FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION
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21-09-2008, 11:57 PM


Fiber Optics is a significant technology used
Fiber Optics is a significant technology used in many different areas of communications. With the explosion of the internet, fiber optics can readily provide the capacity of data that is transmitted with its gigabit speeds. As more breakthroughs in technology occur, it will spread to every aspect of the industry. Telephones, Fax Machines, Radios, Television Broadcasting, and even satellites use this highly reliable light wave technology. The telecommunications industry receives the most benefits from fiber optics. It allows for the transmission of audio, video, and data information in high quality.

Fiber optics uses light pulses directed down a tiny glass fiber in order to relay information. Two different types of fibers are in use today, single mode, and multimode. Each of these types of fibers are made of three different parts, the core, the cladding, and the buffer. While singlemode and multimode fibers are composed of the same components, they do still differ.

Singlemode fibers are significantly smaller than multimode fibers. The core of the fiber is the most crucial part of any fiber. In the core is where the light signals themselves travel through. Because of how easily light r

Fiber optics use light rather than electricity to transmit data. In a fiber optic system, electricity is converted into light by a LED (Light-Emitting Diode) or laser and sent down a run of fiber optic cabling. While in the cable, the light bounces off an inner metallic shield called cladding. This cladding keeps the light contained along the fiber optic strand. On the other end of the fiber optic run, a receiver converts the light signal back into electricity.
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17-08-2010, 05:02 PM

Fiber-optic communication
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. here, electromagnetic carrier wave is the light which is modulated to carry the information.

Applications
telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals are carried mainly using optical fibres. These have primarily been installed in long-distance applications, where they can be used to their full transmission capacity so that the additional cost can be compensated.

Technology

Transmitters
light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes are the main transmitters used. coherent light is produced by laser diodes. Communications LEDs are most commonly made from gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) or gallium arsenide (GaAs). The narrow spectral width of the LEDs allows for high bit rates. a laser source may be operated continuous wave for extremely high data rates

Receivers

a photodetector, which converts light into electricity using the photoelectric effect forms the main component of the reciever. a transimpedance amplifier and a limiting amplifier are also coupled with the optical electrical converters for producing a digital signal in the electrical domain corresponding to the recieved optical signal.

Fiber
An optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a buffer (a protective outer coating). total internal reflection is utilised for guiding the light along the fiber. The core and the cladding are made from high-quality silica glass and which has lower refractive index

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12-10-2010, 01:22 PM


.ppt   MMOptical fiberREADY.ppt (Size: 1.26 MB / Downloads: 250)
Multimode Optical Fiber Communication
By,
Santosh K Prasad


FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION
Fiber Optics is a significant technology used
Fiber Optics is a significant technology used in many different areas of communications. With the explosion of the internet, fiber optics can readily provide the capacity of data that is transmitted with its gigabit speeds. As more breakthroughs in technology occur, it will spread to every aspect of the industry. Telephones, Fax Machines, Radios, Television Broadcasting, and even satellites use this highly reliable light wave technology. The telecommunications industry receives the most benefits from fiber optics. It allows for the transmission of audio, video, and data information in high quality.

Fiber optics uses light pulses directed down a tiny glass fiber in order to relay information. Two different types of fibers are in use today, single mode, and multimode. Each of these types of fibers are made of three different parts, the core, the cladding, and the buffer. While singlemode and multimode fibers are composed of the same components, they do still differ.

Singlemode fibers are significantly smaller than multimode fibers. The core of the fiber is the most crucial part of any fiber. In the core is where the light signals themselves travel through. Because of how easily light r

Fiber optics use light rather than electricity to transmit data. In a fiber optic system, electricity is converted into light by a LED (Light-Emitting Diode) or laser and sent down a run of fiber optic cabling. While in the cable, the light bounces off an inner metallic shield called cladding. This cladding keeps the light contained along the fiber optic strand. On the other end of the fiber optic run, a receiver converts the light signal back into electricity.


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12-10-2010, 09:52 PM

Please mail me all relevant informations regarding
#Fibre optic communication
#Advent of NANO technology in medicine & the NANO Robot[/size][/font]
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16-10-2010, 07:03 PM


.pdf   fiber.pdf (Size: 99.78 KB / Downloads: 194)
FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION


Surasak Sanguanpong
nguan@ku.ac.th



brief explanation

There are basically two modes of a transmission in a fiber. A multimode fiber
has a number of paths in which light ray may travel. A single mode has a
light ray in one direction only.


