GSM Architecture
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30-10-2010, 02:46 PM



nformation on GSM Architecture


A GSM network consists of the following components:

Mobile station. The GSM mobile station (or mobile phone) communicates with other parts of the system through the base-station system.

GSM Base station system (BSS).

Base transceiver station (BTS). The base transceiver station (BTS) handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The base transceiver station is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas)

Base station controller (BSC). The BSC provides the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. It provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data and control of RF power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by a MSC.

GSM Switching System

Mobile services switching center (MSC). The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signalling, and others.

Home location register (HLR). The HLR database is used for storage and management of subscriptions. The home location register stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and activity status.

Visitor location register (VLR). The VLR database contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the mobile services switching center (MSC) in order to service visiting subscribers. When a mobile station roams into a new mobile services switching center (MSC) area, the visitor location register (VLR) connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR, reducing the need for interrogation of the home location register (HLR).

Authentication center (AUC). The AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The authentication center (AUC) also protects network operators from fraud.

Equipment identity register (EIR). The EIR database contains information on the identity of mobile equipment to prevent calls from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile stations.

Message center (MXE). The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice, fax, and data messaging.

Mobile service node (MSN). The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services.

Gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC). A gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC) is a node used to interconnect two networks.

GSM interworking unit (GIWU). The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. Through the GSM interworking unit (GIWU), users can alternate between speech and data during the same call.

Operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of operation and support system is to offer support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network.


Reference:
argospressResources/gsm/gsmarchit.htm

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.ppt   4 GSMNetArchitecture.ppt (Size: 284.5 KB / Downloads: 190)

Introduction
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
Anybody – 500 million users (may 2001)
Anywhere – 168 countries (may 2001)
Any media – voice, messaging, data, multimedia
GSM Architecture
GSM Architecture
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)
Implementation
Implementation
GSM Variants

Summary
Network architecture
Implementation
Voice application
Data application
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.docx   FINAL REPORT.docx (Size: 228.71 KB / Downloads: 106)
Airtel is the largest wireless service provider in India, based on the number of customers as of June 30, 2010. It offers an integrated suite of telecom solutions to enterprise customers, in addition to providing long distance connectivity both nationally and internationally. It also offers DTH and IPTV Services. All these services are rendered under a unified brand “Airtel”.Airtel served an aggregate of 183,371,520 customers as of June 30, 2010.
ACHIEVMENTS
 Bharti Airtel Achieves Gold Certification from Cisco India. With this, Bharti Airtel is the first Indian telecom service provider to achieve this certification.
 It is known for being the first mobile phone company in the world to outsource everything except marketing and sales and finance.
 Bharti Airtel has been ranked among the six best performing technology companies in the world by Business Week.
