GREEN COMPUTING A SEMINAR REPORT
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Computer Science Clay
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14-06-2009, 01:49 AM


A SEMINAR REPORT ON
Submitted by: AJOY P MATHEW
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY,
COCHIN “ 682022
NOVEMBER 2008 2

Abstract
Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. The goals are similar to green chemistry; that is reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. It is worth emphasizing that this green technology should not be just about sound bytes to impress activists but concrete action and organizational policy. Opportunities lie in green technology like never before in history and organizations are seeing it as a way to create new profit centers while trying to help the environmental cause. The plan towards green IT should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings.
1. Introduction
Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. The primary objective of such a program is to account for the triple bottom line, an expanded spectrum of values and criteria for measuring organizational (and societal) success. The goals are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems. Elements of such as solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, disposal of electronic waste, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, energy use, thin client solutions, and return on investment (ROI). As 21st century belongs to computers, gizmos and electronic items, energy issues will get a serious ring in the coming days, as the public debate on carbon emissions, global warming and climate change gets hotter. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before.
2. Approaches to 2.1 Virtualization:
Computer virtualization is the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of physical hardware. The concept originated with the IBM mainframe operating systems of the 1960s, but was commercialized for x86- compatible computers only in the 1990s. With virtualization, a system administrator could combine several physical systems into virtual machines on one single, powerful system, thereby unplugging the original hardware and reducing power and cooling consumption. Several commercial companies and open-source project and implimentations now offer software packages to enable a transition to virtual computing. Intel Corporation and AMD have also built proprietary virtualization enhancements to the x86 instruction set into each of their CPU product lines, in order to facilitate virtualized computing. One of the primary goals of almost all forms of virtualization is making the most efficient use of available system resources. With energy and power costs increasing as the size of IT infrastructures grow, holding expenses to a minimum is quickly becoming a top priority for many IT pros. Virtualization has helped in that respect by allowing organizations to consolidate their servers onto fewer pieces of hardware, which can result in sizable cost savings. The datacenter is where virtualization can have the greatest impact, and itâ„¢s there where many of the largest companies in the virtualization space are investing their resources. Virtualization also fits in very nicely with the idea of Green Computing; by consolidating servers and maximizing CPU processing power on other servers, you are cutting costs (saving money) and taking less of a toll on our environment Storage virtualization uses hardware and software to break the link between an application, application component, system service or whole stack of software and the storage subsystem. This allows the storage to be located just about anywhere, on just about any type of device, replicated for performance reasons, replicated for reliability reasons or for any combination of the above.
In the past, it was necessary for each computer system to have its own storage to function. Storage virtualization makes it possible for systems to access a shared storage subsystem that is somewhere out on the net. It also means that copies of data that used to be stored on every computerâ„¢s disks can now be stored once in the shared storage subsystem. Itâ„¢s clear that this approach would reduce the number of storage devices needed, the amount of power required, the heat produced and, as a wonderful side effect, would reduce the operational and administrative costs of back up, archival storage and the like. Since the link between the application and the actual storage device is broken by storage virtualization software, the device can be selected based upon whatâ„¢s most appropriate. Applications and data that are accessed frequently can be stored on high speed, expensive devices that consume more power. Applications and data that are accessed less frequently can be stored on lower speed, less expensive devices that consume less power. Rarely accessed applications and data can be migrated to archival storage devices that result in the lowest cost and require the lowest power consumption.

2.2 Power Management:
• Power management for computer systems are desired for many reasons, particularly:
• Prolong battery life for portable and embedded systems.
• Reduce cooling requirements.
• Reduce noise.
• Reduce operating costs for energy and cooling.

• Lower power consumption also means lower heat dissipation, which increases system stability, and less energy use, which saves money and reduces the impact on the environment.


• The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), an open industry standard, allows an operating system to directly control the power saving aspects of its underlying hardware. This allows a system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set periods of inactivity. In addition, a system may hibernate, where most components (including the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off. ACPI is a successor to an earlier Intel-Microsoft standard called Advanced Power Management, which allows a computer's BIOS to control power management functions.

• Some programs allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU, which reduces both the amount of heat produced and electricity consumed. This process is called undervolting. Some CPUs can automatically undervolt the processor depending on the workload; this technology is called "SpeedStep" on Intel processors, "PowerNow!"/"Cool'n'Quiet" on AMD chips, LongHaul on VIA CPUs, and LongRun with Transmeta processors. The power management for microprocessors can be done over the whole processor, or in specific areas.With dynamic voltage scaling and dynamic frequency scaling, the CPU core voltage, clock rate, or both, can be altered to decrease power consumption at the price of slower performance. This is sometimes done in real time to optimize the power-performance tradeoff.
Examples:
1. Intel SpeedStep
2. AMD Cool'n'Quiet
3. AMD PowerNow!
4. VIA LongHaul (PowerSaver)
5. Transmeta LongRun and LongRun2
Newer Intel Core processors support ultra-fine power control over the function units within the processors.

2.3 Power Supply:
Power supplies in most computers (PSUs for short) aren't designed for energy efficiency. In fact, most computers drain more power than they need during normal operation, leading to higher electrical bills and a more dire environmental impact. The 80 Plus program is a voluntary certification system for power-supply manufacturers. The term "80 Plus" is a little complicated, so bear with me for a moment. If a PSU meets the certification, it will use only the power it needs at a given load: In other words, it won't use more power than it needs. For example, if your PC requires only 20 percent of the total power of a 500-watt PSU, the system will consume no more than 100 watts. Only when the PC requires full power will the PSU run at the full wattage load. An 80 Plus power supply can save about 85 kilowatt hours per PC, per year. In many ways, it's the heart of a green PC, since it manages the power for all the other components. It also has the most dramatic effect on your energy bill. Of course, all 80 Plus power supplies are also lead-free and RoHS compliant. Desktop computer power supplies (PSUs) are generally 70“75% efficient, dissipating the remaining energy as heat. An industry initiative called 80 PLUS certifies PSUs that are at least 80% efficient; typically these models are drop-in replacements for older, less efficient PSUs of the same form factor. As of July 20, 2007, all new Energy Star 4.0-certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient. Various initiatives are underway to improve the efficiency of computer power supplies. Climate savers computing initiative promotes energy saving and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by encouraging development and use of more efficient power supplies
2.4 Storage:
There are three routes available, all of which vary in cost, performance, and capacity. The most conventional route is the the 3.5" desktop hard drive. Recently, major drive manufacturers have begun to focus on reduced power consumption, resulting in such features as the reduced RPM low-power idle mode with fixed rotation speed for reduced power consumption. The advantages of this route are the highest possible capacity, the best performance (out of the highest-end solid-state drives). The second option, which also lends itself to affordability, is to use a 2.5" laptop hard drive. These consume less power than larger disks as a result of their smaller platters, smaller motors, and firmware that is already optimized for power consumption versus most 3.5" harddisks. With capacities up to 320GB, reasonable capacity is well within reach, although the price is substantially higher than an equivalent 3.5" disk. With a green system aimed at light use, a 120GB or 160GB laptop drive is a very affordable, lower-power alternative to a 3.5" disk. The lowest-power option is to use a solid state hard drive (SSD), which typically draw less than one-third the power of a 2.5" disk. The latest, highest-performance SSDs are very fast but extremely expensive, and currently top out at only 64GB. That's adequate for light use, but wholly inadequate for gamers, video editing, and other heavy uses. More affordable SSDs are available in larger capacities, but are not cheap and typically have slow write performance, which limits their practical utility. Smaller form factor (e.g. 2.5 inch) hard disk drives often consume less power than physically larger drives. Unlike hard disk drives, solid-state drives store data in flash memory or DRAM. With no moving parts, power consumption may be reduced somewhat for low capacity flash based devices. Even at modest sizes, DRAM based SSDs may use more power than hard disks, (e.g., 4GB i-RAM uses more power and space than laptop drives). Flash based drives are generally slower for writing than hard disks.
2.5 Video Card:
A fast GPU may be the largest power consumer in a computer. Energy efficient display options include:

• No video card - use a shared terminal, shared thin client, or desktop sharing software if display required.
• Use motherboard video output - typically low 3D performance and low power.
• Reuse an older video card that uses little power; many do not require heat sinks or fans.
• Select a GPU based on average wattage or performance per watt
The easiest way to conserve power is to go with integrated video. This is the lowest- performance option, but for office users, casual browsing, and pure 2D use, it's more than adequate”and well worth saving the 10W, 20W, or even 35W from a discrete video card. Motherboards spitting out integrated video via DVI or HDMI aren't that hard to find, so power-users with their massive LCDs don't have to suffer.

