Futuronix Automation Practical training report
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Joined: Mar 2010
30-03-2010, 11:47 PM
A Report On Practical training taken at Futuronix Automation Pvt. Ltd.
Submitted by:- Submitted to:-
Vishal kumar Sharma. H. O. D
Final year, Electrical. Electrical engg. Department. Scholar no: 07/03/66 Engineering college, Bikaner. En. No: 07E1EBEEM4XT201
- :Abstract : -
Futronix automation Pvt. Ltd. is a advanced training center of
Industrial Automation, which is placed in the New Delhi. I have completed
my summer training from there. During my practical training I learn the
programming for various type of PLC which are available in market and also
solve many practical daily life problems.
I also learn about the SCADA, which is used to control and
Supervisory of any system, I learn how I make the graphics and how I used
the SCADA in automation.
In my this report I include all the short knowledge of a PLC and
SCADA which I learn during my summer training, and some of examples
are also included in it. I also written the main features and tools of the
(Vishal kumar Sharma.)
- :Acknowledgements: -
It deem it to be my proud privilege to express my gratefulness to
my advisor Miss. Sangita chauhan , the H.O.D of training, futronix
automation , new Delhi, for her guidance, sustained encouragement,
constructive criticism and valuable suggestion before and during my summer
I also thankfull to sir Mr. Mahipat Singh, and Mr. Dhamandra
Singh, which learn me about the automation and for his valuable
suggestions during the training.I owe my profound gratefulness to all staff of
Futronix Automation Pvt. Ltd. for rendering all help during my training.
(Vishal kumar Sharma.)
- : Content of the report : -
Topic Page number.
1. Introduction to automation. 9
2. Benefits of a automatic system. 9
3. Automation effect on manufacturing process. 11
4. Automation possibilities. 12
5. Automation History. 13
6. Manual control system. 14
7. Pneumatic control system 15
8. Hardwired logic control system. 16
9. Electrical control system. 17
10. Programmable logic controllers. 18
11. Definition of PLC. 18
12. Parts of a automatic system. 19
13. Installation of the PLC in field. 20
14. Field instruments. 20
15. Structure of a PLC. 22
16. PLC selection. 24
17. PLC programming standards. 24
18. PLC connections. 25
19. Programming concepts and examples. 26
a. Programming with NO / NC switches. 26
b. Programming with holding concepts. 27
c. Programming with timers. 29
d. Programming with counters and compare block. 32
e. Programming with operators block. 38
20. Plc serial number. 39
21. Projects. 41
22. SCADA 45
23. Features of SCADA. 46
24. Useful ness of SCADA. 48
25. General technique of SCADA 50
26. Miscellaneous links of SCADA. 51
27. Animation link of SCADA. 51
28. Trends in SCADA. 52
29. Security issue for SCADA. 54
30. Conclusion 57
- : Lists of figures : -
1. History of automation. 13
2. Plc installation. 20
3. Plc structure. 22
4. Diagram for problem1 26
5. Diagram for problem2 27
6. Diagram for problem3 28
7. Diagram for problem4 28
8. Diagram for problem5 29
9. Diagram for problem6 30
10. Diagram for problem7 31
11. Diagram for problem8 35
12. Diagram for problem9 37
13. Diagram for problem10 38
14. Project diagram 42
- :Abbreviations : -
PLC : Programmable logic controllers.
SCADA : Supervisory control and data acquisition.
I/P : Input
O/p : Output.
Ton: On timer.
Toff: Off timer.
M: Memory Bits.
Q: Output in program.
MW: Memory words.
No: Normally open.
NC: Normally closed.
HMI: Human machine interference.
Introduction to Automation: -
The basic mean of automation is to become a system automatic,
mean it complete all over given task automatically, the definition of
the automation to Analyze and control all the process parameters in
the plant or in a machine with the help of automatic device is called
the automation. When a machine or a system is Controlled by the
another system or machine them it is called an automatic system.
In this type of system we can use the feedback control technology
for the accurateoperation of our system.
In an automatic system all the components of the system works
automatically. We Only required the starting and stopping of the
system, remaining system works it self..