 Bharti Airtel is the world's third largest, single-country mobile operator and fifth largest telecom operator in the world with a subscriber base of over 180 million.
 Bharti Airtel announced that it would acquire 100% stake in Telecom Seychelles taking its global presence to 19 countries.
 On May 18, 2010, 3G spectrum auction was completed and Airtel will have to pay the Indian government Rs. 12,295 crores for spectrum in 13 circles, the most amount spent by an operator in this auction.
 Airtel is the market leader in India with a total of 133,619,705 out of 444,295,711 GSM mobile connections or 31.18% market share as of July 2010.
 The Financial Times reported that Bharti was considering offering US$45 billion for a 100% stake in MTN, which would be the largest overseas acquisition ever by an Indian firm.
HISTORY OF GSM
The idea of cell-based mobile radio systems appeared at Bell Laboratories (in USA) in the early 1970s. However, mobile cellular systems were not introduced for commercial use until the 1980s. During the early 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems experienced a very rapid growth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, but also in France and Germany. Each country developed its own system, which was incompatible with everyone else's in equipment and operation. This was an undesirable situation, because not only was the mobile equipment limited to operate only within the boundaries of each country, which in a unified Europe were increasingly unimportant, but there was also a very limited market for each mobile equipment was limited, so economies of scale, and the subsequent savings, could not be realized.
In order to overcome these problems, the Conference of European Posts and Tele Communication (CEPT) formed, in 1982, the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) in order to develop a pan-European mobile cellular radio system (the GSM acronym became later the acronym for Global System for Mobile communications). The standardized system had to meet certain criteria:
• Good subjective speech quality
• Support for international roaming
• Ability to support handheld terminals
• Support for range of new services and facilities
• Spectral efficiency
• Low mobile and base stations costs
• Compatibility with other systems such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
In 1989, the responsibility for the GSM specifications passed from the CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The commercial use of GSM started around mid-1991, and by 1993 there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries. Although standardized in Europe, GSM is not only a European standard. Over 200 GSM networks (including DCS1800 and PCS1900) are operational in 110 countries around the world. In the beginning of 1994, there were 1.3 million subscribers worldwide, which had grown to more than 5.4 million subscribers by October 1997. With North America making delayed entry into the GSM field with a derivative of GSM called PCS1900, GSM systems exist on every continent, and the acronym GSM now aptly stands for Global System for Mobile Communications
 Developed by Group Special Mobile (founded in 1982) which was an initiative of CEPT (Conference of European Post and Telecommunication)?
 Aim: To replace the incompatible analogue system.
 Presently the responsibility of GSM standardization resides with special mobile group under ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute)
 Full set of specification phase -1 become available in 1990
 Under ETSI, GSM is named as “Global System for Mobile Communication”.
 Today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 135 countries worldwide).
 More than 1300 million subscribers in world and 45 million subscribers in India
GSM – BASIS OF CURRENT MOBILE SYSTEM
 GSM today means Global System for Mobile Communication is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation
 Introduction by the European telephone exchange offices
 Uses the frequency ranges of 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz
 Voice (bandwidth 3.1 KHz) and data connections with up to 9.6 Kbit/s (enhancement: 14.4 Kbit/s).
 Short Message Service – SMS.
 Cell structure for a complete coverage of regions (100 – 500 m per cell in cities, up to 35 Km on country side).
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28-02-2011, 03:22 PM