2.6 Displays:
LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for the display. Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place of the fluorescent bulb, which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display. LCD monitors uses three times less when active, and ten times less energy when in sleep mode. LCDs are up to 66% more energy efficient than CRTs, LCDs are also upwards of 80% smaller in size and weight, leading to fuel savings in shipping. LCDs produce less heat, meaning you'll need less AC to keep cool.LCD screens are also easier on the eyes. Their lower intensity and steady light pattern result in less fatigue versus CRTs. A newer LCD draws 40-60W maximum in a modest 19", 20", or 22" size. That number grows close to 85W or 100W maximum for a 24" unit. Drop them down to standby or turn them off entirely when not using them to minimize power consumption. By comparison, a 21" CRT typically uses more than 120W, more than double the power of a typical 22" LCD.
2.7 Materials Recycling:
Computer recycling refers to recycling or reuse of a computer or electronic waste. This can include finding another use for the system (i. e. donated to charity), or having the system dismantled in a manner that allows for the safe extraction of the constituent materials for reuse in other products. Additionally, parts from outdated systems may be salvaged and recycled through certain retail outlets and municipal or private recycling centers. Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium out of landfills, but often computers gathered through recycling drives are shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are less strict than in North America and Europe. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimates that 80% of the post-consumer e-waste collected for recycling is shipped abroad to countries such as China, India, and Pakistan. Computing supplies, such as printer cartridges, paper, and batteries may be recycled as well. Obsolete computers are a valuable source for secondary raw materials, if treated properly, however if not treated properly they are a major source of toxins and carcinogens. Rapid technology change, low initial cost and even planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast growing problem around the globe. Technical solutions are available but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied. Electronic devices, including audio-visual components (televisions, VCRs, stereo equipment), mobile phones and other hand-held devices, and computer components, contain valuable elements and substances suitable for reclamation, including lead, copper, and gold. They also contain a plethora of toxic substances, such as dioxins, PCBs, cadmium, chromium, radioactive isotopes, and mercury. Additionally, the processing required to reclaim the precious substances (including incineration and acid treatments) release, generate and synthesize further toxic by- products Most major computer manufacturers offer some form of recycling, often as a free replacement service when purchasing a new PC. At the user's request they may mail in their old computer, or arrange for pickup from the manufacturer. Individuals looking for environmentally-friendly ways in which to dispose of electronics can find corporate electronic take-back and recycling programs across the country. Open to the public (in most cases), corporations nationwide have begun to offer low-cost to no- cost recycling, and have opened centers nationally and in some cases internationally. Such programs frequently offer services to take-back and recycle electronics including mobile phones, laptop and desktop computers, digital cameras, and home and auto electronics. Companies offer what are called take-back programs that provide monetary incentives for recyclable and/or working technologies. While there are several health hazards when it comes to dealing with computer recycling some of the substances you should be aware of:

• Lead common in CRTs, older solder, some batteries and to some formulations of PVC. Can be harmful if not disposed of properly.
• Mercury in fluorescent tubes. With new technologies arising the elimination of mercury in many new model computers is taking place.
• Cadmium in some rechargeable batteries. It can be hazardous to your skin if exposed for too long. Although many people are exposed to it everyday it just depends on the amount of exposure.

• Liquid crystals are another health hazard that should be taken into
• consideration although they do not have the nearly the same effects as the other chemicals

Businesses seeking a cost-effective way to responsibly recycle large amounts of computer equipment face a more complicated process. They also have the option of contacting the manufacturers and arranging recycling options. However, in cases where the computer equipment comes from a wide variety of manufacturers, it may be more efficient to hire a third-party contractor to handle the recycling arrangements. There exist companies that specialize in corporate computer disposal services both offer disposal and recycling services in compliance with local laws and regulations. Such companies frequently also offer secure data elimination services.
2.8 Telecommuting:
Teleconferencing and telepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives. The advantages are many; increased worker satisfaction, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel, and increased profit margins as a result of lower overhead costs for office space, heat, lighting, etc. The savings are significant; the average annual energy consumption for U.S. office buildings is over 23 kilowatt hours per square foot, with heat, air conditioning and lighting accounting for 70% of all energy consumed. Other related initiatives, such as hotelling, reduce the square footage per employee as workers reserve space only when they need it. Many types of jobs -- sales, consulting, and field service -- integrate well with this technique. Rather than traveling great distances, in order to have a face-face meeting, it is now possible to teleconference instead, using a multiway video phone. Each member of the meeting, or each party, can see every other member on a screen or screens, and can talk to them as if they were in the same room. This brings enormous time and cost benefits, as well as a reduced impact on the environment by lessening the need for travel - a damaging source of carbon emissions.
Voice over IP (VoIP) reduces the telephony wiring infrastructure by sharing the existing Ethernet copper (a toxic metal). VoIP and phone extension mobility also made Hot desking and more practical.
3. Future of As 21st century belongs to computers, gizmos and electronic items, energy issues will get a serious ring in the coming days, as the public debate on carbon emissions, global warming and climate change gets hotter. If we think computers are nonpolluting and consume very little energy we need to think again. It is estimated that out of $250 billion per year spent on powering computers worldwide only about 15% of that power is spent computing- the rest is wasted idling. Thus, energy saved on computer hardware and computing will equate tonnes of carbon emissions saved per year. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. Opportunities lie in green technology like never before in history and organizations are seeing it as a way to create new profit centers while trying to help the environmental cause. The plan towards green IT should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings. Faster processors historically use more power. Inefficient CPU's are a double hit because they both use too much power themselves and their waste heat increases air conditioning needs, especially in server farms--between the computers and the HVAC. The waste heat also causes reliability problems, as CPU's crash much more often at higher temperatures. Many people have been working for years to slice this inefficiency out of computers. Similarly, power supplies are notoriously bad, generally as little as 47% efficient. And since everything in a computer runs off the power supply, nothing can be efficient without a good power supply. Recent inventions of power supply are helping fix this by running at 80% efficiency or better.
4. Ways of implementation
Power management softwares help the computers to sleep or hibernate when not in use. Reversible computing (which also includes quantum computing) promises to reduce power consumption by a factor of several thousand, but such systems are still very much in the laboratories. Reversible computing includes any computational process that is (at least to some close approximation) reversible, i.e., time-invertible, meaning that a time-reversed version of the process could exist within the same general dynamical framework as the original process.Reversible computing's efficient use of heat could make it possible to come up with 3-D chip designs, Bennett said. This would push all of the circuitry closer together and ultimately increase performance. The best way to recycle a computer, however, is to keep it and upgrade it. Further, it is important to design computers which can be powered with low power obtained from non-conventional energy sources like solar energy, pedaling a bike, turning a hand-crank etc. The electric utility industry is in an unprecedented era of change to meet increasing customer demand for greater reliability and different services in the face of substantial regulation and volatile energy costs. This requires new approaches and business models to allow greater network reliability, efficiency, flexibility and transparency. At the same time, the utility industry is digitizing, transforming from an electromechanical environment to a digitized one. New Internet Protocol-enabled networks now allow for network integration along the entire supply chain “ from generation, transmission, to end-use and metering -- and create the opportunity for Intelligent Utility Networks (IUN) which applies sensors and other technologies to sense and respond in real-time to changes throughout the supply chain. The IP-enabled network connects all parts of the utility grid equipment, control systems, applications, and employees. It also enables automatic data collection and storage from across the utility based on a common information model and service-oriented architecture (SOA), which enables a flexible use of information technology. This in turn allows utilities to continuously analyze data so that they can better manage assets and operations. Electronics giants are about to roll out eco-friendly range of computers (like desktops and laptops) that aim at reducing the e-waste in the environment. Besides desktops and laptops, other electronic hardware products should also be strictly adhering to the restricted use of hazardous substances. In other words, they should be free of hazardous materials such as brominated flame retardants, PVCs and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury, which are commonly used in computer manufacturing. Reliability about the use of green materials in computer is perhaps the biggest single challenge facing the electronics industry. Lead-tin solder in use today is very malleable making it an ideal shock absorber. So far, more brittle replacement solders have yet to show the same reliability in arduous real-world applications. ¢ Energy-intensive manufacturing of computer parts can be minimized by making manufacturing process more energy efficient by replacing petroleum- filled plastic with bioplastics”plant-based polymers” require less oil and energy to produce than traditional plastics with a challenge to keep these bioplastic computers cool so that electronics won't melt them. ¢ Power-sucking displays can be replaced with green light displays made of OLEDs, or organic light-emitting diodes.