Fibers are further classified by the refractive index profile of their core. They
can be either step index or graded index. Three main types of fibers are
multimode step-index fiber , multimode grades index fiber and single mode
fiber.


The refraction index of multimode step-index fiber is uniformly throughout
the core. The refraction index of multimode graded-index fiber is gradually
less dense), light travels radically outward it begins to bend back toward the
center, eventually reflecting back. Because the material also less dense, the
light travels faster. Reducing the core diameter to that of a single wavelength
(3-10 will let the light propagates along a one mode only.
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#6
22-10-2010, 02:05 PM

[/b]
.pptx   fiber optics.pptx (Size: 518.66 KB / Downloads: 133)
FIBER OPTICS

CONTENTS

History.
Optical fibers.
Fiber Composition.
Types of optical fibers.
Principle of operation.
Refractive Index.
Total Internal Reflection.
Refraction of Light.
Physics of light.
Advantages.
Area of Application.
Reference.
Conclusion.


WHAT IS OPTICAL FIBERS ?

An optical fiber is a thin, flexible,
transparent fiber that acts as
a waveguide or ‘light pipe’, to transmit
light between two ends of
the fiber.

[b]




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#7
31-12-2010, 03:34 PM

Intoduction:

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one
place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an
electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. First developed in
the 1970s, fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunications
industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age. Because of
its advantages over electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced copper
wire communications in core networks in the developed world.

The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following basic steps:
Creating the optical signal involving the use of a transmitter, relaying the signal along the
fiber, ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak, receiving the optical
signal, and converting it into an electrical signal.

Today,optical fibers are not only used in telecommunication links but also used in the
Internet and local area networks (LAN) to achieve high signaling rates.





Submitted by : SHUAIB AHMED
Course :B.TECH,ECE
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01-01-2011, 02:54 PM

SUBMITTED BY: N.PARVEENABEGUM

S.GAYATHRI

I YEAR CSE

ARUNAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

THIRUVANNAMALAI



.ppt   RECENT TRENDS IN FIBER OPTICS.ppt (Size: 78 KB / Downloads: 102)

INTRODUCTION
Fiber Optic technology is simply the use of light to transmit the data
The general use of fiber optics did not begin until the 1970s
Robert Maurer developed a fiber with a loss of 20 dB / km
Since that time the use of fiber optics has increased drastically



What is Fiber optics ?
Transmitting communication signals over hair thin strands of glass or optics


Fiber Optics Overview
Telephone companies initially used fiber to transport high volumes of voice traffic.
During the 1980s telephone companies began to deploy fiber throughout their networks.


Applications
IN SENSOR SYSTEMS
In sensing a physical parameter, a fiber itself acts as a modulator in response to influences
with the help of fiber we can measure temperature , stress , strain displacement etc..,


CHEMICAL MEASUREMENT
Measurement of chemicals and or component species of chemicals is usually done in laboratories using mass spectrometer , gas chromatographs , IR and NMR spectrometers etc..

In the case of hydrocarbons , fiber optic wire is being used to monitor buried tanks ,lines and structures for leakage in to the surrounding soil.
The sensor comprises of a fiber optic cable and Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR).

The OTDR measures the distribution of optical power loss with distance along the entire length of the cable up to a maximum of 2.5 km.
Hydrocarbons in contact with the cable induce a local power loss





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18-02-2011, 03:58 PM


.docx   fiber optic communication report.docx (Size: 870.93 KB / Downloads: 122)
ABSTRACT
FIBRE-OPTICS COMMUNICATION