Benefits of a Automatic system: -
We use the automatic system in these days and it is increased
regularly, because it has several benefits of an automatic system, some of
benefits are as follow: -
1. Increasing productivity: - When a system change in an automatic
system, its productivity is increased because there are no losses like
tension, fatigue, laziness etc which are introduced in a manual system, so
overall product generated in a particular time is increased.
2. Increase quality: - When we change a system in a automatic system the
quality of our product is increased because there is no chance of the error
due to human beings, and all the system works as they are instructed by the
3. Reduce overall production cost: - When we change a system in an
automatic system them overall production cost of the system is reduced,
because the manpower is reduced due to automation and the rate of
manufacturing is also increased.
4. Increase safety at work place: - The manpower required is reduced and
all the work is done automatically by the machine, so the safety of the
humankind is increased at work place and the chance of the accidents are
5. Flexibility to expand the system:- In an automatic system our system
being more Flexible because now we have only change some function of
automation devices to change our requirement and our system works being
changed, so the flexibility of our system is increased by automation.
6. Power saving: - When we use a automatic system the overall
power requirement is reduced because the works done by an automatic
device is equal to many off Electrical devices and we also know that the
power required to operate an electronic device is much lesser then an
electric device , so the total power required is reduced.
Automation effect on manufacturing process:-
There are many positive effect on our manufacturing process by the
automation, these are as follow: -
1. Man power: - Due to automation the man power required is reduced
because in an manual system we required one man for each machine
wherever now in a automatic system we required only one man for
many machines which connected to one system only one man is required to
supervisory of the system process.
2. Break downs: - The number of breakdowns are reduced by the
automation because there are lesser chance to not achieve a faire condition
or reach the system to a bad condition to breakdown.
3. Accidents: - As the breakdowns are reduced same manner the number of
accident are also reduced because the man required to a system or a factory
is reduced and aqurcy is also increased, so the number of accidents are
4. Quality: - By the automation of the system, the quality of the product of
our system is also improve, because the machines are more accurate from
5. Overall production: - The overall production of the company is also
increased by the automation of the system.
1. There is a desire to enhance process efficiency.
2. There is a desire to exercise superior control on process parameters.
3. There is a desire to significantly reduces human interaction.
4. There is a benefit that presentation is better than cure.
5. Repetitive and monotonous jobs is involved and each stage of production
needs careful attention of operators to ensure good quality of final products.
6. Hazardous condition of operation are exist in plant.
Automation history: -
Manual control: -
All the action related to process control and taken by the operators. Simply
manual controls is defined where all the final control element are adjusted
manually to control process to meat the manufacturing process
Drawbacks of manual control:-
1. Due to human interference errors are introduced in control which
largely effect the quality to final product.
2. The Production , safety , energy consumption and usage of raw
material increase due to inaccuracy in manual control.
3. Due to above two effect difference in coast unvalued in
manufacturing process and final product coast is largely reduced.
that will be direct loss for the manufacturer.
1. Pneumatic system works on air pressure, feedback signals and set
paints and controllers output all are in the term of air pressure.
2. Action were controlled by a simple manipulated of pneumatic values,
which is turn were controlled by relay and switches.
Advantage over manual control:
1. Replaced bulky manual valves by pneumatic valves no need of
involving huge man power to operate these valves.
2. Overall better control as compare formal system.
1. Bulky and complex networks of pneumatic pipes.
2. Transmission of pneumatic signal at long distance is difficult.
3. Involved lot of networks to implement of new control logic.
4. System subjected to air leakage problem.
5. Huge power required to create air pressure.
6. Longer project and implimentation time.
Hardwired logic control:-
The contactor and relay together with hardwire timers and counters were
used in achieving there desired level of automation.
Advantage over pneumatic control:
1. Replaced bulky pneumatic control panel.
2. Signal transmission for long distance is possible without droop.
3. Pneumatic is now limited to final control element only.
4. Air consumption reduced.
5. Response of electrical system is high and fast so accuracy of control is
1. Bulky and complex networks of electrical network.
2. Involves lot of network to implement control logic.
3. Addition in logic is very difficult.
Electrical control using logic gates: -
1. The logic gates stated replacing the relays and auxiliary contactors in
the control circuits.