• Use of toxic materials like lead can be replaced by silver and copper.
• Making recycling of computers (which is expensive and time consuming at present) more effective by recycling computer parts separately with an option of reuse or resale.
• Future computers could knock 10 percent off their energy use just by replacing hard drives with solid-state, or flash, memory, which has no watt-hungry moving parts.
• Buy and use a low power desktop or a laptop computer (40-90 watts) rather a higher power desktop (e.g. 300 watts).
• Find out the normal operating power (watts) required.
• The maximum power supply (up to 1kW in some modern gaming PCs) is not as important as the normal operating power, but note that power supply efficiency generally peaks at about 50-75% load.
• Idle state represents 69 to 97% of total annual energy use, even if power management is enabled.
• Computer power supplies are generally about 70“75% efficient; to produce 75W of DC output they require 100 W of AC input and dissipate the remaining 25 W in heat.
• Higher-quality power supplies can be over 80% efficient; higher energy efficiency uses less power directly, and requires less power to cool as well.As of 2007, 93% efficient power supplies are available.
• Thin clients can use only 4 to 8 watts of power at the desktop as the processing is done by a server.
• For desktops, buy a low power central processing unit (CPU). This reduces both power consumption and cooling requirements.
• Buy hardware from manufacturers that have a hardware recycling scheme, and recycle your old computer equipment rather than sending it to landfill.
• Turn your computer and monitor off when you are not using it.
• Enable hibernation using the power management settings. Standby does not
• save as much power.
• Replace your CRT screen with an LCD screen.
• Keep your PC or laptop for at least 5 years. If you're leasing, shift to a 5 year period. This reduces resource and energy consumption associated with the manufacture and distribution of PCs by 40%, compared to replacing PCs every 3 years which is current corporate practice.
• Avoid an unnecessary operating system version upgrade which requires a hardware upgrade.
• Use Linux (such as Ubuntu), which requires less resources than many other operating systems on an older computer as a spare or a file server.
• Use server virtualization to aggregate multiple under-utilized servers onto more energy efficient server infrastructure.
• Use blade servers instead of rack or standalone servers to reduce power consumption.
• Specify low energy consumption level in Request for Tender documents.
• Measure your data centre power usage.
• Use server and/or web-based applications where possible to extend desktop service life and reduce desktop software maintenance.
• Establish policies governing the acquisition, usage and disposal of computer hardware to minimize energy consumption and environmental impact.


