedded software programs and data, and I/O interfaces
for external interface. Any additional requirement in an embedded system is
dependent on the equipment it is controlling. Very often these systems have a
standard serial port, a network interface, I/O interface, or hardware to interact with
sensors and activators on the equipment.

Embedded Software

C has become the language of choice for embedded programmers, because
it has the benefit of processor independence, which allows the programmer to
concentrate on algorithms and applications, rather than on the details of processor
architecture. However, many of its advantages apply equally to other high-level
languages as well. Perhaps the greatest strength of C is that it gives embedded
programmers an extraordinary degree of direct hardware control without
sacrificing the benefits of high-level languages. Compilers and cross compilers are
also available for almost every processor with C.

Any source code written in C or C++ or Assembly language must be
converted into an executable image that can be loaded onto a ROM chip. The
process of converting the source code representation of your embedded software
into an executable image involves three distinct steps, and the system or computer
on which these processes are executed is called a host computer.

First, each of the source files that make an embedded application must be
compiled or assembled into distinct object files.

Second, all of the object files that result from the first step must be linked
into a final object file called the relocatable program.


Embedded Systems and Information Appliances

Finally, the physical memory address must be assigned to the relocatable
program.

The result of the third step is a file that contains an executable image that is
ported on the ROM chip. This ROM chip, along with the processor and other
devices and interfaces, makes an embedded system run.

There are some very basic differences between conventional programming
and embedded programming. First, each target platform is unique. Second, there is
a difference in the development and debugging of applications.


Embedded Systems and Information Appliances

Embedded Development Environment

The embedded system may not have a keyboard, a screen, a disk drive and
other peripheral devices required for programming and development tasks.
Therefore most of the programming for embedded systems is done on a host,
which is a computer system with all the programming tools. Only after the
program has been written, compiled, assembled and linked is it to move to the
target or the system that is shipped to the customers.

After writing source file compiling, linking, relocating and porting the
executable image into the ROM, you need to test and debug the application. Once
you have an executable image stored as a file on the host computer, you need a
way to download that image into a memory device on the target board or
development board and execute it from there. And if you have the right tools at
your disposal, it will be possible to set breakpoints in the program or set break
points in the program or observe its execution. These various tools could be a
remote debugger, simulator, emulator or an in-circuit emulator.

A remote debugger can be used to download, execute, and debug
embedded software over the serial port or network connection between the host
and the target. In case of embedded systems, the debugger executes on two
different computer systems “ a remote debugger consists of two pieces of
software. The front-end runs on the host computer and provides the human
interface, and the hidden back-end runs on the target processor and communicates
with the front-end over a communication link. The back-end provides low-level
control of the target processor and is usually called debug monitor.

The debug monitor resides in the ROM and is automatically started
whenever the target processor is reset. It monitors the communication link to the
host computer and responds to the request from the remote debugger running
there. Remote debuggers are the most commonly used tools for downloading and


Embedded Systems and Information Appliances

testing tools during the development of embedded software “ mainly because of
there low cost.

Remote debuggers are helpful in monitoring and controlling the state of
embedded software, but only in in-circuit emulators (ICEs) allow you to examine
the state of the processor on which that program is running. In fact an ICE actually
takes the place of the processor on your target board, or in other words, emulates
the work of the processor and provides the human interface with what exactly is
happening on the board in real-time. This also allows the ICE to support powerful
debugging features such as hardware breakpoints and real-time tracing.

Many other debugging tools “ such as simulators, logic analysers and
oscilloscopes “ are also available in embedded systems. A simulator is a
completely host-based program that simulates the functionality and instruction set
of the target processor. Although simulators have many disadvantages, they are
quite valuable in the early stages of the project and implimentation when there isnâ„¢t as yet any actual
hardware for the programmers to experiment with. The biggest disadvantage of a
simulator is that it simulates only the processor. And embedded systems frequently
contain one or more other peripherals. Interaction with these devices can only
sometimes be imitated. You may not do much with the simulator once you have
the actual embedded hardware available to you.

Once the target hardware is available, you can use logic analyzers and
oscilloscopes as debugging tools. These are very useful for debugging the
interactions between the processor and other chips on the board. These tools only
view signals that lie outside the processor, and cannot control the flow of
execution of your software like debuggers or emulators can.

A logic analyzer is equipment that is designed to find whether the electrical
signal it is attached to is currently to logic level 1 or 0. An oscilloscope so another
piece of equipment for hardware debugging, and is used to examine any electrical
signal, analogue signal, or digital signal on the hardware.