Most reference materials that discuss the historical perspective mention about Indian smoke signals. None of these primitive systems was secure due to the spreading of the unguided light. Ideally, a communication system should be secure and should not require installation of a cumbersome physical media. Fiber optics satisfied these desires, and as early as 1958, fiber-optic equipment was being focused for use in the factory. The fiber-optic cable is an important element in the fiber-optic link. Today, in comparison to the early 1970s, the performance of fiber-optic cable in terms of bandwidth and attenuation is far superior to any electrical cable of similar cost. Some consider it a problem of fiber optics that the electronics of the fiber-optic transceivers are unreliable. This is a false, in that the electronics have the same life as any of the other electronic components used in a network. The need for sharing components or modules is the same for fiber optics as for any other critical factory-level electronics. Optical fiber is used as glass or plastic, to contain and guide light wave.
The fiber cable does not transmit electrical current, so it cannot cause ground loops. Therefore ground differentials caused by lightning-induced transients do not affect the communication cable. This characteristic is quite an advantage because lightning strikes are a common phenomenon. A typical fiber-optic cable can allow up to 200 million bits per second (MBS), while a high-quality coaxial cable is required to achieve the same data rate, but can cover only shorter distances. The reduction in the number of repeaters is a prime reason for the telephone companies increasing use of fiber optics. Many control applications require the operator to perform normal duties in the vicinity of high voltages. The use of fiber allows isolation of the high voltage from the operators. An advantage of fiber-optics is that the light signal used for data communication cannot develop a spark above the ignition point, which could cause ignition in hazardous environments.
The fiber-optic cable is susceptible to noise and it does not generate electromagnetic interference. It is very simple to install because of light and small size and is suitable for rugged environments i.e. it can survive high temperatures and other extreme environments.
COMPONENT LIST AT THE TRANSMITTER SIDE
RESISTORS:-
R1-3KΩ
R2-4KΩ
R3, R4-10KΩ
R5-1KΩ
PRI-1MΩ
CAPACITOR:-
C1-1000 µF/16V Electrolytic capacitor
C2-0.047 µF-473-ceramic disc type
SEMICONDUCTOR:-
Q1-BEL 187 NPN Transistor
Q2-BEL 188 PNP Transistor
Zener diode
U1-741-Opamp IC
IC socket-8 pin
MISCELLANEOUS:-
Condenser microphone
White LED
9v Battery snap
Red LED
AT THE RECEIVER SIDE
RESISTORS:-
R1, R2-47KΩ
R3, R4-10KΩ
R5-10Ω
R6-1KΩ
PR1-1MΩ
PR2-10KΩ
CAPACITOR:-
C1-1000 µF/16V Electrolytic capacitor
C10-0.047 µF Disc type Capacitor
C11, C6-10 µF/16V Tantalum capacitor
C7, C8, C9, C2-0.1 µF-100KPF-104-Disc Ceramic
C3, C4, C5-100 µF/16V-Electrolytic Capacitor
SEMICONDUCTOR:-
IC1-LM741-Opamp IC Socket 8 Pin-2pcs
IC2-LM386-power amp IC
Q1-Photo transistor
MISCELLANEOUS:-
L1-LED 9V Battery
Loud Speaker 8Ω
Transformer 9V
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16-07-2011, 04:21 PM


.ppt   Seminar on Optical Fibres.ppt (Size: 4.44 MB / Downloads: 109)
Recent Trends in Fibre Optics Communication
Introduction