6. GREEN IT:
The next burning issue for business It is becoming widely understood that the way in which we are behaving as a society is environmentally unsustainable, causing irreparable damage to our planet. Rising energy prices, together with government-imposed levies on carbon production, are increasingly impacting on the cost of doing business, making many current business practices economically unsustainable. It is becoming progressively more important for all businesses to act (and to be seen to act) in an environmentally responsible manner, both to fulfill their legal and moral obligations, but also to enhance the brand and to improve corporate image. Companies are competing in an increasingly ˜green™ market, and must avoid the real and growing financial penalties that are increasingly being levied against carbon production. IT has a large part to play in all this. With the increasing drive towards centralized mega data centers alongside the huge growth in power hungry blade technologies in some companies, and with a shift to an equally power-hungry distributed architecture in others, the IT function of business is driving an exponential increase in demand for energy, and, along with it, is having to bear the associated cost increases. The problem: Rising energy costs will have an impact on all businesses, and all businesses will increasingly be judged according to their environmental credentials, by legislators, customers and shareholders. This won™t just affect the obvious, traditionally power-hungry ˜smoke-belching™ manufacturing and heavy engineering industries, and the power generators. The IT industry is more vulnerable than most “ it has sometimes been a reckless and profligate consumer of energy. Development and Improvements in technology have largely been achieved without regard to energy consumption.
The impact:
Rising energy costs and increasing environmental damage can only become more important issues, politically and economically. They will continue to drive significant increases in the cost of living, and will continue to drive up the cost of doing business. This will make it imperative for businesses to operate as green entities, risking massive and expensive change. Cost and environmental concern will continue to force us away from the ˜dirtiest™ forms of energy (coal/oil), though all of the alternatives are problematic. We may find ourselves facing a greater reliance on gas, which is economically unstable and whose supply is potentially insecure, or at least unreliable. It may force greater investment in nuclear power, which is unpopular and expensive, and it may lead to a massive growth of intrusive alternative energy infrastructure “ including huge wind farms, or the equipment needed to exploit tidal energy. Solving the related problems of rising energy costs and environmental damage will be extremely painful and costly, and those perceived as being responsible will be increasingly expected to shoulder the biggest burden of the cost and blame. It may even prove impossible to reduce the growth in carbon emissions sufficiently to avoid environmental catastrophe. Some believe that the spotlight may increasingly point towards IT as an area to make major energy savings, and some even predict that IT may even become tomorrow™s 4x4/SUV, or aviation “ the next big target for the environmental lobby, and the next thing to lose public support/consent.
The solution:
A fresh approach to IT and power is now needed, putting power consumption at the fore in all aspects of IT “ from basic hardware design to architectural standards, from bolt-on point solutions to bottom-up infrastructure build. IBM has a real appreciation of the issues, thanks to its size, experience and expertise, and can help its customers to avoid the dozens of ˜wrong ways™ of doing things, by helping to identify the most appropriate solutions. There is a real, economic imperative to change arising now, and it is not just a matter of making gestures simply to improve a company™s environmental credentials. The cost of power: The whole topic of energy consumption is gaining increased prominence in Western Europe as a consequence of rising energy prices, and as a result of a growing focus on global warming and the environment. A history “ and the future “ of increasing power consumption: Many of today™s motor cars and car engines are increasingly poorly suited to today™s demand for economy and fuel efficiency, having been designed when oil prices were low and when performance, space and comfort were the most important design drivers. Each new car model since the Model T was therefore designed to out- perform its predecessors. Only now is fuel economy and environmental ˜friendliness™ becoming more important than speed and horsepower. The situation is similar in the IT industry, which has seen a concentration on processing power and storage capacity, while power consumption has been ignored. As in the automotive industry, energy consumption was regarded as being much less important than performance. The IT industry has seen a concentration on processing power and storage capacity, while power consumption has been ignored. As manufacturers competed to create ever-faster processors, smaller and smaller transistors (running hotter and consuming more electricity) were used to form the basis of each new generation of processors. Increased operating temperatures added to the consumption of power, requiring more and more cooling fans. Modern IT systems provide more computing power per unit of energy (kWh) and thus reduce energy consumption per unit of computing power. Despite this, they are actually responsible for an overall increase in energy consumption, and for an increase in the cost of energy as a proportion of IT costs. This is because users are not simply using the same amount of computing power as before, while using the new technology to reduce their power consumption (or operating temperatures), nor are they using technology to leverage savings in energy costs or in CO2 production. Instead, users are taking and using the increased computing power offered by modern systems. New software in particular is devouring more and more power every year. Some software requires almost constant access to the hard drive, draining power much more rapidly than previous packages did. Tests of the initial version of Microsoft Windows Vista indicated that it consumed 25% more power than today™s Windows XP, for example. The advent of faster, smaller chips has also allowed manufacturers to produce smaller, stackable and rackable servers allowing greater computing power to be brought to bear (and often shoe-horned into smaller spaces) but with no reduction in overall energy consumption, and often with a much greater requirement for cooling. Despite the trend towards server virtualization and consolidation in some companies, business demand for IT services is increasing, and many companies are still expanding their data centers, while the number of servers in such data centers is still increasing annually by about 18%.While the growth in demand for energy did slow down in 2005 (going from a 4.4% rise to just 2.7%, globally) and though the demand for energy actually fell in the USA, the International Energy Agency has predicted that the world will need 60% more energy by 2030 than it does today.
Data Centers:
In many companies, there has been a shift away from dedicated data centers, as part of an attempt to provide all IT requirements by using smaller boxes within the office environment. Many have found this solution too expensive, experiencing a higher net spend on staff as well as with higher support costs. Energy consumption of distributed IT environments is difficult to audit, but some have also noted a progressive increase in power consumption with the move from centralized to decentralized, then to distributed architecture, and finally to mobility-based computing. Even where distributed computing remains dominant, the problems of escalating energy prices and environmental concerns are present, albeit at a lower order of magnitude than in the data centre environment, and even though the problems are rather more diffuse and more difficult to solve. Some analysts believe that there is already a trend away from distributed computing back to the data centre, with consolidation and centralization on the rise again. Within a data centre/server environment, technological improvement is driving requirements for greater energy into the building, for increased floor area and for increased cooling capacity. This may be counter-intuitive, since the emergence of blade servers superficially promised to allow the more efficient use of data centre floor space, by packing more high-performance servers into a single rack. However, this increase in computing power and server numbers for a given floor area multiplies cooling problems, since air is an inefficient media for cooling computers and empty space alone is insufficient to give adequate cooling. Air conditioning and other cooling techniques are required to keep temperatures in check. A typical 1980s server could be cooled quite easily, but though a modern server takes up much less floor space, it is more difficult to cool, and requires more space around it. Though it will require less power per unit of computing power, its overall energy requirement will be considerably higher, and the need for improved cooling will further increase energy requirements “ and environmental impact, of course. Analysts recently suggested that by the end of 2008, 50% of the data centers would not have enough power to meet the power and cooling requirements of the new equipment used in high-density server environments. The new systems are more compact and of higher density, and can call for more localized power and cooling than will typically be found in an existing data centre environment. A blade server system set up in a single rack, can easily weigh more than a tonne, and can in theory call for more than 30kW of power “ more than 10 times what would have been required a few years ago. According to Sun Microsystems engineers, a typical rack of servers installed in data centers just two years ago might have consumed a modest 2kW of power while producing 40 watts of heat per square foot. Newer, high-density racks, expected to be in use by the end of the decade, could easily consume as much as 25kW and give off as much as 500 watts of heat per square foot. The energy consumed by fans, pumps and other cooling components already accounts for some 60-70% of the total energy consumption in the data centre, and Gartner predicts that energy costs will become the second highest cost in 70% of the world™s data centers by 2009, trailing staff/personnel costs, but well ahead of the cost of the IT hardware. It is now believed that in most data centers, particularly those located in single-story industrial-type buildings, electrical costs are already more than two to three times greater than real-estate costs, and many existing data centre buildings may be physically incapable of providing the higher levels of power and cooling that are now required. Because IT equipment is usually depreciated every two to three years, investment in new hardware is relatively easy, whereas new data centre equipment (including air conditioning, universal power supplies and generators) are more usually depreciated over 20 years, making new investment more difficult. Investing in new buildings may be more even more problematic. It is thus difficult and costly to build your way out of power consumption and heat problems. The increasing drive toward Server consolidation in an effort to improve operating costs and operational efficiency is further aggravating the problems of increasing energy consumption, and increased heat generation. Thus, data centre managers must focus on the electrical and cooling issue as never before. There are cheap, quick-fix, ˜point™ solutions that provide ˜strap-on™ cooling by retrofitting blowers and/or water-cooling systems. Installing water jackets on the server racks allows one to build a much smaller, denser and more efficient data centre. But although liquid cooling is more efficient than air-conditioning, it is still a short- term, stop-gap answer. Much greater efficiencies and greater cost savings can be leveraged by addressing the underlying problem and by using longer-term solutions. This is likely to entail redesigning and reconfiguring the data centre, however, which obviously requires more long-term investment and a fresh approach to IT, with power consumption at front of mind.
Strategies for change:
The whole purpose of IT is to make businesses more productive and efficient, and to save money. Businesses are competitive bodies, used to having to ˜do more with less™ in order to remain competitive. They will have to learn to use less electricity in just the same way, using green (sustainable) computing to save money. This will demand major changes in IT user behaviours and policies. As energy and infrastructure costs continue to increase exponentially, and as environmental considerations become more prevalent, there is a real need for a power-based IT optimization strategy, bringing power right to the fore of IT policy, thereby impacting the end-toned architecture, hardware and software, and on all of the processes undertaken day-to-day to support a company™s workflow. This could force the adoption of new infrastructure, and will increasingly inform decision making when new platforms are procured, or when decisions are made about IT strategies “ whether to centralize or whether to adopt a more distributed architecture and so on. Other companies will have to take more modest steps, simply making sure that desktop PCs, monitors and printers are turned off at night, and/or using more effective power- saving modes on unused equipment. Others will opt to use more energy-efficient components, such as LCDs rather than CRT monitors when buying new hardware. New dual-core processors are faster than traditional chips and yet use less energy, and the latest generation of dual-core processors (exemplified by Intel™s new ˜Woodcrest™) promise to consume about one third less power than their predecessors while offering up to 80% better performance. Other IT users may need to investigate the use of DC power. Most energy suppliers provide AC power because it is easier to transport over long distances, although most PCs and servers run on DC, so that the AC current from the utility has to be converted to DC before it reaches the hardware, with inevitable losses of energy in conversion. Some companies may benefit from moving away from distributed computing based on individual desktop PCs to small, thin client server architecture. It has been suggested that a 10-user system could save about 3,200kWh per year in direct electricity costs (while further energy savings, equivalent to about 11 tonnes of CO2 per year, would be saved in manufacturing costs). The total production and operating cost savings over the three-year life span of a 10-user system would be more than 33 tonnes. In an existing server environment, there are significant cost savings associated with any reductions in cooling requirements, and keeping server rooms and computer workspaces at the right temperature is critical. Virtualization and server consolidation can allow users to ˜do more with less™, allowing one large server to replace several smaller machines. This can reduce the power required and the overall heat produced. By reducing the number of servers in use, users can simplify their IT infrastructure, and reduce the power and cooling requirements. When Dayton, Ohio overhauled its IT infrastructure, replacing a network of 80 archaic terminals and numerous ad hoc PCs with thin clients for 60% of the staff and PCs for the rest, the city saw a corresponding drop in energy used. The switch saved the city US$700,000 annually from reduced data and software administration expenses, and especially from lower client maintenance costs, with a US$60,000-$90,000 reduction in electricity costs. There is also a corresponding reduction in carbon footprint. Fortunately, business is getting outside support as it struggles towards greener computing. The US Environmental Protection Agency™s Energy Star programme is already promoting more energy-efficient IT infrastructures and policies, while IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems and AMD have joined forces to launch the Green Grid environmental lobby, aimed at reducing energy consumption at computer data centers by encouraging and improving power-saving measures.
6. Recent implementations of 6.1 Blackle:
Blackle is a search-engine site powered by Google Search. Blackle came into being based on the concept that when a computer screen is white, presenting an empty word or the Google home , your computer consumes 74W. When the screen is black it consumes only 59W. Based on this theory if everyone switched from Google to Blackle, mother earth would save 750MW each year. This was a really good implementation of Green Computing. The principle behind Blackle is based on the fact that the display of different colors consumes different amounts of energy on computer monitors. 6.2 Fit-PC: a tiny PC that draws only 5w: Fit-PC is the size of a paperback and absolutely silent, yet fit enough to run Windows XP or Linux. fit-PC is designed to fit where a standard PC is too bulky, noisy and power hungry. If you ever wished for a PC to be compact, quiet and green “ then fit- PC is the perfect fit for you. Fit-PC draws only 5 Watts, consuming in a day less power than a traditional PC consumes in 1 hour. You can leave fit-PC to work 24/7 without making a dent in your electric bill.
6.3 Zonbu Computer:
The Zonbu is a new, very energy efficient PC. The Zonbu consumes just one third of the power of a typical light bulb. The device runs the Linux operating system using a 1.2 gigahertz processor and 512 meg of RAM. It also contains no moving parts, and does even contain a fan. You can get one for as little as US$99, but it does require you to sign up for a two-year subscription”.
6.4 Sunray thin client:
Sun Microsystems is reporting increased customer interest in its Sun Ray, a thin desktop client, as electricity prices climb, according to Subodh Bapat, vice president and chief engineer in the Eco Responsibility office at Sun. Thin clients like the Sun Ray consume far less electricity than conventional desktops, he said. A Sun Ray on a desktop consumes 4 to 8 watts of power, because most of the heavy computation is performed by a server. Sun says Sunrays are particularly well suited for cost-sensitive environments such as call centers, education, healthcare, service providers, and finance. PCs have more powerful processors as well as hard drives, something thin clients don't have. Thus, traditional PCs invariably consume a substantially larger amount of power. In the United States, desktops need to consume 50 watts or less in idle mode to qualify for new stringent Energy Star certification.
6.5 The Asus Eee PC and other ultra portables:
The "ultra-portable" class of personal computers is characterized by a small size, fairly low power CPU, compact screen, low cost and innovations such as using flash memory for storage rather than hard drives with spinning platters. These factors combine to enable them to run more efficiently and use less power than a standard form factor laptop. The Asus Eee PC is one example of an ultraportable. It is the size of a paperback, weighs less than a kilogram, has built-in Wi-Fi and uses flash memory instead of a hard drive. It runs Linux too.
7. Conclusion
So far, consumers haven't cared about ecological impact when buying computers, they've cared only about speed and price. But as Moore's Law marches on and computers commoditize, consumers will become pickier about being green. Devices use less and less power while renewable energy gets more and more portable and effective. New green materials are developed every year, and many toxic ones are already being replaced by them. The greenest computer will not miraculously fall from the sky one day, itâ„¢ll be the product of years of improvements. The features of a green computer of tomorrow would be like: efficiency, manufacturing & materials, recyclability, service model, self-powering, and other trends. Green computer will be one of the major contributions which will break down the 'digital divide', the electronic gulf that separates the information rich from the information poor.

8. References
1. Report of the Green Computing Task Group Green Computing and the Environment
2. Jones, Ernesta " New Computer Efficiency Requirements". U.S. EPA.
3. Green Computing: Whitepaper
4. ËœGreen ITâ„¢-IBM technology services
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Presented By:
1. Mihir Pandya(366)
2. Chintan Patel(33i)


II AGENDA

• Why is it required
• Why go GREEN
• What is Green Computing
• Integrated Circuit
• Power Consumption
• Reducing energy consumption
• Facts
• Solutions
• Greenpeace Ratings Recycling
• Conclusion References

Today, the main problem of the world is Global warming. The atmosphere is becoming hot & is causing many problems to living organisms. Computers also play a major role in polluting the world.
o Climate Change: First and foremost, conclusive research shows that CO2 and other emissions are causing global climate and environmental damage. Preserving the planet is a valid goal because it aims to preserve life. Planets like ours, that supports life, are very rare. None of the planets in our solar system, or in nearby star systems have m-class planets as we know them.
o Savings: Green computing can lead to serious cost savings over time. Reductions in energy costs from servers, cooling, and lighting are generating serious savings for many corporations.
o Reliability of Power: As energy demands in the world go up, 1 energy supply is declining or flat. Energy efficient systems helps
• ensure healthy power systems. Also, more companies are generating more of their own electricity, which further motivates them to keep power consumption low.
o Computing: Computing Power Consumption has Reached a Critical Point: Data centers have run out of usable power and cooling due to high densities.