Application Areas


Embedded Systems and Information Appliances

Embedded software is present in almost every electronic device you use
today. There is embedded software inside your watch, cellular phone, automobile,
thermostats, industrial control equipment, and scientific and medical equipment.
Defense services use it to guide missiles and detect enemy aircrafts. Thus
embedded systems cover such a broad range of products that generalization is
difficult. Here are some broad categories:

Aerospace and defense electronics (ADE): Astronomical research, flight safety
and flight management, fire control, robotics, vehicular control.
Broadcast and entertainment: analogue and digital sound products, audio control
systems, DVD players, digital TV, set-top boxes.
Data communication: Analogue modems, ATM broad band switches, cable
modems.
Digital imaging: Digital still camera, digital video cameras, fax machines,
printers, scanners.
Industrial measurement and control: Building environmental control systems,
industrial sensors, test & measurement devices, traffic management systems.
Medical electronics: Cardiovascular devices, critical care systems, diagnostic
devices, surgical devices.
Server I/O: Embedded servers, LAN devices, supercomputing, server
management.
Mobile data infrastructures: Mobile data terminals, satellites terminals, wireless
LANs, pagers, wireless phones.


Design Requirements


Embedded Systems and Information Appliances

Embedded systems typically have tight constraints on both functionality
and implementation. In particular, they have must guarantee real time operation
reactive to external events, conform to size and weight limits, budget power and
cooling consumption, satisfy safety and reliability requirements, and meet tight
cost targets.
Real time/reactive operation

Real time systems operation means that the correctness of a computation
depends, in part, on the time at which it is delivered. In many cases the system
design must take into account worst-case performance. Predicting the worst case
may be difficult on complicated architectures, leading to overly pessimistic
estimates erring on the side of caution. The Signal Processing and Mission Critical
example systems have a significant requirement for real time operation in order to
meet external I/O and control stability requirements.

Reactive computation means that the software executes in response to
external events. These events may be periodic, in which case scheduling of events
to guarantee performance may be possible. On the other hand, many events may
be aperiodic, in which case the maximum event arrival rate must be estimated in
order to accommodate worst-case situations. Most embedded systems have a
significant reactive component.
Small size, low weight

Many embedded computers are physically located within some larger
artifact. Therefore, their form factor may be dictated by aesthetics, form factors
existing in pre-electronic versions, or having to fit into interstices among
mechanical components. In transportation and portable systems, weight may be
critical for fuel economy or human endurance. Among the examples, the Mission
Critical system has much more stringent size and weight requirements than the
others because of its use in a flight vehicle, although all examples have restrictions
of this type.
Safe and reliable


Embedded Systems and Information Appliances

Some systems have obvious risks associated with failure. In mission-critical
applications such as aircraft flight control, severe personal injury or equipment
damage could result from a failure of the embedded computer. Traditionally, such
systems have employed multiply-redundant computers or distributed consensus
protocols in order to ensure continued operation after an equipment failure

However, many embedded systems that could cause personal or property
damage cannot tolerate the added cost of redundancy in hardware or processing
capacity needed for traditional fault tolerance techniques. This vulnerability is
often resolved at the system level as discussed later.
Harsh environment

Many embedded systems do not operate in a controlled environment.
Excessive heat is often a problem, especially in applications involving combustion
(e.g., many transportation applications). Additional problems can be caused for
embedded computing by a need for protection from vibration, shock, lightning,
power supply fluctuations, water, corrosion, fire, and general physical abuse. For
example, in the Mission Critical example application the computer must function
for a guaranteed, but brief, period of time even under non-survivable fire
conditions.
Cost sensitivity

Even though embedded computers have stringent requirements, cost is
almost always an issue (even increasingly for military systems). Although
designers of systems large and small may talk about the importance of cost with
equal urgency, their sensitivity to cost changes can vary dramatically. A reason for
this may be that the effect of computer costs on profitability is more a function of
the proportion of cost changes compared to the total system cost, rather than
compared to the digital electronics cost alone

Information Appliance



In the past, embedded systems allowed information appliances to carry out
simple and specific functions only. But with the penetration of the Internet into the
homes of many ordinary families, it was realized that electric appliances could
make human life easier and more convenient if they could access Internet
information. Electric appliances can now access the Internet, compute and do what
they were not able to do earlier. In other words, electric appliances are being
transformed into information appliances (IA) or what may also be called
Ëœembedded IAâ„¢.

Like the traditional embedded systems, the embedded information
appliance needs only the least amount of hardware to operate. It can operate even
without a hard disk, or with low power and small footprint.