2. The hardware timers and counters were replaced by electric timers.
Advantage of electrical system:
1. Electric equaling is less space as compared to other system.
2. Timers and counter are more accurate.
3. Mathematical calculation are possible.
4. Less maintenance and greater reliability.
1. Change is control logic not possible.
2. Skill professional are required to trouble shoot control logic.
3. Components are not interchangeable if application are different.
Programmable logic controllers:-
1. Plc replaced bulky electrical equipments such as contactor, relays that
are used for making control logic and huge electrical cared used to
achieve desired control.
2. Some Plc can be used in difficult application by just loading the logic
of desired applications.
Advantage of Plc:
1. Space required for Plc installation is small.
2. Maintenance is easy.
3. Greater life and reliability.
4. Tremendous flexibility.
5. easy to store.
6. Addition in logic is very easy.
Definatian of Plc: -
A Plc is a device that was inverted to replace the necessary sequential
relay circuit for machine control . The Plc works by looking at its input
and depending upon their state, turning on or off its output. The user enter a
program, usually via software that give the desired result.
Parts of automatic system: -
1. Field instruments: Fields instruments are the most important and
the basic requirements to install a Plc. These are that instruments which
are installed in the field to observe the field parameters, for example we
place a temperature sensing device in a furnace to measure the furnace
temperature and the water flow meter to measure the quantity of water
which is flow from the system in a specific time.
2. Control Hardwareâ„¢s: The control hardware are the instruments which
are placed in our control panel and to control the field instruments to
control the system, these are physical instruments for example we place
No or Nc switches for the stare or off the process and we place relays or
contactors for the control the system.
3. Control softwareâ„¢s: The control softwareâ„¢s are the softwareâ„¢s which are
used to control system thatâ„¢s are placed in the Pc which is controlled the
system and this are operated by the operator and we load the program in
this or by this for the specific task which being performed by the system.
4. Field control elements: These are the instruments which are placed in
the field to control the dangerous conditions, when the desired condition
is not obtain them we used these instruments to control the system and
to avoid the dangers position.
Installation of the Plc in field:-
Field instruments: -
1. For measurement of process parameter we required a sensing element
which connect that physical parameters in a form that will be acceptable
by the control system.
2. Sensors with transmitters are the field device and placed in the field
who actually same the parameters and send the analog signal to the
Advantage of Plc:-
1. They are fast and designed for the rigged industrial equipments.
2. They are attractive on cost per point basis.
3. These device are less proprietary leg using open bus interface.
4. These system are upgraded to add more intelligence and capabilities
with dedicated PID and element modules.
1. Plc were designed for relay logic ladder and have difficulty with same
2. To maximize Plc performance and flexibility a number of optional
modules must be added.
Structure of a programmable controllers: -
Structure of a Plc
The cpu or Processor: -
1. The cpu or processor constitutes the motor or master ceremonies of
2. The cpu
a. Reads the sensor values.
b. Executes the program with the data contained in the memory.
c. Writes the output connected to the actuator.
The memory: -
1. The controller memory contains the program to be executed, but the
data used by the program.
2. This is where all the data contained in the controller is stored, without
a memory controller cannot operate.
The input, output interface: -
1. The input output interface is used to transfer the status of the sensor of
2. It is also used to send commands t the actuator.
The power supply: -
1. The controller is an active device the electrical supply that converts
alternating current line voltage to various operational DC valves in the
process the power supply filters are regulated the DC voltage to ensure
proper computer operation.
The communication modules: -
1. The program which is created on the computer is transferred to the
controller with the help of communication modules.
Basic criteria for PLC selection: -
1. Memory capacity .
2. Input, Output range.
3. Communication possibility.
4. Special factors: - Some time PLD are selected on the bases of theirs
feature like High.
5. speed counters, PID with real memory wards for accurate calculation .
6. Packing and coast per point.
Plc programming standards: -
The open manufactures independent programming standard for
automation is IEC 61131-3, you can these choose what configuration
interface you with to use of writing your application.
1. Ladder diagram.
2. Instruction list.
3. Function block diagram.
4. Sequential function chart.
5. Structured text.
Plc connections: -
We know that a Plc have two ports for the connection first one at
input side and second one at output side.