Ill What is Green Computing
Green computing or green IT, refer^to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. It is "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems”such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems”efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.
• In order to achieve sustainable computing, we need to rethink from a "Green Computing" perspective.
• GreenComputing:
• Maximize energy
• Reduce of the use of hazardous materials such as lead
• Maximize recyclability of both a defunct product and of any factory waste.

"Green Computing" in view of energy efficiency at the nanometer scale -design low power consumption integrated circuits at 180nm and below. A Perfect "Green Computing" Example A super low-power "processor": D 800x faster D 1000x more memory D 3000X less
Why

• computer energy is often wasteful
• leaving the computer on when not in use (CPU and fan consume power, screen savers consume power) printing is often wasteful
• how many of you print out your emails or meeting agendas
• printing out partial drafts
• for a "paperless" society, we tend to use more paper today than before computer-prevalence pollution manufacturing techniques
• packaging
• disposal of computers and components toxicity
as we will see, there are toxic chemicals used in the manufacturing of computers and components which can enter the food chain and water!

Ill Integrated Circuits are Everywhere


Ill Integrated Circuit Market

were
Six billion microcontroller shipped in 2004, predicted to by 10% each year from 2004-2009 (Instate Inc. market research)
Semiconductor annual revenue of estimated at US $211.4
2004 is billion.
Desktop consumption has reached 100 watts
Total Personal Computer(400 million) energy usage in 2000 = 26 nuclear power plants
Power is the bottleneck of improving the system performance

Power consumption is causing serious problems because of excessive heat.

As circuit speed increases, power consumption has been the issue grows
<D mand
/Mr
pplications demand long If I v« ) 11
Designing low power circuits most important
Low power consumption is listed as the second greatest challenge for the industry


U.S consumes 25% of world's energy
-Computer infrastructure accounts for 1.5% and growing.
-E-Waste is becoming a major problem
¦ Political, ethical and financial
imperative for schools
-Set an example for students and the community

Ill What can we do about power
Understand all levels of the computer
Understand where power is dissipated

Think about ways to reduce power usage
at all levels A

Ill Components that consume

power
Video Card
AfastGPU maybe the largestpower consumer in a computer.
Energyefficientdisplayoptions include:
No video card - use a shared terminal, shared thin client, or desktop sharing software ifdisplayrequired.
Use motherboard video output - typically low 3D performance and lowpower.
Select a GPU based on average wattage or performance per watt.
Display
LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for the display. Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place of the fluorescent bulb, which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display
Ill Cont.
Operating system issues
Microsoft has been heavily criticised for producing operating systems that, out of the box, are not energy efficient. Due to Microsoft's dominance of the huge desktop operating system market this may have resulted in more energy waste than any other initiative by other vendors. Microsoft claim to have improved this in Vista, though the claim is disputed. This problem has been compounded because Windows versions before Vista did not allow power management features to be configured centrally by a system administrator. This has meant that most organisations have been unable to improve this situation.
Sun Datacenter 2006
10.5M kWh
10K tons of C02
WW Datacenters
290B kWh 200M tons of C02
200 M tons of CO2= CO2 produced by 40 million cars
Ill Cooling the Data Center
Current coolants: CFCs and HCFCs = Ozone Depletion
The other alternative coolant: HFC = increase in green house emission 1300 times (cs.virginia.edu/kim/c ourses/cs771/lectures/CS771-
22.ppt)
Moving Datacenters to exotic locations(Microsoft -> Cold Siberia, Sun -> underground)
1 Manufacturing - Fossil Fuels
Average desktop computer with monitor requires 10 times its weight in chemicals and fossil fuels to produce .
240 kg of fossil fuel for CRT monitor
(United Nations University).
266 kg of fossil fuel for LCD monitor (Williams, 2003).
Ill Manufacturing - Monitors
CRT - lead and zinc leachate mean monitors are
hazardous waste
(Lee etal., 2004)
Lead: bioavailable in soil - can attack proteins and DNA, as well as interfere with nervous system function (Bechara, 2004; Needleman, 2004)
LCD - 4-12 mg mercury /unit (Williams, 2003)
Liquid crystals - polycyclic or halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, 588 different compounds
n 4% have potential for acute toxicity, but show no mutagenic effects in bacteria tests (Williams, 2003)

IE-waste Impacts
Energy Use of PCs
CPU uses 120 Watts
CRT uses 150 Watts
D 8 hours of usage, 5 days a week = 562 KWatts
if the computer is left on all the time without proper power saver modes, this can lead to 1,600 KWatts
D for a large institution, say a university of 40,000 students and faculty, the power bill for just computers can come to $2 million /year
Energy use comes from
D electrical current to run the CPU, motherboard, memory
D running the fan and spinning the disk(s)
D monitor (CRTs consume more power than any other computer component)
D printers
Reducing Energy Consumption
Turn offthe computer when not in use, even ifjust for an hour
Turn off the monitor when not in use (as opposed to running a screen saver)
Use power saver mode
D in power saver mode, the top item is not necessary, but screen savers use as much electricity as any normal processing, and the screen saver is not necessary on a flat panel display
Use hardware/software with the Energy Star label
ENERGY STAR
D Energy Star is a useal of approval" by the Energy organization of the government (the EPA)
Don't print unless necessary and you are ready
Use LCDs instead of CRTs as they are more power efficient

Ill Google Facts
According to a research done by the Harvard University, two search requests done on the search engine Google, produce as much carbon dioxide as boiling a kettle of water. Every time you do a search requests on Google, it produces 7 grams of CO2. A recent research, done by the research firm Gartner, claimed that IT causes 2 percent of global emissions nowadays. In total there are 200 million search requests done on Google every day, that's 1,400,000 kg of carbon dioxide every day. Google replied to this research by claiming that every search request would just produce 0,2 gram of carbon dioxide. And, if you do the maths, . that's just 40,000 kg of carbon dioxide every day.
Previously, it has been calculated that worldwide 8.3 megawatt hours could be saved, if the home page of Google would be black instead of white.
Blackle is a website powered by Google Custom Search, which aims to save energy by displaying a black background and using greyish-white font color for search results.
The concept behind Blackle is that computer monitors can be made to consume less energy by displaying much darker colors. Blackle is based on a study which tested a variety of CRT and LCD monitors. There is dispute over whether there really are any energy saving effects.
This concept was first brought to the attention of Heap Media ¦ by a blog post, which estimated that Google could save 750.0
megawatt-hours a year by utilizing it for CRT screens. The homepage of Blackle provides a count of the number of megawatt-hours that have been saved by enabling this concept.

I Blackle(2)
-How Blackle looks:
Print as little as possible. Review and modify documents on the screen and use print preview.
Recycle waste paper. Buy and use recycled paper in your printers and copiers.
On larger documents, use smaller font sizes (consistent with readability) to save paper.
Disposal
Consider that the average computer lifespan is about 2 years (cell phones < 2 years) D 10 years ago, the lifespan of a computer was 5 years D between 1997 and 2004, it is estimated that 315 million computers became obsolete (and were discarded, donated, or recycled) 183 million computers were sold in 2004 (674 million cell phones!) New users in China (178 million by 2010) and India (80 million by 2010) will require the creation of new computers Disposal of these devices constituted 20-50 million tons per year (about 5% of the total waste of the planet) D this waste is called e-waste D where are we going to put all of it
Europe has outlawed using landfills for computer ¦ components
D the US and Europe export a lot of e-waste to Asian landfills (especially China even though China has outlawed the importing of e-waste)
D in addition, incineration of computer components leads to air pollution and airborne toxins
Other Solutions
Reuse: donate your computer components to people who may not have or have lesser quality computers
D inner city schools, churches, libraries, third world countries
this however leads to the older computers being dumped but there is probably no way around this as eventually the older computers would be discarded anyway
Refurbish: rather than discarding your computer when the next generation is released, just get a new CPU and memory chips - upgrade rather than replace
D while you will still be discarded some components, you will retain most of the computer system (e.g., monitor, the system unit housing, cables)
Are there adequate incentives to do either of the above Do computer companies encourage refurbishing/upgrading

One More Solution: Recycling
If companies can recycle the plastics and other components, this reduce waste and toxins however, the raw materials in e-waste can harm the recycle in undeveloped a lot of the recycling chores are left up to unprotected children! Developed countries now have facility recycling e- waste however, in Europe, the plastics are discarded instead of recycled because the flame retardant chemicals are too toxic to work with To resolve these problems, the computer manufacturers must start using recyclable chemicals

Recycling
Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium out of landfills, but often computers gathered through recycling drives are shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are less strict than in North America and Europe. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimates that 80% of the post-consumer e-waste collected for recycling is shipped abroad to countries such as China, India, and Pakistan.
Computing supplies, such as printer cartridges, paper, and batteries may be recycled as well.