IA product can be classified into four mainstream products:

· Set-Top Boxes (STB)
· Personal Access Device (PAD)
· Thin Client (TC)
· Residential Gateway (or Home Gateway)
Most IA products may be derived, with little or some modifications, from
these four types of products.

Set-Top Boxes

The set-top box is driving the digital revolution right into your living room.
Your fingertips now command a wealth of high quality digital information and
digital entertainment, right from your favorite armchair. The set-top box
revolutionizes home entertainment by providing vibrant television images with
crystal clear sound, along with e-mail, Web surfing, along with customized
information such as stock quotes, weather and traffic updates, on-line shopping,
and video-on-demand, right through a traditional television.



Personal Access Devices

Personal Access Devices (PADs) are web terminals that feature convenient
Web browsing, email, and information access capabilities in a lightweight, mobile
form.

Thin Client

A thin client is an information access drive that provides users with remote
access to applications and data that are maintained and executed on a central
server. The thin-client computing environment consists of an application server,
a network, and thin-client devices. By centralizing deployment and updates of
corporate applications, thin clients allow for simplified Information Systems (IS)
management with dramatically increased security.

Residential Gateway

The RG mainly provides various kinds of interfaces that link all the
electronic devices. The RG unlike the PC, is a very small, slim and light piece of
hardware and may soon be incorporated inside other popular electronic appliances.
It will play the role of an information hub responsible for the exchange of
information between all kinds of electronic devices in an ordinary home.

Conclusion



We are standing on the threshold of an exciting new age of information
technology that will change our lives and the future forever. Soon we shall see
more and more digitization of appliances, and these will be fueled by human
need. Embedded systems and Information Appliances have virtually entered every
sphere of our life and they will truly change the way we live.
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
project report helper
Active In SP
**

Posts: 2,270
Joined: Sep 2010
#4
02-11-2010, 03:16 PM


.ppt   introclass.ppt (Size: 426.5 KB / Downloads: 58)

Embedded Systems
Theory and Design


Anupam Basu


Course overview

Tentative contents:
Introduction to Embedded Computing
Embedded System Hardware
Embedded Computing Platform  
Programming Embedded Systems  
Embedded System Development  
Case Study and Assignments for Designing a Complete System

Evaluation criteria:
Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20% will be clubbed with end term marks and 20% will contribute as Teacher's Assessment)
Mid Term (written): 20%
End Term (written): 40%





topicideashow-to-embedded-system-in-automobiles-seminar and presentation-report
Reply
shalonmed
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1
Joined: Dec 2010
#5
15-12-2010, 12:49 PM

In future Embedded software would have wide availability of open source software and tools. So it will be amongst the most required tools.
Reply
seminar tips
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 8,857
Joined: Oct 2012
#6
07-12-2012, 11:32 AM

to get information about the topic "Embedded Systems and Information Appliances " full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-embedded-systems-and-information-appliances--1911

topicideashow-to-embedded-systems-and-information-appliances?pid=29404

topicideashow-to-embedded-systems-and-information-appliances?pid=5056
Reply

Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please

ASK HERE

So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page

Quick Reply
Message
Type your reply to this message here.


Image Verification
Please enter the text contained within the image into the text box below it. This process is used to prevent automated spam bots.
Image Verification
(case insensitive)

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread Author Replies Views Last Post
  Analysis of Distribution Systems with DSTATCOM pdf seminar projects maker 0 609 28-09-2013, 02:13 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  REPORT ON FLEXIBLE AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS seminar projects maker 0 574 21-09-2013, 03:55 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  FPGA Implementation of Intelligent Systems for Virus Image Recognitions PPT seminar projects maker 0 495 20-09-2013, 03:02 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  An Improved Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Energy Systems pdf seminar projects maker 0 626 13-09-2013, 04:12 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  Introduction to Electric Power and Energy Systems pdf seminar projects maker 0 611 11-09-2013, 04:57 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  Heat Pumps and Electric Resistance Heating Systems seminar projects maker 0 909 11-09-2013, 03:46 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  MODERN TRENDS IN POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS (6-PHASE) REPORT study tips 0 872 07-09-2013, 03:07 PM
Last Post: study tips
  OCTAVE APPLICATIONS TO SIGNALS &SYSTEMS PPT study tips 0 430 19-08-2013, 04:56 PM
Last Post: study tips
  UTILITY SYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLED SOURCES OF REACTIVE POWER ppt study tips 0 331 17-08-2013, 03:40 PM
Last Post: study tips
  EFFECT OF NOISE ON ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS study tips 0 296 14-08-2013, 04:22 PM
Last Post: study tips