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A hybrid electric vehicle is a hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional propulsion system with a rechargeable energy storage system to achieve better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle. Its secondary propulsion system, additional to the electric motor, means that it does not require regular visits to a charging unit as a battery electric vehicle does. Modern mass-produced HEVs prolong the charge in their batteries by capturing kinetic energy by means of regenerative braking, and some HEVs can use internal combustion engines(ICE) to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the internal combustion engine at idle and restarting it when needed. An HEVs engine is smaller than a non-hybrid fossil fuel vehicle and may be run at various speeds, providing greater efficiency.
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please read egr.msu.edu/erl/ME444/lectures/1127.ppt for getting ppt of HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Vehicle Modeling and Simulation Requirements:
Component models at various levels of detail incorporated into vehicle simulation model
Powertrain architectures: conventional; electric & hydraulic subsystems; parallel & series hybrid architectures; fuel cell & fuel reformer in direct and hybrid drives
Link to an optimization toolbox to provide system design formulations
Data integrity checks at model input data level (e.g., checks on speed, torque and power capacities, smoothness and completeness of data, ranges on parameters) and component compatibility
PC-based modeling and simulation environment with a knowledge base to assist the beginner and advanced user
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Submitted By

Upasana Behera


Have you pulled your car up to the gas pump lately and been shocked by the high price of gasoline? As the pump clicked past $20 or $30, maybe you thought about trading in that SUV for something that gets better mileage. Or maybe you are worried that your car is contributing to the greenhouse effect. Or maybe you just want to have the coolest car on the block. Currently, there is a solution for all this problems; it's the hybrid electric vehicle.
The vehicle is lighter and roomier than a purely electric vehicle, because there is less need to carry as many heavy batteries. The internal combustion engine in hybrid-electric is much smaller and lighter and more efficient than the engine in a conventional vehicle. In fact, most automobile manufacturers have announced plans to manufacture their own hybrid versions. Hybrid electric vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel-electric buses -- these can draw electric power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from the wires. Giant mining trucks are often diesel-electric hybrids. Submarines are also hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-electric and some are diesel-electric. Any vehicle that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power is a hybrid.


The world started down a new road in 1997 when the first modern hybrid electric car, the Toyota Prius, was sold in Japan. Two years later, the United States saw its first sale of a hybrid, the Honda Insight. These two Vehicles, followed by the Honda Civic Hybrid, marked a radial change in the type of car being offered to the public: vehicles that bring some of the benefits of battery electric vehicles into the conventional gasoline powered cars and trucks we have been using for more than 100 years. In the coming years, hybrids can play a significant role in addressing several of the major problems faced by the United States and the whole world today: climate change, air pollution and oil dependence. Whether this new technology delivers on its promise hinges on the choices automakers, consumers and policymakers make over the coming years. Poor choices could result in hybrids that fall short even of what conventional technology could deliver on fuel economy, emission or both. If they designed well, these hybrids can equal or better the utility, comfort, performance and safety we’ve come to expect, while saving us thousand of dollars at the gas pump.


A hybrid electric (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system

What is HEV?

 The combination of an internal combustion engine(ICE) with one or more electric motor or generators and a battery pack
 Combines propulsion system with RESS and gets better fuel economy
 An HEV uses less gasoline because the electric motor does some of the work

How HEV works

Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) combines the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. Some of the advanced technologies typically used by hybrid include.

REGENERATIVE BREAKING: The electric motor applies resistance to the drive train causing the wheels to slow down. IN return, the energy from the wheels turns the motor, which functions as a generator, converting energy normally wasted during coasting and breaking into electricity, which is stored in a battery until needed by the electric motor

ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE/ASSIST: The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in accelerating, passing or hill climbing. This allows a smaller, more efficient engine to be used. IN some vehicles, the motor alone provides power for low-speed driving condition where internal combustion engines are least efficient.

AUTOMATIC START/SHUTOFF: Automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts it when the accelerator is pressed. This prevents wasted energy from idling.

Process of Working

 Full hybrids use a gasoline engine as the primary source of power and an electric motor provides additional power when needed
 In addition, full hybrids can use the electric motor as the electric motor as the sole source of propulsion for low-speed, low-acceleration driving, such as in stop-and-go traffic or for breaking up.
 This electric-only driving mode can further increase fuel efficiency under some driving conditions.
 When a full hybrid vehicle is initially started, the battery typically powers all accessories
 The gasoline engine only starts if the battery needs to be charged or the accessories require more power than available from the battery
 The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or during regenerative braking from the electric motor. Since the battery powers the vehicle at low speeds, it is larger and holds much more energy than battery used to start conventional vehicles
Low speed
 For initial acceleration and low-speed driving, as well as reverse, the electric motor uses electricity from the battery to power the vehicle
 If the battery needs to be recharged, the generator starts the engine and converts energy from the engine into electricity. This is stored in the battery.