7.45 Nokia Scores top marks for leading competitors on toxic phase out.
7.1 Samsung Holds second position for commitment to reduce absolute
emissions.
6.5 Sony Ericsson Up two places with better product energy efficiency
reporting.
5.7 LG Electronics Up two places but needs to eliminate hazardous
chemicals from all products.
5.5 Toshiba Moves up two places with an extra point for promising to cut
GHGs.
5.5 Motorola Scores higher and climbs two places because of use of
renewable energy
¦ 5.3 Philips Falls from 4th to 7th position and needs to put its commitment
to responsible recycling policies into practice.
5.3 Sharp Rises from 9th to joint 7th place with its energy efficient
products.
4.9 Acer Put 16 new models of a monitor that are almost free of
hazardous chemicals and climbed two places from 11 to 9 but still need to sort out the power cord .

4.9 Panasonic Advance from 12th to 10th place for energy efficiency and
pvc free product range but still bad on e waste.
4.7 Apple Drop one position to 11th with no change in scores but get kudos for their green macbook
4.5 Sony Plunges from 5th to 12th place for inadequate commitments on eliminating hazardous chemicals, e waste policy and cutting
GHGs
3.9 Dell Stays at 13th place because of backtracking on toxics phase out
3.5 HP Is at 14th position and has no products on the market free of toxic substances
2.5 Microsoft Loses a point for a poor recycling policy but stays in 15th
position
2.5 Lenovo Down two places with no set timeline for toxics phase out on all products
2.4 Fujitsu Debuts second from last with no products that are free of hazardous chemicals
1 Nintendo Stays put in last position with a glimmer of hope with
partially pvc free consoles

Green computing can lead to a lot of energy savings, reduction in emission of co2 & CFC's which leads to environment protection.
It also leads to serious cost savings overtime.
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This article is presented by:
AJOY P MATHEW
Dr. David Peter S


Green computing

ABSTRACT

Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. The goals are similar to green chemistry; that is reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. It is worth emphasizing that this “green technology” should not be just about sound bytes to impress activists but concrete action and organizational policy. Opportunities lie in green technology like never before in history and organizations are seeing it as a way to create new profit centers while trying to help the environmental cause. The plan towards green IT should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings.

Introduction
Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. The primary objective of such a program is to account for the triple bottom line, an expanded spectrum of values and criteria for measuring organizational (and societal) success. The goals are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems. Elements of such as solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, disposal of electronic waste, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, energy use, thin client solutions, and return on investment (ROI). As 21st century belongs to computers, gizmos and electronic items, energy issues will get a serious ring in the coming days, as the public debate on carbon emissions, global warming and climate change gets hotter. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before.

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GREEN COMPUTING A SEMINAR REPORT

INTRODUCTION

Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.
The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies
Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems. Elements of such as solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, disposal of electronic waste, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, energy use, thin client solutions, and return on investment (ROI).
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Summary
The biggest challenge facing the environment today is
global warming, caused by carbon emissions. About 98
percent of CO2 emissions (or 87 percent of all CO2–
equivalent emissions from all greenhouse gases) can be
directly attributed to energy consumption, according
to a report by the Energy Information Administration
(see Resources). Many organizations today are speaking
openly about a desire to operate in a “green” manner,
publishing principles for environmental practices and
sustainability on their corporate Web. In addition, many
companies are now paying (or will pay in the near
future) some kind of carbon tax for the resources they
consume and the environmental impact of the products
and services they produce, so a reduction in energy
consumed can have a real financial payback.
In this article, we focus on reduction in energy
consumption over the full equipment life cycle as the
prime motivator for “green” application design, with
energy reduction as the best measure of “green-ness.” Our
sole motivation is reducing energy consumption, without
regard to economic impact. However, we do observe that
improving energy efficiency will also reduce economic
costs, as energy costs are a significant contributor to the
life-cycle cost of a data center, but this happy coincidence is
not explored further in the paper
Green computing:
Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. It is "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. Green IT also strives to achieve economic viability and improved system performance and use, while abiding by our social and ethical responsibilities. Thus, green IT includes the dimensions of environmental sustainability, the economics of energy efficiency, and the total cost of ownership, which includes the cost of disposal and recycling. It is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently."[1]
With increasing recognition that man-made greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributing factor to global warming, enterprises, governments, and society at large now have an important new agenda: tackling environmental issues and adopting environmentally sound practices. Greening our IT products, applications, services, and practices is both an economic and an environmental imperative, as well as our social responsibility.[2] Therefore, a growing number of IT vendors and users are moving toward green IT and thereby assisting in building a green society and economy.
The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste.
Green computing researchers look at key issues and topics related to energy efficiency in computing and promoting environmentally friendlycomputer technologies and systems include energy-efficient use of computers, design of algorithms and systems for environmentally-friendly computer technologies, and wide range of related topics.
Roads to Green Computing
To comprehensively and effectively address the environmental impacts of computing/IT, we must adopt a holistic approach and make the entire IT lifecycle greener by addressing environmental sustainability along the following four complementary paths:[1]
Green use — reducing the energy consumption of computers and other information systems as well as using them in an environmentally sound manner
Green disposal — refurbishing and reusing old computers and properly recycling unwanted computers and other electronic equipment
Green design — designing energy-efficient and environmentally sound components, computers, servers, cooling equipment, and data centers
Green manufacturing — manufacturing electronic components, computers, and other associated subsystems with minimal impact on the environment
These four paths span a number of focus areas and activities, including:[1]
design for environmental sustainability
energy-efficient computing
power management
data center design, layout, and location
server virtualization
responsible disposal and recycling
regulatory compliance
green metrics, assessment tools, and methodology
environment-related risk mitigation
use of renewable energy sources and
eco-labeling of IT products
Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems. Elements of such a solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, disposal of electronic waste, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, energy use,thin client solutions, and return on investment (ROI).
The imperative for companies to take control of their power consumption, for technology and more generally, therefore remains acute. One of the most effective power management tools available in 2009 may still be simple, plain, common sense.
Origins
In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star, a voluntary labeling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. This resulted in the widespread adoption of sleep mode among consumer electronics. The term "green computing" was probably coined shortly after the Energy Star program began; there are several USENET posts dating back to 1992 which use the term in this manner.[4] Concurrently, the Swedish organization TCO Development launched the TCO Certification program to promote low magnetic and electrical emissions from CRT-based computer displays; this program was later expanded to include criteria on energy consumption, ergonomics, and the use of hazardous materials in construction
Regulations and industry initiatives
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published a survey of over 90 government and industry initiatives on "Green ICTs", i.e. information and communication technologies, the environment and climate change. The report concludes that initiatives concentrate on greening ICTs rather than tackling global warming and environmental degradation through the use of ICT applications. In general, only 20% of initiatives have measurable targets, with government programmes including them more frequently than business associations.
Government
Many governmental agencies have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage green computing. TheEnergy Star program was revised in October 2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer equipment, along with a tiered ranking system for approved products.[7][8] The European Union's directives 2002/95/EC (RoHS), on the reduction of hazardous substances, and 2002/96/EC (WEEE) on waste electrical and electronic equipment required the substitution of heavy metals and flame retardants like PBBs and PBDEs in all electronic equipment put on the market starting on July 1, 2006. The directives placed responsibility on manufacturers for the gathering and recycling of old equipment (the Producer Responsibility model).[9]
There are currently 26 US States that have established state-wide recycling programs for obsolete computers and consumer electronics equipment.[10] The statutes either impose a fee for each unit sold at retail (Advance Recovery Fee model), or require the manufacturers to reclaim the equipment at disposal (Producer Responsibility model).
Industry
Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states.[11] The CSCI provides a catalog of green products from its member organizations, and information for reducing PC power consumption. It was started on 2007-06-12. The name stems from the World Wildlife Fund's Climate Savers program, which was launched in 1999.[12] The WWF is also a member of the Computing Initiative.[11]
Green Computing Impact Organization, Inc. (GCIO) is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting the end-users of computing products in being environmentally responsible. This mission is accomplished through educational events, cooperative programs and subsidized auditing services. The heart of the group is based on the GCIO Cooperative, a community of environmentally concerned IT leaders who pool their time, resources, and buying power to educate, broaden the use, and improve the efficiency of, green computing products and services. Members work to increase the ROI of green computing products through a more thorough understanding of real measurable and sustainable savings incurred by peers; enforcing a greater drive toward efficiency of vendor products by keeping a community accounting of savings generated; and through group negotiation power.
Green Electronics Council-- The Green Electronics Council offers the Electronic Products Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) to assist in the purchase of "green" computing systems. The Council evaluates computing equipment on 28 criteria that measure a product's efficiency and sustainability attributes. On 2007-01-24, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13423, which requires all United States Federal agencies to use EPEAT when purchasing computer systems.[13][14]
The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centers and business computing ecosystems. It was founded in February 2007 by several key companies in the industry – AMD, APC, Dell, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Rackable Systems,SprayCool, Sun Microsystems and VMware. The Green Grid has since grown to hundreds of members, including end users and government organizations, all focused on improving data center efficiency.
International Professional Practice Partnership (IP3) is a programme of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) for global certification of ICT professionals. The program includes certification in Green ICT Strategies, using a curriculum developed by theAustralian Computer Society.
The Green500 list rates supercomputers by energy efficiency (megaflops/watt, encouraging a focus on efficiency rather than absolute performance.
Green Comm Challenge is an organization that promotes the development of energy conservation technology and practices in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). Green Comm Challenge achieved worldwide notoriety in 2007, when it enlisted as one of the challengers in the 33rd edition of the America's Cup, an effort meant to show how researchers, technologists and entrepreneurs from around the world can be brought together by an exciting vision: building the ultimate renewable energy machine, a competitive America’s Cup boat.
Approaches to green computing
Algorithmic efficiency