Communication refers to information transmission and reception. The information being transmitted could be of various forms, either analog (voice, video, text) or digital form. In 1838 the telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse. This ushered in a new era in communications i.e. electrical communications.
Later systems also sent optical signals through the air, but clouds, rain, and other atmospheric disturbances can disrupt optical signals sent through the air.
Electric signals through wires avoid that problem. The wires used in electrical communication systems are usually made of copper.
The first coaxial cable system was introduced 1940 and it had the capability to transmit 300 voice channels.
The first microwave system was put into service in 1948 with a carrier frequency of 4GHz. Coaxial and microwave systems were operating at 100Mbit/s.
Introduction (contd.)
Optical fibre communication is the method of transmitting information by sending light through a optical fibre made of glass or plastic.
The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.
A single fibre optic cable is as thin as a single human hair. Many cables can be bundled together to form one cable and thus increase the amount of data that can be transmitted drastically.
History
Light in a stream of water stays inside the water and bends with it. Daniel Colladon first described this "light fountain" or "light pipe" in an 1842 article.
Optical fibre was first successfully developed in 1970 by Corning Glass Works, with attenuation low enough for communication purposes (about 20dB/km), and at the same time GaAs semiconductor lasers were developed that were compact and therefore suitable for transmitting light through fibre optic cables for long distances.
On 22 April 1977, General Telephone and Electronics sent the first live telephone traffic through fibre optics at a 6 Mbit/s throughput in Long Beach, California.
History (contd.)
The second generation of fibre-optic communication was developed for commercial use in the early 1980s, operated at 1.3 µm, and used InGaAsP semiconductor lasers. These early systems were initially limited by multi mode fibre dispersion, and in 1981 the single-mode fibre was revealed to greatly improve system performance. These systems operated at bit rates of up to 1.7 Gb/s with repeater spacing upto 50km.
The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fibre went into operation in 1988
Third-generation fibre-optic systems operated at 1.55 µm and had losses of about 0.2 dB/km. These systems operated at 2.5 Gbit/s with repeater spacing in excess of 100 km.
The fourth generation of fibre-optic communication systems used optical amplification to reduce the need for repeaters and wavelength-division multiplexing to increase data capacity. These two improvements caused a revolution that resulted in the doubling of system capacity every 6 months starting in 1992 until a bit rate of 10 Tb/s was reached by 2001. Recently, bit-rates of up to 14 Tbit/s have been reached over a single 160 km line using optical amplifiers.
History (contd.)
What is an optical fibre, its various parts
An optical fibre is a flexible optically transparent fibre, usually made of glass or plastic, through which light can be transmitted.
The light in an optical fibre carries data in the same way that electrical signals do in copper cables.
Light is kept in the "core" of the optical fiber by total internal reflection.
Transmission properties are dictated by the structural characteristics of the fiber.
The propagation of light along a waveguide can be described in terms of a set guided electromagnetic waves called modes of the waveguide.
Parts of an optical fibre
Core: It the central region through which the light signal travels.
Cladding: It has a lower refractive index than the core. It is the outer material that surrounds the core.
Buffer Coating: Protects the fibre
Principle of Operation
Light pulses travel in an optical fibre as per the principle of total internal reflection.
Conditions for ‘total internal reflection’
Light should travel from denser medium to rarer medium
Angle of incidence should be greater than critical angle
Acceptance angle: The maximum angle in which external light rays may strike the air-glass interface and still propagate down the fiber
Types of Optical Fibre
Step Index Fibre
The refractive index of the core is slightly greater than that of the cladding. Step Index Fibres are of two types:
a) Single mode step index b) Multi-mode step index
Graded Index Fibre
The refractive index gradually decreases from core to cladding
Fibre losses, dispersion and non-linear effects
Losses
Material Absorption: Absorption by impurities in silica.
Rayleigh Scattering: Occurs due to varying refractive index.
Attenuation: Negligible.
Dispersion
Intermodal Dispersion: Caused due to varying velocities of different modes. Leads to pulse spreading.
Chromatic Dispersion: Consists of waveguide dispersion and material dispersion
Non-linear effects
Stimulated Raman Scattering
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
Self Phase Modulation
Four Wave Mixing
Optical fibre communication system
Optical fibres can be used as a medium for telecommunication as they are flexible and can be bounded as cables.
Both multi-mode and single-mode fibres are used in communications, with multi-mode fibre used mostly for short distances and single mode fibre for longer distances.
Fibres are generally used in pairs, with each fibre carrying signals in one particular direction
The light signals propagating in the fibre can be modulated at rates as high as 40 Gb/s and each fibre can carry many independent channels, each by a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division-multiplex WDM).