presented by:
Puneet Gupta


.docx   report on gsm.docx (Size: 228.71 KB / Downloads: 66)
GSM ARCHITECTURE
COMPANY PROFILE

Bharti Airtel Limited formerly known as Bharti Tele-Ventures LTD (BTVL) is an Indian company offering telecommunication services in 19 countries. The company is structured into four strategic business units - Mobile, Telemedia, Enterprise and Digital TV. The mobile business offers services in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The Telemedia business provides broadband, IPTV and telephone services in 89 Indian cities. The Digital TV business provides Direct-to-Home TV services across India. The Enterprise business provides end-to-end telecom solutions to corporate customers and national and international long distance services to telcos
Airtel is the largest wireless service provider in India, based on the number of customers as of June 30, 2010. It offers an integrated suite of telecom solutions to enterprise customers, in addition to providing long distance connectivity both nationally and internationally. It also offers DTH and IPTV Services. All these services are rendered under a unified brand “Airtel”.
Airtel served an aggregate of 183,371,520 customers as of June 30, 2010.
ACHIEVMENTS
 Bharti Airtel Achieves Gold Certification from Cisco India. With this, Bharti Airtel is the first Indian telecom service provider to achieve this certification.
 It is known for being the first mobile phone company in the world to outsource everything except marketing and sales and finance. Bharti Airtel has been ranked among the six best performing technology companies in the world by Business Week.
 Bharti Airtel is the world's third largest, single-country mobile operator and fifth largest telecom operator in the world with a subscriber base of over 180 million.
 Bharti Airtel announced that it would acquire 100% stake in Telecom Seychelles taking its global presence to 19 countries.
 On May 18, 2010, 3G spectrum auction was completed and Airtel will have to pay the Indian government Rs. 12,295 crores for spectrum in 13 circles, the most amount spent by an operator in this auction.
 Airtel is the market leader in India with a total of 133,619,705 out of 444,295,711 GSM mobile connections or 31.18% market share as of July 2010.
 The Financial Times reported that Bharti was considering offering US$45 billion for a 100% stake in MTN, which would be the largest overseas acquisition ever by an Indian firm.
List of countries
Airtel operates in the following countries.
COUNTRY REMARKS
Bangladesh Warid Telecom International LLC, an Abu Dhabi based consortium, sold a majority 70% stake in the company to India's Bharti Airtel Limited for US$300 million.[1] Bharti Airtel Limited will take management control of the company and its board, and will relaunch the company's services under its own Airtel brand. The Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission approved the deal on January 4, 2010. As of December, 2009 Warid has secured 2.99 million subscribers and is ranked fourth among the six operators of Bangladesh.
Ghana Airtel in Ghana has over 1 million customers.
India Airtel in India is the market leader with over 100 million customers.
Kenya Airtel in Kenya has 2,418,000 customers with 17% market share.
Nigeria Airtel in Nigeria is the market leader with a 68% market share.
Sri Lanka Airtel in Sri Lanka is the market leader with a 38% market share
Uganda Airtel in Uganda stands as the no. 2 operator with a market share of 38%
Some other countries where AIRTEL has spread its wings are:-
1. Burkina
2. Faso
3. Democratic Republic of the Congo
4. Chad
5. Gabon
6. Ghana
7. Madagascar
8. Tanzania
9. Zambia
10. Sierra Leone
11. Malawi
HISTORY OF GSM
The idea of cell-based mobile radio systems appeared at Bell Laboratories (in USA) in the early 1970s. However, mobile cellular systems were not introduced for commercial use until the 1980s. During the early 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems experienced a very rapid growth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, but also in France and Germany. Each country developed its own system, which was incompatible with everyone else's in equipment and operation. This was an undesirable situation, because not only was the mobile equipment limited to operate only within the boundaries of each country, which in a unified Europe were increasingly unimportant, but there was also a very limited market for each mobile equipment was limited, so economies of scale, and the subsequent savings, could not be realized.
In order to overcome these problems, the Conference of European Posts and Tele Communication (CEPT) formed, in 1982, the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) in order to develop a pan-European mobile cellular radio system (the GSM acronym became later the acronym for Global System for Mobile communications). The standardized system had to meet certain criteria:
• Good subjective speech quality
• Support for international roaming
• Ability to support handheld terminals
• Support for range of new services and facilities
• Spectral efficiency
• Low mobile and base stations costs
• Compatibility with other systems such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
In 1989, the responsibility for the GSM specifications passed from the CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The commercial use of GSM started around mid-1991, and by 1993 there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries. Although standardized in Europe, GSM is not only a European standard. Over 200 GSM networks (including DCS1800 and PCS1900) are operational in 110 countries around the world. In the beginning of 1994, there were 1.3 million subscribers worldwide, which had grown to more than 5.4 million subscribers by October 1997. With North America making delayed entry into the GSM field with a derivative of GSM called PCS1900, GSM systems exist on every continent, and the acronym GSM now aptly stands for Global System for Mobile Communications
 Developed by Group Special Mobile (founded in 1982) which was an initiative of CEPT (Conference of European Post and Telecommunication)?
 Aim: To replace the incompatible analogue system.
 Presently the responsibility of GSM standardization resides with special mobile group under ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute)
 Full set of specification phase -1 become available in 1990
 Under ETSI, GSM is named as “Global System for Mobile Communication”.
 Today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 135 countries worldwide).
 More than 1300 million subscribers in world and 45 million subscribers in India.
GSM – BASIS OF CURRENT MOBILE SYSTEM
 GSM today means Global System for Mobile Communication is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation
 Introduction by the European telephone exchange offices
 Uses the frequency ranges of 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz
 Voice (bandwidth 3.1 KHz) and data connections with up to 9.6 Kbit/s (enhancement: 14.4 Kbit/s).
 Short Message Service – SMS.
 Cell structure for a complete coverage of regions (100 – 500 m per cell in cities, up to 35 Km on country side).
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01-03-2011, 04:47 PM