A. connection at input ports:
1. Positive logic connection: In this type of connection the input
ports of plc is connected from 24 v by a common point and the
external circuit is connected from a 0v supply, and the direction of
flow of current is from plc to external circuit, plc is supplying
current and works as a source.
2 Negative logic connection: In this type of connections we
supply the external circuit from 24 v supply and the plc is
connected from 0v supply by a common point.
B .Connection at output ports:
1. For LED type of load: - For led type of load we connect
common point of external circuit to the 24v from internal circuit
and the second point of LED is connected from 0v.
2. For light or machines load: For the machines load the line
ports of external circuit is connected to the common point and the
netural point is connected to the netural point of the load.
Programming concepts and example for a Plc:-
1. Programming with the use of NO, NC swathes:
Generally basically we use the No and Nc switches for the connections
of any system The NO switch is a push switch which is remain in
normally open condition, and when it is pushed it made a close circuit
The NC switch is a switch which leave in close condition normally,
mean provides a close path in normal condition and when it is pressed
it makes a open circuit.
Problem 1: Make the logic using NO switch in such a way, that when
switch is pressed light get on, and when switch released light get off ?
NO / No %Q0.0 (output)
Problem 2: Make the logic using NC pb in such a way when pb
pressed light get on and when pb released light get off?
NC / Nc
2. Programming with the Holding concepts: -
We have two types of holding used in the Plc
A. Holding by use of NO, NC switch concepts:
We can use a auxiliary or a holding switch of any NO and NC
Switch for holding concepts, the holding is always used in the
parallel of the switch for which we use the holding.
B. Holding by using of the output: -
We can also use a auxiliary switch to hold the system by the
output of the system.
Problem 3 ; Make the logic using two No and NC in such a way , when
either one of the NO is pressed light get on, and when NC pb pressed
light get off?
NO / No NC / No %Q0.0
NO / No
Problem 4: Using two NO and one NC pb, make a circuit for a plc
when both NO pressed light get on and when NC pressed light get off..
L NO / No NO / No NC / No %Q0.0
%Q0.0 / No
3. Programming with timers:-
Timers are used to insert the concept of timing means we used timers in
the automatic system to insert the time intervals between two operations.
Generally we use three types of the timers for a plc:
1. On timer: In this type of timer the output of a timer is obtained after
a preset time from input of timer when we applied input at timer them
output comes after the same time that is called present time of a timer.
2. Off timer: In this type of timer the output of timer get low after the
fix time which is set by the user when input goes low.
3. Pulse timer: It goes on or change its state as a pulse is obtained in its
Problem 5: Make the logic using NC, such that when pb pressed light
get off after 3sec.
L NC / No NC / Nc %M0
%M0 Toff TM0.Q
Problem 6 : Make a logic in such a way when NO pressed L 1 get on
immediate after 5 sec, L 2 get on Both remain on until NC pb pressed?
NC / No NO / No %M0
%M0 Ton, 5sec %Q0.1
Problem 7: Make a logic in such a way when NO pb pressed after 5 sec L1
get on after 5sec L 2 get on, after 5 sec both get off?
NC /No NO / No %TM1.Q %M0
%M0 T on %Q 0.0
T on 1 TM1.Q
4. Programming with counters and compare block: -
Counters are generally used to count the any operation and it count each
operation sequentially. It detect the change of state of any And count the
continuous change of the state from one state to another state. The counters
are two types.
1. Positive edge contact:
It detect the change of state from positive edge of a digital signal.
mean when the first pulse is end them it count to next pulse at his
positive edge comes.
2. Negative edge contacts: -
It detects the change of state from high to low, when a pulse comes
low from high state them it count and increase the count number by one.
Empty: The mean of empty is that counter is on its initial state, mean its on
Done bit:- We set the value of count in the counter, it is called the preset
value of counter, when the value of count is equal to the preset value of
counter them it donebit goes high.
Full: - The full value is the maximum value of counter which can be count
by the counter, generally it is 9999 for a counter.
Reset: - Reset is the connection of counter it is used to resent the counter,
when it goes high the counter goes reset.
Count up:- When a positive pulse is applied on this point them the counter
value is exceed by one.
Count down: - When a positive pulse is applied on it them the counter
value is decreased by one.