The process of communicating using fibre-optics involves the following steps: Creating the optical signal from an electrical signal, relaying the signal along the fibre, ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak, receiving the optical signal and converting it into an electrical signal.
Basic Components of an Optical Fibre Communication System
Transmitter
a) Laser Diode
b) Light Emitting Diode
Optical Fibre
Regenerator/Amplifier
Photodetector
a) PIN diode
b) Avalanche photodiode
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Signals with different wavelengths are combined, transmitted together, and separated again. That means more bandwidth—more data per second.
Dense WDM (DWDM) uses up to 100 wavelengths through a single fiber. Bandwidth up to 1 Tbps (1000 Gbps)
Advantages of optical fibre communication
Enormous Bandwidths: Optical fibres have enormous transmission bandwidths and high data rate. Using WDM, the information carrying capacity of optical fibres is enhanced to many orders of magnitude.
Low transmission loss: Due to the usage of ultra low loss fibres and the erbium doped silica fibres as optical amplifiers, one can achieve almost loss less transmission. Thus, repeater spacing is very large.
Immunity to cross talk: Optical fibres are free from any electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference.
Electrical Isolation: The fibres are made from silica which is an electrical insulator. Therefore they do not pick up any electromagnetic wave or any high current lightening.
Signal security: The transmitted signal through the fibre does not radiate. Unlike in copper cables, a transmitted signal cannot be drawn from a fibre without tampering it. It is hack-proof.
Low cost and availability: Since the fibres are made of silica which is available in abundance. Hence, there is no shortage of material and optical fibers offer the potential for low cost communication.
Small size and weight: Optical fibres are light in weight. The size too is very small and so the space occupied by the fibre cable is negligible.
Reliability: Optical fibres do not undergo any chemical reaction or corrosion.
Disadvantages of optical fibre communication
Cost: It is the most expensive among all forms of guided media. Employment and maintenance of the equipment required to implement this technology is very costly. It is even more uneconomic when the bandwidth is not fully utilised.
Installation/maintenance: It is a relatively new technology. Installation and maintenance demands knowledge and expertise that is not yet available everywhere.
Unidirectional: Propagation of light is unidirectional. If we need bidirectional communication, two fibers are needed.
Coupling Losses: Coupling of fibres has to be done extremely carefully. There is practically no margin for error. Small mistakes can lead to a major loss of information.
Today’s optical fibre communication system
Transmission Windows
Recent Trends
1. Fibre To The x (FTTx)
The Last Mile
The "last mile" is the final leg of delivering connectivity from a communications provider to a customer.
It is typically seen as an expensive challenge because "fanning out" wires and cables is a considerable physical undertaking.
As demand has escalated, particularly fuelled by the widespread adoption of the internet, the need for economical high-speed access by end-users has ballooned as well.
As requirements have changed, existing systems have proved to be inadequate. To date, although a number of approaches have been tried and used, no single clear solution to this problem has emerged.
Next Generation Access:
NGA is a term describing the upgradation of the existing telecommunication network by replacing some or all of the copper cable with optical fibre.
NGA is an important enabler for faster broadband internet access.
FTTx
What is FTTx?
FTTH: Fibre to the Home
FTTB: Fibre to the Building/Basement
FTTC: Fibre to the Curb
FTTN: Fibre to the Node
Why FTTH
It provides far faster connection speeds and carrying capacity than twisted pair conductors. Fibre has virtually unlimited bandwidth and hence is “future safe”.
New services such as VoIP, HDTV, interactive video are gaining popularity. A January 2009 study estimated that new technologies will drive Internet traffic up by 50 times the current rate within the next 10 years.
Fibre optic components are getting less expensive. Costs have decreased by about 75% since 2001.
Technologies such as Passive Optical Network (PON) and WDM have further reduced the cost of FTTH.
FTTH Architecture
Point to Point Architecture
FTTH Architecture (contd.)
Active Optical Network
FTTH Architecture (contd.)
Passive Optical Network
Active vs Passive Optical Networks
Fibre optics uses light signals to transmit data. As this data moves across a fibre, there needs to be a way to separate it so that it gets to the proper destination.
An active optical system uses electrically powered switching equipment, such as a router or a switch aggregator, to manage signal distribution and direct signals to specific customers.
A passive optical network uses optical splitters to separate and collect optical signals as they move through the network. Powered equipment is required only at the source and receiving ends of the signal.
In some cases, FTTH systems may combine elements of both passive and active architectures to form a hybrid system.
Active vs Passive Optical Networks (contd.)
Passive optical networks, or PONs, are efficient, in that each fiber optic strand can serve up to 32 users. PONs have a low building cost relative to active optical networks along with lower maintenance costs.
PONs have less range than an active optical network, meaning subscribers must be geographically closer to the central source of the data. PONs also make it difficult to isolate a failure when they occur.
As the bandwidth in a PON is not dedicated to individual subscribers, data transmission speed may slow down during peak usage times.