PRESENTED BY:
T.VENKATA MAHESH REDDY.
A.RAJESH KUMAR REDDY


.pptx   gsm.pptx (Size: 772.77 KB / Downloads: 64)
ABSTRACT
• The most modern telephone is the cellular telephone, or commonly Called a cell phone. A cellular telephone is designed to give the user maximum freedom of movement while using a telephone.
• Mobile communications is a hot topic. The number of mobile communication devices users is growing very fast. The number of mobiles (cellular phones) is now exceeding the number of fixed lines in many countries (Finland, Japan etc.).
• Cellular/mobile phones are everywhere and their utility is growing. A cell phone is a radio telephone, that may be used wherever "cell" coverage is provided. The role of cellular phones has risen with improvement in services, reduction in service costs and the ever increasing services available through cell phones.
• This paper covers the basic architecture of Cellular Communications and concentrates mainly on GSM.
What is GSM ?
• Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation
• GSM Network Architecture
• Mobile Equipment(ME)
• SIM
(SUBSCRIBER INDENTITY MODULE)
• Allows users to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services
• It is a best database used in GSM network.
• It is a small memory devices.
• BTS
• Encodes ,encrypts, multiplexes, modulates, and feeds the RF signals to the antenna.
• Frequency Hopping.
• Communicates Mobile station and the Bsc.
• Consists of Transceiver units.
• BSC
MANAGING HANDOVERS
• Handoff occurs when the mobile network automatically transfers a call from aradio channel in one base station to another radio channel in an adjacent base station asthe subscriber crosses into the adjacent base stations cells area.
• As the subscriber approaches the cell border, the call signal drops to a minimum threshold, at which point the mobile informs the network of this fact.
• The network then must find an unused channel on the appropriate adjoining base station
and sends the mobile the details to switch to the new channel (channel number ect).
• The mobile phone then switches to the new channel, without the subscriber even noticing.
However, some problems still occur:
• When the mobile needs to handoff and the adjoining basestation is at full capacity, there
are no free channels to switch to, so the call is dropped.
• The call is sometimes lost between handoff as the adjoining base station doesn’t lock into the call before the first base station hands it off.To reduce these problems, other handoff procedures were implemented:
• Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO)
• Soft Handoff
• MSC (Mobile Switching Centre)
• HLR(HOME LOCATION REGISTER)
• Management of mobile subscribers.
• Permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area.
• Data base contain Prepaid\postpaid roaming restrictions supplementary services.
VLR(VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER)
- Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area, by HLR database.
- Controls those mobiles roaming in its area .
- Reduces number of queries to HLR.
Authentication Center (AUC)
- Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets .
- Generally associated with HLR
- It can code the information between MS and BTS.
- Verifies the SIM cards.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
- Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)
- Made up of three sub-classes: The White List, The Black List and the Gray List.
GSM Specifications
Specifications for different personal communication services (PCS) systems vary among the different PCS networks. Listed below is a description of the specifications and characteristics for GSM.
•frequency band—The frequency range specified for GSM is 1,850 to 1,990 MHz (mobile station to base station).
•duplex distance—The duplex distance is 80 MHz. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 80 MHz apart.
•channel separation—The separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is 200 kHz.
•modulation—Modulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the characteristics of a carrier frequency. This is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK).
•transmission rate—GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.
•access method—GSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA) concept. TDMA is a technique in which several different callsmay share the same carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time slot.
•speech coder—GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract.
• FDMA AND TDMA IN GSM
• GSM is a combination of FDMA & TDMA.The total No. of channels are 124 and each channel is 200kHz.Both 935-960MHz uplink and 890-915 downlink have allocated 25MHz for a total of 50MHz and 45 for duplex. In TDMA with in a 200kHz, 8 time slots of 4.615ms frame duration and burst duration of 0.557ms .
• FDMA
• TDMA
• FDM and TDM
• IS CDMA BETTER THAN GSM
• CDMA TECHNICAL ADVANTAGES OVER GSM:
 CDMA provides increased security over the air interface than GSM.
 Subscriber capacity is 5 to 6 times the GSM Capacity for the same frequency spectrum.
 Call dropping is very less as CDMA uses soft handoff(GSM uses hard handoff).
 CDMA provides better sound quality and reach than GSM.
 CDMA PRACTICAL ADVANTAGES OVER CDMA:
 CDMA provides clear voice but there is some delay associated with it.
 CDMA mobility is limited and GSM mobility is unlimited.
 Unlike GSM CDMA , subscriber cannot change handset without change in existing number.
Conclusions:
• The cellular & mobile beyond any doubt, has emerged as the most powerful medium effecting our lives in many way no other medium has ever. It has brought the world and its people closer than imagined before. But what makes it an indispensable part of our lives is the enormous potential that it provides for growth and success in our fields.
• Now cellular with advanced concepts like picture messages and internet access are to give a roaming net, there by increasing our knowledge, be it a fun, education or employment internet with cellular could change our lives and enhance our performance in what ever duties we have been given to handle.