The efficiency of algorithms has an impact on the amount of computer resources required for any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs in writing programs. As computers have become more numerous and the cost of hardware has declined relative to the cost of energy, the energy efficiency and environmental impact of computing systems and programs has received increased attention. A study by Alex Wissner-Gross, a physicist at Harvard, estimated that the average Google search released 7 grams of carbon dioxide (CO₂).[15] However, Google disputes this figure, arguing instead that a typical search produces only 0.2 grams of CO₂.[16] Algorithms can also be used to route data to data centers where electricity is less expensive. MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and Akamai project and implimentation up to a 40 percent savings on energy costs.[17]
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provide me seminar and presentation report on green computing
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.ppt   Green-Computing.ppt (Size: 835 KB / Downloads: 212)
Green Computing
• Why
– computer energy is often wasteful
• leaving the computer on when not in use (CPU and fan consume power, screen savers consume power)
– printing is often wasteful
• how many of you print out your emails or meeting agendas
• printing out partial drafts
• for a “paperless” society, we tend to use more paper today than before computer-prevalence
– pollution
• manufacturing techniques
• packaging
• disposal of computers and components
– toxicity
• as we will see, there are toxic chemicals used in the manufacturing of computers and components which can enter the food chain and water!
Energy Use of PCs
• CPU uses 120 Watts
• CRT uses 150 Watts
– 8 hours of usage, 5 days a week = 562 KWatts
• if the computer is left on all the time without proper power saver modes, this can lead to 1,600 KWatts
– for a large institution, say a university of 40,000 students and faculty, the power bill for just computers can come to $2 million / year
Energy use comes from
– electrical current to run the CPU, motherboard, memory
– running the fan and spinning the disk(s)
– monitor (CRTs consume more power than any other computer component)
– printers
Reducing Energy Consumption
• Turn off the computer when not in use, even if just for an hour
• Turn off the monitor when not in use (as opposed to running a screen saver)
• Use power saver mode
– in power saver mode, the top item is not necessary, but screen savers use as much electricity as any normal processing, and the screen saver is not necessary on a flat panel display
• Use hardware/software with the Energy Star label
– Energy Star is a “seal of approval” by the Energy Star organization of the government (the EPA)
• Don’t print unless necessary and you are ready
• Use LCDs instead of CRTs as they are more power efficient
Manufacturing
• Microchip fabrication has over 400 distinct steps which involve 4 general phases
• Throughout, the process requires a great deal of ultra-pure water and the chips are bathed in chemical solvents
– the resources used are shown below
Chemical Elements Used: Lead
• used in soldering of printed circuit boards and other components
– also used in glass for CRTs
• It is estimated that between 1997 and 2004, 1.2 billion tons of lead was used in computer components
• The problem:
– lead can cause damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood system, kidneys, endocrine system and cause negative effects on child brain development
– lead accumulates in the environment and has toxic effects on plants, animals and microorganisms
– electronics contribute 40% of the total amount of lead found in landfills and can make its way from landfills into the water supplies
Chemical Elements Used: Mercury
• Mercury is used in
– batteries, switches, housing, printed circuit boards
– mercury is found in medical equipment, data transmission equipment, telecommunications equipment and cell phones as well
– if is estimated that 22% of the yearly use of mercury is in electrical and electronic equipment
• although a small amount of mercury is used, it is used in nearly all computer construction amounting to 400,000 pounds of mercury used between 1997 and 2004
• The problem
– mercury spreads out in water transforming into methylated mercury which easily accumulates in living organisms
– it enters the food chain through fish that swim in polluted waters
– methylated mercury can cause chronic brain damage
Other Chemical Elements
• Cadmium is used in resistors for chips, infrared detectors and in semiconductors (plus older CRTs)
– estimated that between 1997 and 2004, 2 million pounds of cadmium was used in computer components
• The problem:
– cadmium is classified as toxic, these compounds accumulate in the human body, particularly the kidneys
– cadmium is absorbed through respiration and also food intake
– cadmium has a half life of 30 years so that cadmium can poison a human body slowly through the human’s life
• Hexavalent Chromium (Chromium VI) is used to treat steel plates (an anti-corrosive) and it is estimated that between 1997 and 2004, 1.2 million pounds were used in computer components
– if you’ve seen Erin Brokovich, you know that this can lead to cancer and a number of other medical problems
Plastics
• Plastics are found throughout the computer, largely from casings but also internally to hold components together
– 4 billion pounds of plastic were used to build computers and components between 1997 and 2004
• One specific form of plastics used is polyvinyl chloride (PVC) which is used in cabling and housings
– PVC is difficult to recycle and the production and burning of PVC generates dioxins and furans
• The plastics in computers are often treated with flame retardant chemicals, particularly brominated flame retardant
– these chemicals can act as endocrine disrupters and increase risk of several forms of cancer
– they have been found entering the food chain
• Chemical Elements Found in Computers and Components
• Elements in bulk: lead, tin, copper, silicon, carbon, iron and aluminum
• Elements in small amounts: cadmium and mercury
• Elements in trace amounts:
– germanium, gallium, barium, nickel, tantalum, indium, vanadium, terbium, beryllium, gold, europium, titanium, ruthenium, cobalt, palladium, manganese, silver, antimony, bismuth, selenium, niobium, yttrium, rhodium, platinum, arsenic, lithium, boron, americium
• List of examples of devices containing these elements
– almost all electronics contain lead & tin (as solder) and copper (as wire & PCB tracks), though the use of lead-free solder is now spreading rapidly
– lead: solder, CRT monitors (Lead in glass), Lead-acid battery
List Continued
• List of examples of devices containing these elements
– tin: solder
– copper: copper wire, printed circuit board tracks
– aluminum: nearly all electronic goods using more than a few watts of power
– iron: steel chassis, cases & fixings
– silicon: glass, transistors, ICs, Printed circuit boards.
– nickel & cadmium: nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries
– lithium: lithium-ion battery
– zinc: plating for steel parts
– gold: connector plating, primarily in computer equipment
– mercury: fluorescent tubes (numerous applications), tilt switches (pinball games, mechanical doorbells)
– sulphur: lead-acid battery
– carbon: steel, plastics, resistors
Disposal
• Consider that the average computer lifespan is about 2 years (cell phones < 2 years)
– 10 years ago, the lifespan of a computer was 5 years
– between 1997 and 2004, it is estimated that 315 million computers became obsolete (and were discarded, donated, or recycled)
• 183 million computers were sold in 2004 (674 million cell phones!)
• New users in China (178 million by 2010) and India (80 million by 2010) will require the creation of new computers
• Disposal of these devices constituted 20-50 million tons per year (about 5% of the total waste of the planet)
– this waste is called e-waste
– where are we going to put all of it?
Land Fills
• Europe has outlawed using landfills for computer components
– the US and Europe export a lot of e-waste to Asian landfills (especially China even though China has outlawed the importing of e-waste)
– in addition, incineration of computer components leads to air pollution and airborne toxins
Other Solutions
• Reuse: donate your computer components to people who may not have or have lesser quality computers
– inner city schools, churches, libraries, third world countries
• this however leads to the older computers being dumped but there is probably no way around this as eventually the older computers would be discarded anyway
• Refurbish: rather than discarding your computer when the next generation is released, just get a new CPU and memory chips – upgrade rather than replace
– while you will still be discarded some components, you will retain most of the computer system (e.g., monitor, the system unit housing, cables)
• Are there adequate incentives to do either of the above? Do computer companies encourage refurbishing/upgrading?
One More Solution: Recycling
• If companies can recycle the plastics and other components, this can greatly reduce waste and toxins
– however, the hazardous materials in e-waste can harm the recycle workers if they are not properly protected
• in undeveloped countries, a lot of the recycling chores are left up to unprotected children!
• Developed countries now have facilities for recycling e-waste
– however, in Europe, the plastics are discarded instead of recycled because the flame retardant chemicals are too toxic to work with
• To resolve these problems, the computer manufacturers must start using recyclable chemicals
How Do the Companies Rate?
• 8: Nokia - regained its top position for eliminating the worst chemicals from many products
– still needs to report on its recycling rate percentage
• 7.3: Dell - still among the top but loses points for not having models free of the worst chemicals
– strong support for global take back
• 7.3: Lenovo - dropping down the rank for not having a clear global take back program
– still missing out on products free of the worst chemicals on the market
• 7: Sony Ericsson - among the top with clear timeline to have products free of the worst chemicals by 2008
– need better chemicals take back reporting program
• 6.7: Samsung - strong position for having a good chemical policy, but still lack products that are free from the worst chemicals
– its take back system is not yet global and need improvement
• 6.7: Motorola - some products on the market are free from the worst chemicals but loses points for not providing clear timelines for eliminating these chemicals in all products
– score points on reporting the recycling rate
• 6: Toshiba - good improvement particularly on waste and take back criteria
– moved forward for providing some models without the worst chemicals and for timelines for complete phase out
• 6: Fujitsu-Siemens - some models free of worst chemicals, but loses point for a weak take back and recycling program
• 5.7: Acer - standing still with improved chemical policies but no models free of the worst chemicals
– needs to improve on take back program
• 5.3: Apple - top mover with concrete timelines to eliminate the worst chemicals
– loses points for not have a green product on the market and for a weak take back program
• 5.3: HP - a free-faller, dropping down for failing to provide clear timelines for eliminating the worst chemicals
– it looses points for weak definition of take back policies
• 5: Panasonic - moving up for making available products free of the worst chemicals
– loses point for poor take back program
• 4: Sony - at the bottom of the rank for losing penalty point for inconsistent take back policies
– some models without the worst chemicals
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11-04-2011, 12:01 PM