AONs require at least one switch aggregator for every 48 subscribers. Because it requires power, an active optical network inherently is less reliable than a passive optical network.
Passive Optical Networks
A PON is a network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fibre to serve multiple premises.
Downstream signals are broadcast to all premises sharing a single fibre.
Upstream signals are combined using a multiple access protocol, usually time division multiple access (TDMA).
Bandwidth sharing is the major reason why PON’s growth has been restricted. On a 155-Mbit/s PON link with four splits, each subscriber will receive 38.75 Mbps.
The different PON standards are:
APON (ATM PON)
BPON (Broadband PON)
GPON (Gigabite PON)
EPON (Ethernet PON)
Passive Optical Networks (contd.)
APON (Asynchronous Transfer Mode PON): This was the first Passive optical network standard. It was used primarily for business applications, and was based on the ATM protocol.
BPON (Broadband PON): It is a standard based on APON. It adds support for WDM and provides higher upstream bandwidth and dynamic upstream bandwidth allocation.
EPON (Ethernet PON): It uses ethernet instead of ATM for data encapsulation. EPONs offer higher bandwidth, lower costs, and broader service capabilities than APON.
GPON (Gigabit PON): It is an evolution of the BPON standard. GPON is a flexible option for providers because it is designed to handle both Ethernet and ATM traffic and it offers roughly twice the capacity of EPON.
Passive Optical Networks (contd.)
A Case Study: Verizon Fibre Optic Services
Verizon FiOS is a bundled home communications service, operating over a fibre optics communications network, that is offered in some areas of the United States of America. It provides internet, telephone and television services.
To serve a home, a single mode optical fibre extends from an optical line terminal at a FiOS central office out to the neighbourhoods where an optical splitter fans out the same signal on up to 32 fibers, thus serving up to 32 subscribers. At the subscriber's home, an optical network terminal transfers data onto the corresponding copper wiring for phone, video and Internet access.
Verizon initially installed slower BPONs but now only installs GPONs.
In-building architectures
Recent Trends
2. All Optical Networks
The advancements in the field of optical technology in recent years has made the All-Optical Network (AON) a viable option.
An AON transmits data streams by way of all-optical lightpaths established using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Data remains in the optical domain throughout transmission from source to destination.
The primary advantage of an AON is that data streams do not undergo optical-electrical-optical (OEO) conversion, which increases end-to-end latency.
DWDM fiber technology is likely to offer a single fiber containing hundreds of wavelength channels, each modulated at 10 Gb/s. Hence, links with a total capacity of tens of Tb/s may be attached to a single core router requiring switching capacity not available by present day electronics.
Optical Switching
Right now, the optical switches have electrical core, where light pulses are converted back into electrical signals so that they can be routed towards their respective destinations.
This has a few advantages:
The switches handle smaller bandwidths than whole wavelengths and this works fine considering the current market requirements.
Easier network management, because standards are in place and resourcess are available. Optical equivalents are not, at present.
But, there are concerns that electrical cores won’t be able to cope with the explosion in the number of wavelengths in the networks (deployment of DWDM).
Optical Switching (contd.)
Optical Circuit Switching (OCS)
It is a two-way reservation technique. Lightpaths are established and taken down as needed.
Data transmission does not commence until the edge router receives acknowledgement of all resource reservations.
Its biggest advantage is that blocking at core routers is averted by delaying data transmission until the edge router receives acknowledgement of all resource reservations.
The main performance measure is the queueing delay at the edge routers. At peak usage hours, this delay can be very quite large.
The problem with circuit switching is that it is not efficient at handling bursty data traffic.
Sufficient bandwidth needs to be reserved to deal with the peak rate, and this bandwidth would be unused a lot of the time.
Optical Switching (contd.)
Optical Packet Switching (OPS)
The data stream is broken up into small packets of data. These packets are multiplexed together with packets from other data streams inside the network. The packets are switched inside the network based on their destination.
Packets are transmitted based on the store and forward philosophy. To facilitate switching, a packet header is added to each packet. The header carries addressing information like the destination address or the address of the next node in the path. each intermediate node stores an incoming packet, and then forwards it to the next node based on its header and a locally stored routing table. The header is sent at a slower speed and is processed electronically.
The lack of optical memory is a major obstacle. OPS networks are either difficult to realize, very bulky, or very expensive, even after a decade of research in this area.
Optical Switching (contd.)
Optical Burst Switching (OBS)
It is a technique that allows dynamic sub-wavelength switching of data.
It is a compromise between OCS and OPS.
Packets are aggregated into data bursts at the edge of the network to form the data payload.
The header of a burst is called a control packet, and it is sent beforehand to allocate transmission channels for the burst. It is transmitted in optical form in a separated wavelength channnel termed the control channel and it is processed electronically at each OBS router, whereas the data burst is transmitted in all optical form from one end to the other end of the network.
