Global Positioning System (Download Full Seminar Report)
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Computer Science Clay
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30-07-2009, 05:03 PM

Have u ever been lost and wished there was an easy way to find out which way u needed to go? How about finding yourself out hiking and then not knowing how to get back to your camp or car? Ever been flying and wanted to know the nearest airport?

Our ancestors had to go to pretty extreme measures to keep from getting lost. They erected monumental landmarks, laboriously drafted detailed maps and learned to read the stars in the night sky.

GPS is a satellite based radio navigation system which provides continuous, all weather, worldwide navigation capability for sea, land and air applications. So things are much, much easier today. For less than $100, you can get a pocket-sized gadget that will tell you exactly where you are on Earth at any moment. As long as you have a GPS receiver and a clear view of the sky, youâ„¢ll never be lost again.

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kammari ajay kumar
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15-02-2011, 06:06 PM

hi, I am b-tech student i need more information about gps systems
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.ppt   global positioning system applicable to indian railways.ppt (Size: 1.45 MB / Downloads: 874)
Indian Railways is having the world’s largest railway network.
On the other hand it has faced large number of accidents due to the collisions, negligence of the signals etc…
Even though we have got many techniques of preventing these accidents NO METHOD CAN BE MORE EFFECTIVE AS THAT OF GPS.
What is GPS
• GPS: Global positioning system
A network radio navigation system formed from a constellation of minimum of 24 sattelites rotating in six orbitals and their ground stations.
Why GPS here?
To avoid rail accidents
It is highly efficient
The system is highly reliable and informations are highly secured.
main function if GPS is to get the interconnectivity of the various points in the track
Principle of working
• The main principle that is used for the safety of the Indian Railways is that whenever a track there will be vibrations that will be created on the track. These vibrations that are train will move over the produced on the track are dependent on the speed of the train, load or the weight of the train.
• 1. The GP There will be microphones onthe tracks such
that they will constantly note the vibrations that are coming from the train.
2. There will be a software that will convert these vibrations in such a form that they can be compared with the already existing data of the Database .
3. If there will be any problem on the track, bridge etc. such as the removal of the fish plates the vibrations produced from the train will change )the same can be concluded or developed for the bridges also .
Microphone Sensors:

• Needs critical selection as huge amount of the vibrations of the noises are created that are not possible to get recognized from a large distance.
• Trace the vibrations and sends to DBMS
• Proposed sensor-CARBONSENSORS used in telephone.
Fibre optic wires:
• Transmit the traced vibration data to DBMS quickly.
Software and DBMS:

1.Software is the programs that can perfors sometasks that are assigned to them.
2.The DBMS is the Data Base Management Systemwhich can store a huge amount of the data in them.
3.Software converts vibrations from sensors into somegraphical forms and transfer to DBMS which contains pre-loaded data that are analysed in normal conditions.
1. The on-board unit consists of communication satellite antennae, satellite positioning antennae, the on-board receiver system and communication interface devices, etc.
2. The on-board unit can continuously measure different parameters, tag the data with time and position information, reports irregular conditions.
1. Need of the towers for the transfer of the details and the communication betweenotherestablishments, trains and the satellites.
2. A visual display system to show the actual position of the trains along with other details like visual and audio warning systems.
3. Receivers and the transmitters tuned to proper frequencies and in accordance to the network.
4. The train driver’s cabin must be such that the driver will come to know about the track, weather, bridges and constructional status in advance.
5. Good Communication System. This can be achieved by the use of GPS for the communication.
• Uplink Frequency -5.925 to 6.425 GHz.
• Download Frequency -3.700 to 4.200 GHz.
• may change as per the advancements that are made and the system requirements.
• Consider two trains of same or different weights, speeds approaching towards each other in the same tack with GPS Network installed in it.
• The microphone sensors trace the vibrations 35km prior to its arrival.
• As two trains are approaching in the same track the vibrations gets excited.
• This produces emergency signal with alarm and this is transmitted to the control rooms and to loco.
1.Railway Safety
2. Automation in the Work.
3. Reduction in the Stress Levels because of the goodequipments and machinery.
4. Time Delays: As every time the position of the train will be known thus there will not be any time delays.
5. Train Traffic Control: due to continuous monitoring of the trains there will be a good train traffic control.
6. Futuristic method: with this method it is possible to make fully automatic train network which may even not have the driver in it
• The implemention time is large and the cost is high to some non-technocrats.
• The survey says that the total loss for our government rates to few hundred crores.
• So just by investing a small sum of this loss, the accidents and the losses can be overcome once for all.
• The benefits and advantages of the proposed method outnumber the problems and disadvantages.
• By considering this method for the most important transport system in India and for the safety the costliest ‘human life’ and the national property can be protected.
• Thus the integration of GPS, sensors along with software systems can be effectively used to provide safety as well as huge income to the Indian Railways.
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.ppt   1.ppt (Size: 1.08 MB / Downloads: 299)
What is GPS?