 At speeds above mid-range, both the engine and electric motor are used to propel the vehicle
 The gasoline engine provides power to the drive-train directly and to the electric motor via the generator
 During heavy accelerating or when additional power is needed the gasoline engine and electric motor are both use to propel the vehicle
Braking part
 Regenerative braking converts otherwise wasted energy from baking into electricity and stores it in battery
 In regenerative braking, the electric motor is reversed so that, instead of using electricity to run the wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create electricity. Using energy from the wheels turn the motor slows the vehicle down
 When the vehicle is stopped, such as at a red light, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is not wasted I idling
 All other systems, including the electric air conditioning, continue to run
 Rollover area: Battery: The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, from the electric motor. Since the battery powers the vehicle at low speeds, it is larger and holds much energy than batteries used to start conventional vehicles.

Hybrid Reliability

 The cost of maintenance is reduced due to operation of hybrid technology
 Regenerative braking reduces wear on brakes
 Idle stop extends battery life
 Electric accessories reduce load on engine.
 Battery charge is computer controlled which extends battery life


When it comes to purchasing a car many of us used to only think about how it looked and how fast we could go in it. But that was before gas prices skyrocketed and we were forced to think more about convenience rather then what we really wanted. People who are trying to purchase new cars are not in search of a car that receives good gas mileage.

Many manufacturers are designing their cars around this one feature to make them more appealing for people. One of the most common car that people feel can save them the most money are hybrids. These cars combine the use of two different types of engines in order to produce low measures of pollution.

Thanks to the uniqueness of the engine it is one of the quietest types of cars that you will ever see. They are designed with a fuel tank that is connected to the gasoline engine - but it is smaller and more efficient then in the average vehicle. It is also designed with an electric motor that uses batteries to function.

These hybrids have many features that include being able to travel long distances without using large amounts of fuel. When the car is idling or when it is traveling at low speeds it will switch to battery power. These batteries can be recharged at home.

When stopping the car it uses the electric motor and what is commonly known as regenerative braking. In the standard car they used friction to stop the car - but in a hybrid car kinetic energy will charge up the battery and use the energy to stop it. One of the best features that it has is the ability to shut itself off. When the car is idling it will automatically shut off and save fuel.

The Cash For Clunkers program is used to help people save money and purchase a car they can afford. Some of the most popular types are the Hybrids - which help to save people in gas money


 Mechanical
 Environmental
 Energy resilience
 Energy efficiency
 Cost of recharge
 Stabilization of the grid
 Use less fuel
 Lighter batteries
 Mobility
 System Integration
 Value Added Features


 Heating of electric vehicles
 Range
 Reduced but not emission free
 More expensive e than conventional vehicles
 Has a payback period in average use


A Cooler, Cleaner and Secure Future

A technology exists to build a future with a significant lower dependence on oil and a cleaner, cooler atmosphere. With sufficient political will and automaker participation, this future can arrive in time to address these significant and growing problems. Hybrids can play an important role in realizing this future, filling the gap between immediate improvements through conventional technology; hybrids can help drive passengers vehicle oil consumption and global warming emulsions from cars and trucks below 1990 levels.


