General Awareness for SNAP ppt
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19-01-2011, 05:06 PM

.ppt   SNAP.ppt (Size: 538.5 KB / Downloads: 107)

Gross Domestic Product

Total money value of all final goods & services manufactured within the country in one year.
Annual value of goods sold and services paid for inside a country.

Nominal & Real GDP
Nominal GDP measures the value of all the goods and services produced and expressed at current prices.
Real GDP measures the value of all the goods and services produced expressed at the prices of some base year.

Different ways of arriving @ GDP
GDP at Constant Prices
GDP at Current Prices
Calculated at constant prices to know “real growth”

Gross National Product (GNP)
GNP = GDP + Income accruing to domestic residents from investments abroad – income earned by foreigners in the country.
Annual value of goods and services in a country including income from other countries.

National Income
Sum of total incomes of normal residents of a country before deduction of direct taxes.
To calculate total income, add all payments for the use of factors of production, like wages, salaries, profits & net income from abroad.

Excess Demand in the economy
High costs
Increase in money supply
More money chasing fewer goods
Rise in prices, purchasing power of money decreases
High interest rates tend to increase inflation
Zimbabwe classic case of gallopping inflation currency scrapped

Indicators of Economy-1
Poverty Line
Consumption expenditure required for getting 2100 calories per person in urban area and 2400 calories in rural areas.
Arjun Sen Gupta panel estimates poverty to be 70%+
Key parameters
No. of people BPL
% of population BPL
Orissa highest percentage of BPL population
Some poverty zones are BIMARU and the KBK belt in Orissa.

Indicators of Economy-2
Poverty Line
The BPL percentage in India differs according to the methodology adopted
Latest estimate of Tendulkar panel is that 8.03 crore families and 37.2% of the population are BPL
New poverty index Multi-Dimensional Index (MDI) developed by Oxford HDI Group
To sum up poverty estimates show wide variation from about 21% to 70% plus

Indicators of Economy-3
HDI – Human Development Index
Developed by UNDP in 1996
Measures physical quality of life in a country along with 3 key parameters
Life expectancy at birth
No. of years in school
Per capita income
HDI 2009 – India at 134 (182 countries ranked)
HDI 2009 No.1 is Norway
Niger ranked at 182

Indicators of Economy-4
WPI – Wholesale Price Index
Measures increase/decrease in industrial, commercial prices of commodities under 3 broad categories
Primary articles – 98 items
Fuel, power etc. – 19 items
Manufactured products – 318 items
Certain weightage to each category of commodities

Indicators of Economy-5
Base year – 1993-94
Used for calculating INFLATION
WPI no longer a true indicator of inflation as it may not reflect ground reality
The basket of commodities may be outdated
New series introduced from April 01, 2000
435 commodities in the new series; as against 447 in the old series

Indicators of Economy-6
CPI – Consumer Price Index
Calculates increase / decrease in retail price
Direct bearing on consumers
Different types of CPIs for
agricultural laborers
industrial workers
urban non-manual employee

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)-1

FDI supplements domestic investment
The investment made to acquire long term benefits in enterprises operating outside the economy of the investor
The FDI relationship consists of a parent enterprise and a foreign affiliate which together form a transnational corporation
Mauritius, Singapore and USA are the three biggest sources of FDI
FDI involves bringing scarce capital, technology and managerial expertise

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)-2
FDI creates jobs
FDI barred at present in retail trading except single brand product retailing
FDI restricted to 26% in print media relating to news and current affairs
FDI restricted to 26% in insurance and defence
FDI 74% in banking

Foreign Institutional Investor (FII)
FII means an entity established or incorporated outside India which proposes to make investment in the financial markets in India
FII is not stable money
Unlike FDI the focus of FII is on making quick profits
Rapid inflows and outflows of FII can create instability in financial markets

Real & Nominal
Interest Rates
Real interest rate =
Nominal interest rate – rate of inflation

Key Indicators of Banking Sector-1
CRR Minimum 3%, Maximum 15%
SLR Minimum 24%, Maximum 40%
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) - 6%
Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) - 25%
Bank Rate - 6%
Repo Rate - 6%
Reverse Repo Rate - 5%
Bank Rate is for a longer period say 6 months to one year

Key Indicators of Banking Sector-2
Repo and reverse repo rates are for the short term. They are used to either increase money supply or mop up excess liquidity
Repo and reverse repo have now assumed more importance than BR
PLR is benchmark rate
Concept of BPLR (below PLR) under scrutiny
Under BPLR banks lent to corporates at very low rates that is below PLR while charging priority sector borrowers above PLR. An element of cross subsidy by the poor / middleclass of the rich

Key Indicators of Banking Sector-3

Majority of Banks lending was under BPLR
Base rate concept introduced from July 01, 2010
Base rate system to ensure more transparency
No lending below base rate except certain schemes like DIR
Capital adequacy ratio - minimum 9%
CAR is creating a capital buffer against different types of risks like loans


Exchange control
Fixed Exchange rates
Free / Floating exchange rates
Depreciation / appreciation
India’s forex reserves more than $283.46 billion invested mostly in low yielding U.S. securities
Countries like China and India are financing consumption in the U.S.
China – largest forex reserves in the world more than $1 trillion
Sovereign Wealth Funds are managing forex reserves like Temasek of Singapore


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