After the burst has passed a router, the router can accept new reservation requests.
Optical Switching (contd.)
Advantages and disadvantages of OBS
Advantage over OCS
In an OCS system, a lightpath must be set up from source to destination in the optical network. If the data transmission duration is short relative to the set up time, bandwidth may not be efficiently utilized in the OCS system. In comparison, OBS does not require end-to-end lightpath set up, and therefore may offer more efficient bandwidth utilization.
Advantages over OPS
Time spent waiting in buffers is reduced.
A core optical router in an OPS network would have to perform processing operations for every arriving packet, whereas in an OBS network the router performs processing operations for an arriving burst which contains several packets.
The biggest disadvantage of OBS is the high packet losses which are inevitable due to the lack of adequate optical buffering.
Optical Cross-Connect (OXC)
An optical cross-connect (OXC) is a device used by telecommunications carriers to switch high-speed optical signals in a fibre optic network.
Optical signals are converted to electronic signals. The electronic signals are then switched by an electronic switch module. Finally the switched electronic signals are converted back into optical signals.
Such an architecture prevents an OXC from performing with the same speed as an all-optical cross-connect. An advantage is that the optical signals are regenerated, so they leave the node free of dispersion and attenuation.
The disadvantage of an all optical cross-connect is that it does not provide wavelength conversion and signal regeneration.
A compromise between the two leads to what is called a translucent OXC. The switch stage consists of an optical switch module and an electronic switch module. Optical signals passing through the switch stage can be switched either by the optical switch module or the electronic switch module.
Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) (contd.)
OXCs with wavelength conversion
Recent Trends
3. Plastic/Polymer Optical Fibre (POF)
POF is an optical fiber which is made out of plastic. Traditionally poly methyl meth-acrylate (PMMA) is the core material, and fluorinated polymers are the cladding material.
The large size makes coupling easy from sources and connectors.
Plastic/Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) (contd.)
The traditional PMMA fibres are commonly used for low-speed, short-distance (up to 100 meters) applications in digital home appliances, home networks, industrial networks and car networks.
With the rising demand for high-speed home networking, POF is seen as a possible option for next-generation Gigabit/s links inside the house.
There is now a greatly increased interest in POF, given its mechanical flexibility to go with its ease of installation and low cost.
From an optical standpoint, conventional POF is much lower in performance than glass fiber. Its attenuation is much higher and its bandwidth is limited by its large numerical aperture and step-index profile.
Recent developments have led to low NA POFs that offers higher bandwidth and graded-index POF (GI-POF) that combines the higher bandwidth of graded-index fiber with the low cost of POF.
Some Statistical Data
The global consumption of fiber optic components in communication networks exploded from only $2.5 million in 1975 to $15.8 billion in 2000. Continued growth to $739 billion in 2025 is forecast.
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and parallel channel integration will combine to achieve ten-terabit interconnection fiber links, terminated in single small transmit and receive modules, well before 2050.
FTTH in Japan was first introduced in 1999by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone but it did not become a large player until 2001. Currently, many people are switching from DSL to FTTH. In September 2008, it was reported that for the first time, the number of FTTH connections (13.08 million connections) eclipsed that of DSL (12.29 million connections) and became the biggest means of broadband connection in Japan. Average real-world speed of FTTH is 66 Mbit/s in the whole of Japan, and 78 Mbit/s in Tokyo
In the United States, the largest fiber to the premises (FTTP) deployment to date is Verizon's FiOS. Initial FTTP offering was based on Broadband PON technology. Verizon has already upgraded to Gigabit PON, a faster optical access technology capable of providing 1GB/sec speeds to consumers.
Some Statistical data (contd.)
On April, 07 2009, the Federal Government announced a $43 billion plan to deploy FTTH to 93% of Australian households under a the National Broadband Network. Construction has commenced on the network with live speeds of up to 1000 Mbit/s via fiber
BT Openreach started a pilot at Ebbsfleet in Kent, Highams Park in London and Milton Keynes offering speeds of up to 100 Mbit/s, and have plans to make FTTP available to 2.5 million homes and businesses by 2012.
FTTB services are currently supplied in Hyderabad by Beam Telecom, offering a variety of plans for home users up to 6 Mbit/s, "power users" up to 20 Mbit/s and enterprises up to 30 Mbit/s. Beam Telecom have also launched fristever FTTH Solution in Hyderabad in three major townships by end of 2010, they have planned to complete FTTH setup in 20 upcoming townships by the end of 2011. FTTH services are due to be launched in 2011 by Hayai Broadband, allowing speeds of 100+ Mbit/s to the Internet and 1000+ Mbit/s (1 Gbit/s) within its own network. The coverage area will include most suburbs in Mumbai. BSNL has launched an FTTH service in Jaipur in late 2010.
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21-03-2012, 10:41 AM