Compare Block: - It is generally a block which compare the counter value
to a given value, its mean when counter goes to done its count them compare
block increase its count and when the compare block count is equal to its
given value them it give a output as a positive pulse form.
According to figure C0 indicate the counter 0, and V is indicate the current
value of counter 0, mean when the counter 0 value is equal to 2 them
compare block send a high signal at output.
Problem 8 : Using NO pb, when pb pressed counter will decrement its
value, when counter current value is equal to 2 light 1 get on, when counter
current value equal to 5, light 2 get on, when current value equal to 8 them
light3 get on, when current value is equal to9 them light 4 get on, counter get
reset using NC switch?
NC / Nc
NO / No
NO / No
Problem 9: Make a logic using NC pb such that when NC pressed light 1
get on immediate, after 5sec light 2 get on for 2 sec, this cycle will repete
until counter get done. Every time when cycle get complete counter will
increment its value till the counter get done, when counter get done light 1
and light 2 get off and light 3 will get on to show counter is done, system
will work again when counter is reset using NO pb?
NC / No NC / Nc %M0
%M0 %TM1.Q %Q0.2 %Q0.0
%M0 %Q0.0 %Q0.1
%NO / Nc
5. Programming with operator block:
Operator block: Operator block remain always right side of the screen and
the mean of his is that we transfer or perform any mathematical operation on
two memory wards.
According to figure we put the value of memory ward1 in to the memory
Ward 2 by this sentence.
Problem 10: Value of two memory wards add and result will move in
another memory wards, If value of this memory wards is greater than 1 and
less then 5 them counter will increment its value by one, when counter get
done light 1 will get on?
%NO / No
PLC Serial number: - For any type of PLC the serial number of PLC
provides or show all the information of it, it tell us all the important and
practical use related information of the PLC, it gives us the following
1. Name of processor or company.
2. Type of the PLC.
3. The power rating of PLC.
4. Number of input and output for that PLC.
5. Type of input and output, etc.
1. Let we have a Twido soft PLC which serial number is TWDLCAA16DRF. This
Plc number give us the following information.
Serial number TWDL C AA 16 D R F
TWDL: Twido processor (processor)
C: compact (Type of PLC)
AA: 230v ac. (Operating voltage)
A: 24v, dc
16: Number of input and output ports.
D: 24v,dc (type of input signal)
R: Relay (type of outputs)
U: Transistor output.(sink type)
T: Transistor oputpu(source type)
F: Non removable
2. Lets we have a allen bradely PLC and the serial number is 1762L24BWA.
The serial number is 1762 L 24 B WA
1762: Serial number (Buleten number)
L: Processer (microcontoaller)
24: No of input and outputs.
B: 24v ,dc (Type of input signal)
A: 120/230 v, ac.
WA: Type of output
W: relay output
A: Triac output
B: Mosfet output
N: transistor output.
Project on general life problems.
Problem: For a twido soft Plc make a logic for the traffic point in which
we have four way rods and for every side we have 3 lights, green, red and
yellow. For each side yellow blow for 10 second before the green, and
important condition is that on one side only one light can glow at particular
time and at each side always one light remain glow also, and all the system
remain continue for a period which is set by the traffic inspector after that
time system goes off and it start again while inspector start it by a push
switch from traffic control room?
%NO / No %M1 %M0
%M0 %TM0.Q %Q0.0 (G1)
%M0 %TM0.Q %Q0.4(R1)
%M0 %Q0.3 %TM4.Q %Q0.8(Y1)
%Q0.0 %TM4.Q %Q0.9(Y2)
%Q0.1 %TM4.Q %Q0.10
%Q0.2 %TM4.Q %Q0.11
%M0 Ton 0
%M0 %TM0.Q Ton 1
%M0 %TM1.Q ton2
%M0 %TM2.Q T on3
%M0 %Q0.0 %Q0.9 T0n 4
% NO / No
SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) : -
Earlier Plcâ„¢s use to be black boxes. You program the PLC, download the
program in it, and it will run for years. But the problem with his\is was that
you really donâ„¢t know what is happening inside the PLC. Now a days
automation system contains PLCâ„¢s and DCADA software. If you use PLC
and SCADA combination the advantages you have is you have better
monitoring and control of the plant and also you have access to the
information the way you want. DCADA enables engineers, supervisors,
managers and operators to view and interact with the workings of entire
operations though graphical representation of their production process.