GPS is a space based all weather radio navigation system.
Position (geographic), Velocity & Time (PVT) Quickly, Economically And Precisely 24 hours a day, anywhere in the world under the sky
Principle of working using GPS
The basis of GPS technology is precise measurement of time;
Use of orbiting satellite position to find location of receiver by method of resection
GPS data processing software
Real time
CODE, C(t)
L1 (154f or 1575.42 MHz)
L2 (120f or 1227.60 MHz)
GPS Coordinate system
World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS84)
GPS receivers Positioning Techniques
Real Time
Ionospheric delay correction is not possible to compute
Weak signal – not available under canopy or under shed
Susceptible to interference
GPS is getting popular as a means for collection of data
Can be used in any conceivable situation
Under the sky
Where the exact position of any object or phenomena involved.
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hello sir.
please send me the seminar and presentation report on Global Positioning System.

thank u
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Global Positioning System

.pdf   GPS BY SOMJIT SARANGI.pdf (Size: 828.29 KB / Downloads: 152)
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based fully functional global navigation satellite system (GNSS) involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver. Thus, it provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is actually a navigation and precise-positioning tool.

The Global Positioning System, commonly known as GPS, is a network of
satellites that determines a ground based user’s specific latitude, longitude, and
altitude. GPS devices have become more integrated in our daily lives through
navigation computers in cars to emergency locators in cellular phones. GPS can
even keep the time accurate on watches and VCRs. Portable GPS receivers are
becoming increasingly popular for young and old alike. For the GPS to work there
are twenty-four satellites in Earth’s orbit.


Global positioning grew from the use of radar tracking at the end of World War II when radar stations were placed along the coastlines and inshore for ships and planes to orient themselves. But data and distance were limited and subject to weather and atmosphere interference. With the launch of the Sputnik man-made satellite program by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s, American scientists learned they could precisely locate the satellite by the frequency of its signal.


Navigation is the process of getting from one location to another. This was the what the Global Positioning System was designed for. The GPS system allows us to navigate on water, air, or land. It allows planes to land in the middle of mountains and helps medical evacuation helicopters save precious time by taking the best route.
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Global Positioning System

.docx   Seminar Report on GPS.docx (Size: 171.36 KB / Downloads: 153)

Introduction of GPS

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth.
Where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver with some technical limitations which are only removed for military users.
The GPS project and implimentation was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s.
GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites.
It became fully operational in 1994.

In 1972, the USAF Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (Holloman AFB), conducted developmental flight tests of two prototype GPS receivers over White Sands Missile Range, using ground-based pseudo-satellites.
In 1978, the first experimental Block-I GPS satellite was launched.

In 1992, the 2nd Space Wing, which originally managed the system, was de-activated and replaced by the 50th Space Wing.
In 1996, recognizing the importance of GPS to civilian users as well as military users, U.S. President Bill Clinton issued a policy directive[20] declaring GPS to be a dual-use system and establishing an Interagency GPS Executive Board to manage it as a national asset.

GPS Receiver clock
If we send out a pulse of sound or radio waves then we can determine resistance of object by dividing the time it took for reply by the speed of sound.
Distance = Speed * Time
Time = Distance / Speed
GPS works on much the same principle. GPS satellite only transmit timing data pulse, GPS receive units, only receive.
Let r4 denote the distance from the valid estimate of GPS receiver position to the fourth satellite and let p4 denote the pseudo range of the fourth satellite.

. Working principle of GPS

How GPS works
GPS signals work in microwaves bands.
They can pass through glass, but are absorbed by water molecules and reflect off concrete, steel and rock.
This means that GPS unit have trouble operating in rain forest, urban jungle, deep canyons, inside automobiles and roads and in heavy snowfalls-among other things.
These environmental obstacles degrade positional accuracy or make it impossible to get a fix on your location.

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Global Positioning System

.doc   6698521-GPS-Final-Report.doc (Size: 321.59 KB / Downloads: 105)

(GPS) technology is a great boon to anyone who has the need to navigate either great or small distances. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a burgeoning technology, which provides unequalled accuracy and flexibility of positioning for navigation, surveying and GIS data capture. This wonderful navigation technology was actually first available for government use back in the late 1970s. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a radio based navigation system that gives three dimensional coverage of the Earth, 24 hours a day in any weather conditions throughout the world. The technology seems to be beneficiary to the GPS user community in terms of obtaining accurate data upto about 100 meters for navigation, metre-level for mapping, and down to millimetre level for geodetic positioning. The GPS technology has tremendous amount of applications in Geographical Information System (GIS) data collection, surveying, and mapping.