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.docx   Cellular Mobile Systems and Services 07.docx (Size: 433.95 KB / Downloads: 106)
GSM ARCHITECTURE
A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major subsystems: the network subsystem, the radio subsystem, and the operation support subsystem. In order to ensure that network operators will have several sources of cellular infrastructure equipment, GSM decided to specify not only the air interface, but also the main interfaces that identify different parts. There are three dominant interfaces, namely, an interface between MSC and base transceiver station, and an Um interface between the BTS and MS.
GSM Network Structure
Every telephone network need a well designed structure in order to route the incoming call to the correct exchange and finally to the called subscriber. In a mobile network this structure is of great importance because of the mobility of all its subscribers. In the GSM system the network is divided in to the following partitioned areas.
• GSM service area
• PLMN service area
• MSC service area
• Location area
• Cells
The Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber; the Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center, performs the switching of calls between the mobile and other fixed or mobile network users, as well as management of mobile services, such as authentication. Not shown is the Operations and Maintenance center, which oversees the proper operation and setup of the network. The Mobile Station and the Base Station Subsystem communicate across the Um interface, also known as the air interface or radio link. The Base Station Subsystem communicates with the Mobile service Switching Center across the A interface.
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.ppt   4 GSMNetArchitecture.ppt (Size: 284.5 KB / Downloads: 101)
GSM Network Architecture
Motivation
Introduction
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
Anybody – 500 million users (may 2001)
Anywhere – 168 countries (may 2001)
Any media – voice, messaging, data, multimedia
GSM Architecture
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)
Implementation
Implementation
GSM Variants
Summary
Network architecture
Implementation
Voice application
Data application
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GSM Architecture


.docx   finalreoprt.docx (Size: 121.72 KB / Downloads: 24)



Introduction to training
GTL will persist to be customer-centric and gradually extend our integrated advantages in the Telecom Networks, Global Services and Devices areas based around customer requirements. Moving forward, we are committed to providing products and solutions for the Cloud, Pipe and Devices businesses and helping operators to achieve business success with our ABC strategy: growing average revenue per user (ARPU), increasing bandwidth and reducing cost.
Telecom Networks: All-IP Convergence, Application Support, Responsive and Cloud Computing


History of GSM

During the early 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems were experiencing rapid growth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, but also in France and Germany. Each country developed its own system, which was incompatible with everyone else's in equipment and operation. This was an undesirable situation, because not only was the mobile equipment limited to operation within national boundaries, which in a unified Europe were increasingly unimportant, but there was also a very limited market for each type of equipment, so economies of scale and the subsequent savings could not be realized.
The Europeans realized this early on, and in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system. The proposed system had to meet certain criteria:



3. Services provided by GSM

From the beginning, the planners of GSM wanted ISDN compatibility in terms of the services offered and the control signalling used. However, radio transmission limitations, in terms of bandwidth and cost, do not allow the standard ISDN B-channel bit rate of 64 kbps to be practically achieved.
Using the ITU-T definitions, telecommunication services can be divided into bearer services, teleservices, and supplementary services. The most basic teleservice supported by GSM is telephony. As with all other communications, speech is digitally encoded and transmitted through the GSM network as a digital stream. There is also an emergency service, where the nearest emergency-service provider is notified by dialing three digits (similar to 911).



Architecture of the GSM network

The basic block diagram of GSM includes Mobile Station (MS), Base Station System (BSS), that includes Base Transceiver System (BTS) and Base Station Controller (BSC), and Switching Subsystem that includes Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and Gateway MSC (GMSC).


A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts. The Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users.



Packet Control Unit
The Packet Control Unit (PCU) is a late addition to the GSM standard. It performs some of the processing tasks of the BSC, but for packet data. The allocation of channels between voice and data is controlled by the base station, but once a channel is allocated to the PCU, the PCU takes full control over that channel.
The PCU can be built into the base station, built into the BSC or even, in some proposed architectures, it can be at the SGSN site.

BSS interfaces
Image of the GSM network, showing the BSS interfaces to the MS, NSS and GPRS Core Network
Um - The air interface between the MS (Mobile Station) and the BTS. This interface uses LAPDm protocol for signaling, to conduct call control, measurement

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