SCADA runs on a PC and is generally connected to various PLC and
other peripheral devices. It enables you to generate applications for the
most demanding requirements of plant engineers, operators, supervisors and
mangers, tailored precisely to the needs of each plant DCADA constantly
gathers data fro the plant in real time, stores and processes it in the database,
evaluates and generates alarms, displays information to plant operators to
plant operators, supervisors and managers and can issue instructions to
PLC on the plant floor.
Features of SCADA: -
1. Dynamic process graphic mimics developed in SCADA software
should resemble the process mimic SCADA should have good library of
symbols so that you can develop the mimic as per requirement, once the
operator sees the screen he should know what is going on in the plant.
2. Real time and historical trend the trends play very important role in
the process operation. If your batch fails or the plant trips, you can
simply go to the historical trend data and do the analysis. You can have
better look of the parameters through the trends, for example we
commission a SCADA system for Acid Regeneration plant where the
plant has to be operated on 850-deg temperature. If the operator operates
the plant at 900-deg you can imagine how much additional lpg he is
potion into the reactor. Again what will happen to the bricks of the
reactor. So the production managers first job will be to go through the
trends how the operators are operating the plant. Even when the plant
trips there are more than 25 probable reasons for the same but if you go
throat the history trends, its very easy to identify, the problems.
3. Alarms have a very critical role in automation . Generally you have
alarm states for each input and outputs like your temperature should not
cross 80-deg or lever should be less that 60. So if the paramours goes in
alarm. State the operator should be initiated with the alarm. Most of
the SCADA software support four types of alarms like LOLO, LO ,HI,
HIHI. Dead band the value of dead band defines the range after which a high
low alarm contain returns to normal.
Alarms are most important part of plant control applications because
the operator must know instantly when something goes wrong. It is often
equally important to have a record of alarm and whether an alarm was
acknowledged. An alarm occurs when something goes wrong . It can signal
that device or process has ceased operating within acceptable, predefined
limits or it can indicate breakdown, wear or process malfunction.
4. Recipe management is an additional feature. Some DCADA software
support it some do not. Most of the plants are manufacturing multi products.
When you have different product to manufacture you just have to load the
recipe of the that particular product.
5. Security is one facility people generally look for. You can allocate
certain facilities or features to the operator, process people, engineering dept.
& maintenance dept. for example operators should only operate the system.
he should not be able change the application. The engineers should have
access to changing the application developed.
6. Device connectivity you eoll find there are hundreds of automation
hardware manufacturer like modicon, simens, allen tradley . Everybody has
there own way of communication or we can say they have there own
communication protocol. SCADA software should have connectivity to the
different hardware used in automation. It should not happen that for
modicon I am buying one software and for siemens another one. The
software like Aspic or Wonderware has connectivity to almost all hardware
used in automation.
7. Database connectivity now a days information plays very important
role in any business. Most manufacturing units go for enterprise resource
planning or management information system.
Usefulness of SCADA: -
1. Production Dept:
a. Real time production status: manufacturing status is updated in
real time in direct communication to operator and control device.
b. Production schedules: production schedules can be viewed and
updated directly .
c. Production information mgt: production specific information is
distributed to all.
2. Quality Dept:
a. Date integrity and quality control is improved by using a
b. It is an open platform for statistical analysis.
c. Consolidation of manufacturing and lab data.
3. Maintenance Dept:
a. Improved troubleshooting and debugging: Direct connection to
wide variety of devices, displays improves troubleshooting,
reduces diagnostic time.
b. Plant can be viewed remotely: Notification can include pagers,
emails and phones.
c. Co-ordination between maintenance and mgt reduces
4. Engineering Dept:
a. Integrated Automation solutions reduce design and
b. Common configuration platform offers flexibility for constant
configuration in all areas .
c. Capable of connecting to wide variety of systems. Reduces start
up time and system training with industry proven open interfaces.
5. Manufacturing Dept:
a. Unscheduled down time is reduced due swift alarm detection
and event driven information.
b. Makes operations easier and more repeatable with its real time
c. Secured real time operation are maintained with windows.