By positioning we understand the determination of stationary or moving objects. These can be determined as follows:
1. In relation to a well-defined coordinate system, usually by three coordinate values and
2. In relation to other point, taking one point as the origin of a local coordinate system.


The GPS uses satellites and computers to compute positions anywhere on earth. The GPS is based on satellite ranging. That means the position on the earth is determined by measuring the distance from a group of satellites in space. The basic principles behind GPS are really simple, even though the system employs some of the most high-tech equipment ever developed. In order to understand GPS basics, the system can be categorized into
FIVE logical Steps
Triangulation from the satellite is the basis of the system.
To triangulate, the GPS measures the distance using the travel time of the radio message.
To measure travel time, the GPS need a very accurate clock.
Once the distance to a satellite is known, then we need to know where the satellite is in space.
As the GPS signal travels through the ionosphere and the earth's atmosphere, the signal is delayed.
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please send me full seminar and presentation report on GPS
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Global Positioning System

Global Positioning System was developed by the United States' Department of Defense. It uses between 24 and 32 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals. This enables GPS receivers to determine their current location, time and velocity. The GPS satellites are maintained by the United States Air Force.
GPS is often used by civilians as a navigation system. On the ground, any GPS receiver contains a computer that "triangulates" its own position by getting bearings from at least three satellites. The result is provided in the form of a geographic position - longitude and latitude - to, for most receivers, within an accuracy of 10 to 100 meters. Software applications can then use those coordinates to provide driving or walking instructions.
Getting a lock on by the GPS receivers on the ground usually takes some time especially where the receiver is in a moving vehicle or in dense urban areas. The initial time needed for a GPS lock is usually dependent on how the GPS receiver starts. There are three types of start - hot, warm and cold.
The hot start is when the GPS device remembers its last calculated position and the satellites in view, the almanac used (information about all the satellites in the constellation), the UTC Time and makes an attempt to lock onto the same satellites and calculate a new position based upon the previous information. This is the quickest GPS lock but it only works if you are generally in the same location as you were when the GPS was last turned off.
The warm start is when the GPS device remembers its last calculated position, almanac used, and UTC Time, but not which satellites were in view. It then performs a reset and attempts to obtain the satellite signals and calculates a new position.
The receiver has a general idea of which satellites to look for because it knows its last position and the almanac data helps identify which satellites are visible in the sky. This takes longer than a hot start but not as long as a cold start.
And finally – the cold start is when the GPS device dumps all the information, attempts to locate satellites and then calculates a GPS lock. This takes the longest because there is no known information.
The GPS receiver has to attempt to lock onto a satellite signal from any available satellites, basically like polling, which takes a lot longer than knowing which satellites to look for. This GPS lock takes the longest.
In an attempt to improve lock times, cellphone manufacturers and operators have introduced the Assisted GPS technology, which downloads the current ephemeris for a few days ahead via the wireless networks and helps triangulate the general user’s position with the cell towers thus allowing the GPS receiver to get a faster lock at the expense of several (kilo)bytes.

The design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator developed in the early 1940s, and used during World War II. In 1956, Friedwardt Winterberg[3] proposed a test of general relativity (for time slowing in a strong gravitational field) using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites. (To achieve accuracy requirements, GPS uses principles of general relativity to correct the satellites' atomic clocks.[4]) Additional inspiration for GPS came when the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite, Sputnik in 1957. Two American physicists, William Guier and George Weiffenbach, at Johns Hopkins's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), decided on their own to monitor Sputnik's radio transmissions. They soon realized that, because of the Doppler effect, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit from the Doppler shift. The Director of the APL gave them access to their brand new UNIVAC II to do the heavy calculations required. When they released the orbit of Sputnik to the media the Russians were dumbfounded to learn how powerful American computers had become, as they would not have been able to calculate the orbit themselves. The following spring, Frank McClure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to look at the inverse problem where you know the location of the satellite and you want to find your own location. (The Navy was developing the submarine launched Polaris missile, which required them to know the submarine's location.) This led them and APL to develop the Transit system.[5]