to get information about the topic "optical fibre communication" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-optical-fiber-communication

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31-05-2012, 01:23 PM

FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION


.docx   What is fiber optics.docx (Size: 300.5 KB / Downloads: 24)


What is fiber optics?

We're used to the idea of information traveling in different ways. When we speak into a landline telephone, a wire cable carries the sounds from our voice into a socket in the wall, where another cable takes it to the local telephone exchange. Cellphones work a different way: they send and receive information using invisible radio waves—a technology called wireless because it uses no cables. Fiber optics works a third way. It sends information coded in a beam of lightdown a glass or plastic pipe. It was originally developed for endoscopes in the 1950s to help doctors see inside the human body without having to cut it open first. In the 1960s, engineers found a way of using the same technology to transmit telephone calls at the speed of light (186,000 miles or 300,000 km per second).


Optical technology

A fiber-optic cable is made up of 100 or more incredibly thin strands of glass or plastic known as optical fibers. Each one is less than a tenth as thick as a human hair and can carry 10 million telephone calls.
Fiber-optic cables carry information between two places using entirely optical (light-based) technology. Suppose you wanted to send information from your computer to a friend’s house down the street using fiber optics. You could hook your computer up to a laser, which would convert electrical information from the computer into a series of light pulses. Then you’d fire the laser down the fiber-optic cable. After traveling down the cable, the light beams would emerge at the other end. Your friend would need a photoelectric cell(light-detecting component) to turn the pulses of light back into electrical information his or her computer could understand. So the whole apparatus would be like a really neat, hi-tech version of the kind of telephone you can make out of two baked-bean cans and a length of string!


Types of fiber-optic cables

Optical fibers carry light signals down them in what are called modes. That sounds technical but it just means different ways of traveling: a mode is simply the path that a light beam follows down the fiber. One mode is to go straight down the middle of the fiber. Another is to bounce down the fiber at a shallow angle. Other modes involve bouncing down the fiber at other angles, more or less steep.


Who invented fiber optics?

• 1840s: Swiss physicist Daniel Colladon (1802–1893) discovered he could shine light along water pipe. The water carried the light by internal reflection.
• 1870: An Irish physicist called John Tyndall (1820–1893) demonstrated internal reflection at London's Royal Society. He shone light into a jug of water. When he poured some of the water out from the jug, the light curved round following the water's path. This idea of "bending light" is exactly what happens in fiber optics. Although Colladon is the true grandfather of fiber-optics, Tyndall often earns the credit.
• 1930s: Heinrich Lamm and Walter Gerlach, two German students, tried to use light pipes to make a gastroscope—an instrument for looking inside someone's stomach.


Applications
Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals. Due to much lower attenuation andinterference, optical fiber has large advantages over existing copper wire in long-distance and high-demand applications. However, infrastructure development within cities was relatively difficult and time-consuming, and fiber-optic systems were complex and expensive to install and operate. Due to these difficulties, fiber-optic communication systems have primarily been installed in long-distance applications, where they can be used to their full transmission capacity, offsetting the increased cost. Since 2000, the prices for fiber-optic communications have dropped considerably. The price for rolling out fiber to the home has currently become more cost-effective than that of rolling out a copper based network. Prices have dropped to $850 per subscriber[citation needed] in the US and lower in countries like The Netherlands, where digging costs are low.




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11-08-2012, 02:22 PM

Optical Fiber



.pptx   Optical Fiber.pptx (Size: 2.74 MB / Downloads: 14)

WHAT ARE OPTICAL FIBERS ?


Optical Fibers are thins long (km) strands of ultra pure glass (silica) or plastic that can to transmit light from one end to another without much attenuation or loss.
The glass used to make Optical Fibers is so pure that if the Pacific Ocean was filled with this glass then we would be able to see the ocean bottom form the surface….!!!!
This is to be believed as repeater distances on long haul routes for optical fibers vary from 50 to 150 km.

Working of Optical fibers?

The light source (LAZER) at the transmitting (Tx) end is modulated by the electrical signal and this modulated light energy is fed into the Optical Fiber.
At the receiving end (Rx) this light energy is made incident on photo-sensors which convert this light signal back to electrical signal.

OPTICAL WINDOWS

Attenuation of fibre for optical power varies with the wavelengths of light. Windows are low-loss regions, where fiber carry light with little attenuation. The first generation of optical fibre operated in the first window around 820 to 850 nm. The second window is the zero-dispersion region of 1300 nm and the third window is the 1550 nm region as shown in the figure.

Why Optical Fibers ?

As mans need and hunger for communication increased, the amount of bandwidth required increased exponentially.
Initially we used smoke signals, then horse riders for communicating. But these ways were way to slow and had very little bandwidth or data caring capacity.
Then came the telephone and telegraph that used copper wires for communication. But soon demand out striped the capacity and capability of copper wires and data transport got added to voice communication. Then came Coaxial copper cables, VHF and UHF Radios, Satellite but demand still outstripped the supply.

It was not until Optical Fibers came on the scene that large amount of communication bandwidth became economically and easily available to everyone.
As an example 50,000 voice / data circuit copper cable is massive in size and very expensive, while a single Optical Fiber, the diameter of human hair, can carry 5,00,000 circuits of voice and data. This capacity is increasing day by day as supporting electronics is developing. In itself the capacity of Optical Fibers is limitless.

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