General Terminology of SCADA: -
1. What is a Tag: A tag is a logical name for a variable in a device or
local memory. Tags that receive data from some external devices such as
programmable logic controllers or servers are refereed to as input and
output tags. Tags that receive data internally from software are called
2. Analog Tags: Store a range of values are called analog tags form
example temperature, flow etc.
3. Discrete Tags: To store values such as 0 or 1 are called discrete tags
form example pump, valves etc.
4. System Tags: System tags store information generated while the
software is running including alarm info and system time and date.
5. String Tags: String tags are used to store ASCII strings a series of
characters or whole word. The max string length is 131 characters.
Miscellaneous links: -
1. Visibility: Visibility used to control visibility of an object based on
the value of a discrete tag name or expression.
2. Blink: Blink used to make an object blink based on the value of a
discrete aflame or expression.
3. Orientation : Orientation used to make an object rotate based on the
value of a aflame.
4. Disable: Disable used to disable the touch functionality of objects
based on the value of a tag name of expression. Often used as part of a
5. Value display links: Value display links provide the ability to use a
text object to display the value of a discrete, analog or string tag name.
6. Percent fill links: Percent fill links used to provide ability to vary the
full level of a filled shape according to the value of an analog tag name or
an expression that computes to an analogy value.
Animation links: -
1. Touch links: Touch links allow the operator to input data into the
system. Form example operator may turn the valve on or off, enter a new
alarm set point, run a complex logic script etc.
2. Touch pushbuttons: Touch pushbuttons are used to create object
links that immediately perform an operation when clicked with the mouse
or touched. These operations can be discrete value changes, action script
executions, and show or hide window commands.
3. Color links : Color links are used to animate the line color, fill color
and text contour of an object. Each of these color attributes can be made
dynamic by defining a color link for the attribute. The color attribute may
be linked to the value of a discrete expression, analogue expression,
discrete alarm status or analog alarm status.
Trends in SCADA: -
There is a trend for PLC and HMI/SCADA software to be more "mix-
and-match". In the mid 1990s, the typical DAQ I/O manufacturer
supplied equipment that communicated using proprietary protocols over a
suitable-distance carrier like RS-485. End users who invested in a
particular vendor's hardware solution often found themselves restricted to
a limited choice of equipment when requirements changed (e.g. system
expansions or performance improvement). To mitigate such problems,
open communication protocols such as IEC870-5-101/104, DNP3 serial,
and DNP3 LAN/WAN became increasingly popular among SCADA
equipment manufacturers and solution providers alike. Open architecture
SCADA systems enabled users to mix-and-match products from different
vendors to develop solutions that were better than those that could be
achieved when restricted to a single vendor's product offering.
Towards the late 1990s, the shift towards open communications
continued with individual I/O manufacturers as well, who adopted open
message structures such as Modbus RTU and Modbus ASCII (originally
both developed by Modicon) over RS-485. By 2000, most I/O makers
offered completely open interfacing such as Modbus TCP over Ethernet
The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) has
specified that electrical system data should be time-tagged to the nearest
millisecond. Electrical system SCADA systems provide this function,
using Radio clocks to synchronize the RTU or distributed RTU
clocks. SCADA systems are coming in line with standard networking
technologies. Ethernet and TCP/IP based protocols are replacing the older
proprietary standards. Although certain characteristics of frame-based
network communication technology (determinism, synchronization,
protocol selection, environment suitability) have restricted the adoption
of Ethernet in a few specialized applications, the vast majority of markets
have accepted Ethernet networks for HMI/SCADA.
With the emergence of software as a service in the broader software
industry, a few vendors have begun offering application specific SCADA
systems hosted on remote platforms over the Internet. This removes the
need to install and commission systems at the end-user's facility and takes
advantage of security features already available in Internet technology,
VPNs and SSL. Some concerns include security, Internet connection
reliability, and latency.
SCADA systems are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. Thin clients,
web portals, and web based products are gaining popularity with most major
vendors. The increased convenience of end users viewing their processes
remotely introduces security considerations. While these considerations are
already considered solved in other sectors of internet services, not all entities
responsible for deploying SCADA systems have understood the changes in
accessibility and threat scope implicit in connecting a system to the internet.