The first satellite navigation system, Transit (satellite), used by the United States Navy, was first successfully tested in 1960. It used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. In 1967, the U.S. Navy developed the Timation satellite that proved the ability to place accurate clocks in space, a technology required by GPS. In the 1970s, the ground-based Omega Navigation System, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations,[6] became the first worldwide radio navigation system. Limitations of these systems drove the need for a more universal navigation solution with greater accuracy.
While there were wide needs for accurate navigation in military and civilian sectors, almost none of those were seen as justification for the billions of dollars it would cost in research, development, deployment, and operation for a constellation of navigation satellites. During the Cold War arms race, the nuclear threat to the existence of the United States was the one need that did justify this cost in the view of the United States Congress. This deterrent effect is why GPS was funded. It is also the reason for the ultra secrecy at that time. The nuclear triad consisted of the United States Navy's submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) along with United States Air Force (USAF) strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Considered vital to the nuclear deterrence posture, accurate determination of the SLBM launch position was a force multiplier.
Precise navigation would enable United States submarines to get an accurate fix of their positions prior to launching their SLBMs.[7] The USAF with two-thirds of the nuclear triad also had requirements for a more accurate and reliable navigation system. The Navy and Air Force were developing their own technologies in parallel to solve what was essentially the same problem. To increase the survivability of ICBMs, there was a proposal to use mobile launch platforms (such as Russian SS-24 and SS-25) and so the need to fix the launch position had similarity to the SLBM situation.
In 1960, the Air Force proposed a radio-navigation system called MOSAIC (MObile System for Accurate ICBM Control) that was essentially a 3-D LORAN. A follow-on study called Project 57 was worked in 1963 and it was "in this study that the GPS concept was born." That same year the concept was pursued as Project 621B, which had "many of the attributes that you now see in GPS"[8] and promised increased accuracy for Air Force bombers as well as ICBMs. Updates from the Navy Transit system were too slow for the high speeds of Air Force operation. The Navy Research Laboratory continued advancements with their Timation (Time Navigation) satellites, first launched in 1967, and with the third one in 1974 carrying the first atomic clock into orbit.[9]
With these parallel developments in the 1960s, it was realized that a superior system could be developed by synthesizing the best technologies from 621B, Transit, Timation, and SECOR in a multi-service program.
During Labor Day weekend in 1973, a meeting of about 12 military officers at the Pentagon discussed the creation of a Defense Navigation Satellite System (DNSS). It was at this meeting that "the real synthesis that became GPS was created." Later that year, the DNSS program was named Navstar. With the individual satellites being associated with the name Navstar (as with the predecessors Transit and Timation), a more fully encompassing name was used to identify the constellation of Navstar satellites, Navstar-GPS, which was later shortened simply to GPS.[10]
After Korean Air Lines Flight 007, carrying 269 people, was shot down in 1983 after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace,[11] in the vicinity of Sakhalin and Moneron Islands, President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use, once it was sufficiently developed, as a common good.[12] The first satellite was launched in 1989, and the 24th satellite was launched in 1994.
Initially, the highest quality signal was reserved for military use, and the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded (Selective Availability). This changed with President Bill Clinton ordering Selective Availability to be turned off at midnight May 1, 2000, improving the precision of civilian GPS from 100 meters (about 300 feet) to 20 meters (about 65 feet). The executive order signed in 1996 to turn off Selective Availability in 2000 was proposed by the US Secretary of Defense, William Perry, because of the widespread growth of differential GPS services to improve civilian accuracy and eliminate the US military advantage. Moreover, the US military was actively developing technologies to deny GPS service to potential adversaries on a regional basis.[13]
Over the last decade, the U.S. has implemented several improvements to the GPS service, including new signals for civil use and increased accuracy and integrity for all users, all while maintaining compatibility with existing GPS equipment.
GPS modernization [14] has now become an ongoing initiative to upgrade the Global Positioning System with new capabilities to meet growing military, civil, and commercial needs. The program is being implemented through a series of satellite acquisitions, including GPS Block III and the Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX). The U.S. Government continues to improve the GPS space and ground segments to increase performance and accuracy.
GPS is owned and operated by the United States Government as a national resource. Department of Defense (DoD) is the steward of GPS. Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB) oversaw GPS policy matters from 1996 to 2004. After that the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing Executive Committee was established by presidential directive in 2004 to advise and coordinate federal departments and agencies on matters concerning the GPS and related systems. The executive committee is chaired jointly by the deputy secretaries of defense and transportation. Its membership includes equivalent-level officials from the departments of state, commerce, and homeland security, the joint chiefs of staff, and NASA. Components of the executive office of the president participate as observers to the executive committee, and the FCC chairman participates as a liaison.
The DoD is required by law to "maintain a Standard Positioning Service (as defined in the federal radio navigation plan and the standard positioning service signal specification) that will be available on a continuous, worldwide basis," and "develop measures to prevent hostile use of GPS and its augmentations without unduly disrupting or degrading civilian uses."

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26-03-2012, 10:53 AM

I want seminar and presentation report also on GPS.... Can u uppload it plzzz...

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