Presented By:
Sruthi N


.ppt   Green computing.ppt (Size: 642.5 KB / Downloads: 95)
GREEN COMPUTING
Introduction

Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently in an eco friendly manner”
Goals of Green IT
 A shocking fact:
 Every Google search produces 0.7 g of co2
 91 million searches/day
 18.2 tonnes co2/day
 About 7000 tonnes/year
HISTORY
 In 1992 U.S Environmental Protection Agency created Energy Star program
Energy Star
 Program designed to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases
 Promote energy efficient products
Green IT Approaches
 Virtualization
 Power management
 Power supply
 Video card
 Displays
 IT Equipment recycling
 Product longevity
 Operating system support
 Virtualization
 Process of running two or more logical computers on one set of physical hardware
 Server virtualization
 Thin client
 Typical PC-220W
 Thin Client-4.8W
 Power Management
 Keep computers and PCs turned off ,when not in use.
 Disable screen saver.
 Use LCDs instead of CRTs as they are more power efficient
 Enforce standardized energy settings before distributing to end users
POWER CONSUMPTION
 Power supply
 Generally PCs are 70-75% efficient
 Remaining are lost in the form of heat
 «80 PLUS» certifies PSUs(Power supply Units) that are at least 80% efficient
 Energy Star 4.0-certified desktops must be at least 80% efficient
 Video Card
 Fast GPU is one of the larger power consumer in PC
Display options for Green IT are
1.No video card
 Shared terminal
 Thin client
2.Use Motherboard video output
 Low 3D performance
 Low power
 Displays
Use LCD instead of CRTs
Advantages of LCDs
 Up to 66% energy efficient than CRTs
 Produces less heat
 Easier to eyes
IT Equipment recycling
 Recycling computing equipments can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, and cadmium out of landfills.
 eiae.org - informations about recycling
 Lead : Common in CRTs and some batteries
 Mercury : In fluorescent tubes
 Cadmium : In some rechargeable batteries
LEAD
Common in CRTs and some batteries
The problem:
 cause damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood system, kidneys, endocrine system and cause negative effects on child brain development
 lead accumulates in the environment and has toxic effects on plants, animals and microorganisms
MERCURY
• is used in
– batteries, switches, printed circuit boards
• The problem
– spreads out in water transforming into methylated mercury which easily accumulates in living organisms
– it enters the food chain through fish that swim in polluted waters
– methylated mercury can cause chronic brain damage
• Product Longevity
– Equipment should have a prolong lifetime
– Upgrade the computer instead of manufacturing a new one
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19-04-2011, 10:31 AM

Presented by:
PRABHU R
SADHAM HUSSAIN H

GREEN COMPUTING
ABSTRACT

Green Computing - refers to environmentally sustainable computing. The major goal of Green Computing are reducing the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during product lifetime and promote recycling and reusability of defunct product.
The major issues in using this present computer systems are increased power consumption and excessive release of heat from high-speed processors, leading to open circuits and product failure.
The present solution to these issues are the use of “Processor Fans”, which is exhaustive in nature. It exhausts the heat released from processor while it is processing. But as technology develops, these Processor Fans are insufficient to exhaust the huge amount of heat released.
In this paper, we suggest an idea for reducing the release of huge amount heat from the processors and making the use of computer systems as energy-efficient as possible - at lower cost.
The suggested idea is the use of LIQUID COOLING(Water Cooling) mechanism as like in cooling systems of engines in vehicles, which will yield a better solution to our issues. It might seem a little fear to put liquids near a delicate electronic equipment, but cooling with water is far more efficient than cooling with air.
Also, this paper deals with the overcomes of disadvantages in the implementation of this cooling systems like leakage, reducing the size and making it cost efficient. This will be more efficient solution, when it is practiced in future
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22-04-2011, 11:59 AM

Presented by:
PRABHU R
SADHAM HUSSAIN H

GREEN COMPUTING
ABSTRACT

Green Computing - refers to environmentally sustainable computing. The major goal of Green Computing are reducing the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during product lifetime and promote recycling and reusability of defunct product.
The major issues in using this present computer systems are increased power consumption and excessive release of heat from high-speed processors, leading to open circuits and product failure.
The present solution to these issues are the use of “Processor Fans”, which is exhaustive in nature. It exhausts the heat released from processor while it is processing. But as technology develops, these Processor Fans are insufficient to exhaust the huge amount of heat released.
In this paper, we suggest an idea for reducing the release of huge amount heat from the processors and making the use of computer systems as energy-efficient as possible - at lower cost.
The suggested idea is the use of LIQUID COOLING(Water Cooling) mechanism as like in cooling systems of engines in vehicles, which will yield a better solution to our issues. It might seem a little fear to put liquids near a delicate electronic equipment, but cooling with water is far more efficient than cooling with air.
Also, this paper deals with the overcomes of disadvantages in the implementation of this cooling systems like leakage, reducing the size and making it cost efficient. This will be more efficient solution, when it is practiced in future
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GREEN COMPUTING


.ppt   50075221-GREEN-COMPUTING.ppt (Size: 1.64 MB / Downloads: 22)


Definition

Green Computing is “Where organizations adopt a policy of ensuring that the setup and operations of Information Technology produces the minimal carbon footprint”.


Goal

The goals are similar to green chemistry
reduce the use of hazardous materials
maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime
promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste.


WHY GREEN COMPUTING


Climate Change
Computing Power Consumption has Reached a Critical Point
Savings
Reliability of Power


Hardware based solution

VIRTUALIZATION:
CONTRIBUTION OF VIRTUAL SYSTEMS
CONTRIBUTION OF VIRTUALIZED SERVERS
CONTRIBUTION OF VIRTUALIZED DATA CENTER
CONTRIBUTION OF VIRTUAL APPLICATION









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GREEN COMPUTING



.doc   Green computing.doc (Size: 188.5 KB / Downloads: 28)
Regulations and industry initiatives

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published a survey of over 90 government and industry initiatives on "Green ICTs", i.e. information and communication technologies, the environment and climate change. The report concludes that initiatives tend to concentrate on the greening ICTs themselves rather than on their actual implementation to tackle global warming and environmental degradation. In general, only 20% of initiatives have measurable targets, with government programs tending to include targets more frequently than business associations.[3]

Government

Many governmental agencies have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage green computing. The Energy Star program was revised in October 2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer equipment, along with a tiered ranking system for approved products.[4][5]


Industry

• Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states.[9] The CSCI provides a catalog of green products from its member organizations, and information for reducing PC power consumption. It was started on 2007-06-12. The name stems from the World Wildlife Fund's Climate Savers program, which was launched in 1999.[10] The WWF is also a member of the Computing Initiative.[9]



Approaches

In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems — such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems — efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment."[1]



Telecommuting

Main article: Telecommuting
Teleconferencing and telepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives. The advantages are many; increased worker satisfaction, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel, and increased profit margins as a result of lower overhead costs for office space, heat, lighting, etc. The savings are significant; the average annual energy consumption for U.S.
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