The move from proprietary technologies to more standardized and open
solutions together with the increased number of connections between
SCADA systems and office networks and the Internet has made them more
vulnerable to attacks - see references. Consequently, the security of
SCADA-based systems has come into question as they are increasingly seen
as extremely vulnerable to cyberwarfare/ cyberterrorism attacks.
In particular, security researchers are concerned about:
Â¢ the lack of concern about security and authentication in the design,
deployment and operation of existing SCADA networks
Â¢ the mistaken belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are
purportedly physically secured
Â¢ the mistaken belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are
supposedly disconnected from the Internet
SCADA systems are used to control and monitor physical processes,
examples of which are transmission of electricity, transportation of gas and
oil in pipelines, water distribution, traffic lights, and other systems used as
the basis of modern society. The security of these SCADA systems is
important because compromise or destruction of these systems would impact
multiple areas of society far removed from the original compromise. For
example, a blackout caused by a compromised electrical SCADA system
would cause financial losses to all the customers that received electricity
from that source. How security will affect legacy SCADA and new
deployments remains to be seen.
There are two distinct threats to a modern SCADA system. First is the
threat of unauthorized access to the control software, whether it be human
access or changes induced intentionally or accidentally by virus infections
and other software threats residing on the control host machine. Second is
the threat of packet access to the network segments hosting SCADA devices.
In many cases, there is rudimentary or no security on the actual packet
control protocol, so anyone who can send packets to the SCADA device can
control it. In many cases SCADA users assume that a VPN is sufficient
protection and are unaware that physical access to SCADA-related network
jacks and switches provides the ability to totally bypass all security on the
control software and fully control those SCADA networks. These kinds of
physical access attacks bypass firewall and VPN security and are best
addressed by endpoint-to-endpoint authentication and authorization such as
are commonly provided in the non-SCADA world by in-device SSL or other
Many vendors of SCADA and control products have begun to
address these risks in a basic sense by developing lines of specialized
industrial firewall and VPN solutions for TCP/IP-based SCADA networks.
Additionally, application whitelisting solutions are being implemented
because of their ability to prevent malware and unauthorized application
changes without the performance impacts of traditional antivirus scans Also,
the ISA Security Compliance Institute (ISCI) is emerging to formalize
SCADA security testing starting as soon as 2009. ISCI is
conceptually similar to private testing and certification that has been
performed by vendors since 2007. Eventually, standards being defined by
ISA99 WG4 will supersede the initial industry consortia efforts, but
probably not before 2011 .
The increased interest in SCADA vulnerabilities has resulted in
vulnerability researchers discovering vulnerabilities in commercial SCADA
software and more general offensive SCADA techniques presented to the
general security community. In electric and gas utility SCADA systems,
the vulnerability of the large installed base of wired and wireless serial
communications links is addressed in some cases by applying bump-in-the-
wire devices that employ authentication and encryption rather than
replacing all existing nodes.
The automation of any system or any industry is necessary in the present
comparative ward for the better performance of the system or industry. The
main and most important part of a automatic system is a PLC and SCADA.
By the use of plc we can change any system as according to our
requirements without changing in the hardwareâ„¢s. The many other benefits
are also by them it is used like itâ„¢s required less space and less power to
operate, it has long life, the changing in logic is easy etc. For the use of a plc
the programming is must, with out the program we can not use the plc, for
the different plcâ„¢s of all the companies the method of programming and the
logic remain same but the addressing is changed, the addressing is also
available from the softwareâ„¢s. So the most important part is programming
for a plc according to the requirements.
SCADA is the second important part of the automation. It is used
by the plcâ„¢s, by the scada softwareâ„¢s we can design mimic of each field
system or components and can measure in our pc which is placed in our
control room. And we can control or change the value of each components
through our computer which are placed in the field, There are many
animation links in the scada by which we can design the mimic of
components. So in one line the scada is the system by which we can see
the performance of the field component in our pc or our control room and
also change the value of control quantities by our pc from the control
- : Bibliography : -
Study material by Futronix automation pvt. ltd.
Programmable logic by John. R . Hockwarth
Programmable logic by L.N.Bryan
Programmable logic by W.Batton
Automatic manufacturing by Hugh Jack
System with PLC
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