FABRICATION OF THREMOCOL DENSIFIER
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05-10-2010, 03:21 PM
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FABRICATION OF THREMOCOL DENSIFIER
FOR SAFE DISPOSAL OF WASTE
THERMOCOL BY HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS
ARAVINDA K (4JC06ME006)
GANESH KUMAR HEBBAR S (4JC06ME011)
GURUDATH B (4JC06ME015)
KIRAN KUMAR M (4JC06ME021)
Under the guidance of
Dept of Mechanical Engg
To develop a comprehensive solution by fabricating a machine for the purpose of safe disposal of Waste Thermocol (Styrofoam) by reducing its volume about 95% of its initial by Heat Treatment Process thereby scaling down the valuable space in landfills and also minimizing its Impact on Environment.
• Polystyrene is normally a solid thermoplastic, but can be melted at higher temperature for molding or extrusion, then resolidified. Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) is a lightweight, rigid cellular plastic that is made from the polymerisation of styrene monomer.
• Special properties of EPS
Outstanding shock absorbing capacity and Compression resistance.
Waterproof, No loss of strength in damp conditions, non-toxic, reliable and odourless.
EPS is made up of 98% air, its use for packaging does not significantly add to the weight of the total product.
Good thermal insulation thus helps to keep food fresh package fresh fish, pharmaceutical industry and for seed trays
Moulded into any shape or form to meet a product’s protection
• Problems in Disposal of EPS
• Polystyrene is not easily recycled because of its light weight (especially if foamed) and its low scrap value.
• Manufacturers do not to take responsibility for recycling or disposing of any packaging material they sell.
• Discarded polystyrene does not biodegrade and is resistant to photolysis(photodecomposition).
• EPS degradation creates potentially harmful liquid and gaseous by-products that could contaminate groundwater and air.
• So think on safe disposal and recycling methods of Thermocol. . . .!
• Here is a MACHINE for volume reduction of EPS for RECYCLING and SAFE disposal
• THERMOCOL DENSIFIER
Basically Thermocol Densifier aims at reducing the volume by 95-98% of its initial by Heat Treatment Process. In this process heat from the coil is transferred to the thermocol layer by layer and gets compressed into a thick sheet due to self weight of the ram. EPS contains 98% of air and 2% of polystyrene, which make them large in terms of their volume but weighs less. When EPS is subjected to vicat softening temperature, air present inside thermocol will be removed and thus the volume gets drastically reduced.
• Heat Treatment
• Polystyrene when heat treated is melted to Vicat Softening Point to form a dense block of material that is reduced in volume by over 95% of the original material.
• The final product obtained is called ingot which is highly compressed ,hardened material that has several applications.
• Vicat softening point (90oc for EPS)
Vicat softening point or vicat hardness is the determination of the softening point for materials that have no definite melting point, such as polycarbonate. It is taken as the temperature at which the specimen is penetrated to a depth of 1 mm by a flat-ended needle with a 1 square mm circular or square cross-section.
Why Recycling is Necessary…?
• Polystyrene has to be recycled since landfill is a serious issue
• The recycled products have several applications
• To maintain Environmental Sustainability
• Benefits after Heat Treatment and Recycling
• EMISSION OF HARMFUL GASES
• Styrene vapours
• Carbon monoxide
• Other aromatic gases
• Health Hazards
• Short Term Effects
• Long Term Effects
Short-term Health Effects
• Concentrations of styrene vapour as low as 50 ppm can cause irritation to the nose, eyes and throat, headaches, dizziness, drowsiness
• concentrations above 100 parts per million, difficulty in concentrating and slows reaction time
• Case Studies
• A Russian study of 110 women exposed to styrene vapors at levels about 5 mg/m3 demonstrated menstrual disorders
• A 45-year old man exposed to styrene monomer vapors for a period of five years developed a burning sensation in the lower portion of his feet causing Demyelination -destruction, removal or loss of the myelin sheath of nerves.
• Alternative method for reducing volume of EPS
• d-limonene which is one of citrus plant essential oils, The recycling of the EPS is done by dissolving polystyrene in d-limonene solvent and precipitating the polystyrene by adding water to the solution.
• Petroleum products can be used to dissolve thermocol.
• Disadvantages found in Alternative Methods
• Petroleum products are costly and non-renewable.
• d-limonene has strong citrus odour and a low flash point of 47oc hence restricted operating environment.
• Difficulty in extracting d-limonene which requires laboratory conditions.
From various trails conducted it was found that there was an effective volume reduction of 95% without any emissions of harmful gases.
• Tests result Conducted by EUMEPS
* smouldering/glowing** as a flame-- not detected
Remarks: Test conditions specified in DIN 53 436; air flow rate 100 1/h;
300mm x 15mm 20mm test specimens compared at normal end-use conditions
• Health, Safety and Environment [HSE]
The Thermal Densifier Machine emissions are primarily steam and styrene odour. The Health Safety and Environment [HSE] threshold for continual styrene exposure is 200 ppm/m3, the machine emissions are typically less than 2 ppm/m3. One can smell styrene at very low concentrations (0.02 to 1.9 parts per million).
Active In SP
Joined: Aug 2011
17-08-2011, 09:16 AM
A great and important idea.
Has someone taken up the manufacturing project and implimentation with with practical refinements in concept device?
Please give details.
Joined: Jul 2011
17-08-2011, 09:34 AM
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Active In SP
Joined: Aug 2012
13-10-2012, 02:00 PM
i am student of BE(mech), i am doing a project and implimentation on a termocol densifier so please send me a complete report on it
my email id is(email@example.com) please reply before 15/10/2012