 wikipidia.com
 google.com

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.doc   9963092529.doc (Size: 897.5 KB / Downloads: 227)
Fr om l ong ba ck c o ns ume r s & car makers are faci ng
troubles f r om two reason s viz., hike in oil pric es and increased tail
pipe em issions (pollution).
To mi n i mi ze t he s e tr oubles and to give bet ter economi c
ga in s to Auto u se r s a s p e c i al, in nov ativ e idea is evo l v e d i. e. ,
Hybridization T e chnology. In th is hybrid m e thod two kinds of
energy sources are needed to power a car. H e re som e part of th e wast e ener gy i s ut ili ze d to powe r the ve hi cle . The s e ve hic l e s have som e ad d i tion al features lik e Re generative brakin g, Continuous
Variable Transm ission (CVT) co mpar ed t o conventi onal car s
Hybrid vehicles can reduce the dependency on gasoline.
This is a healthy sign to pr ot ect the mot h er Earth and to give a clean environm ent to our fut u r e ge ner a ti ons . So the hybrid vehiclesin sp ite of few drawb ack s can caus e a m a jo r revo lu tion in the f u tu re ve hic le dei g ns .
Ultimately present pa per is r e ga rding:
• Need for hybrid age
• Wha t is hybrid ve hic le?
• W o rking of hybrid structure.
• Types of hybridization.
• About hybri d per forma nc e .
• Advantages of hybrid cars.
Have you ever th ought of traveling in your car which can give better m ileage and gi ve l e s s c o ntri buti ng t o the greenho us e eff e ct? It is the hybrid car w h ic h has both of them
“An y veh i cle th at co m b ines tw o or m o re sources of
power t h at can directl y or indirectly provid e propulsion power is a
Som e are nucl ear -electri c and some are di esel- electric. T h e g a so lin e -electric hyb rid c a r is ju st wh at it sounds like- -a cross betw een a Gasoline powered car and an Electr ic car. Hybr id ca r a t tem p ts s i gn if ican tly to in creas e the m i leag e an d red u ce th eem issions of a gas-powered car wh ile overcom i ng th e shortcom ings of an electri c car and increa sed em issions of gasoline car.
A gasoline powered car has a
fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine. When the IC engine runs it turns the wheels and the transmission is done.
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.docx   CHAPTER 1.docx (Size: 744.95 KB / Downloads: 216)
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
1.1 Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle that uses an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor (EM) as propulsion systems to increase the system efficiency. These vehicles are the short term solution to the reduction in the demand for fossil fuels. As shown in Figure, typical fuel consumption of an ICE is high at low speed and decreases as the speed increases beyond 45 km/h . For the same distance, if you drive the vehicle at 50 km/h rather than 15km/h, you would increase the engine efficiency by 45 percent. If the propulsion power can be provided by an EM at low speed, the combined efficiency will be better than when an ICE alone is used. However, HEVs pose a challenging energy management problem of effectively splitting the required torque between the EM and the ICE. It’s obvious that this decision will greatly impact the gas mileage of the vehicle, and state of charge of the battery as an energy source.
Much research has been done in recent years in HEV control, and several strategies have been proposed. These strategies include optimal, intelligent, as well as rule-based approaches. Each method has its degree of complexity, strength, and limitation. Some of these control strategies are; 1- Parallel electric assist control strategy, 2- Fuzzy logic control for optimum fuel use, 3- Fuzzy logic control for vehicle efficiency, 4- Adaptive control strategy, 5- Torque split control strategy (Honda Insight Model). Figure 1.2 illustrates a basic scheme for HEV control structure. Basically, a control strategy of a HEV determines the torque/power split between ICE and EM for a certainspeed, torque, and acceleration.
The difficulty of implementing these control strategies lies either in obtaining the information required to implement the strategy, the lack of availability of expert knowledge for the intelligent control strategy, or tuning the rules for simple strategies
Hence, hybrid vehicle control focused on the torque/power split between the combustion engine and the electrical motor to operate them at the most efficient torque speed characteristics. They require a built-in controller, torque/power splitter and other transmission integrated devices which make the system very complex and expensive. In addition, choosing proper traction motor and its supply system will affect the system efficiency immensely because of the increase of electrical energy consumption by using high power EM and high capacity battery.
1.2 Research Motivation:
This research proposes the design of a novel control strategy that improves gas mileage of a traditional single engine vehicle by using an add-on package which includes an electric motor with battery and motor controller system. It is titled “add-on” because of its compact structure and simplicity to implement on existing non hybrid vehicles. The idea suggests that if an external EM, battery, and motor control system are added to the vehicle as a standalone package, the control strategy will only determine the EM torque contribution according to the vehicle speed, battery state of charge (SOC), and actual load of the vehicle. So, the motor torque controller is independent from the driver pedal; unlike a typical HEV (compare Figures). The conceptual design of the proposed control strategy is shown in Figure. Using actual speed, SOC, and actual vehicle load information, see Figure 1.3, the controller determines the torque contribution of EM using EM-ICE efficiency maps. Efficiency maps are obtained using experimental data, and illustrate the change of motor efficiency.
For instance, if the ICE operates at 10% efficiency, 90% of the energy is wasted during that drive. As seen on Figure, the efficiency maps for the ICE and EM of first generation Toyota Prius illustrates the maximum efficiency regions. ICE has 45 percent maximum efficiency at high torque regions while EM has 90 percent. Before applying the energy management strategy, one has to know the torque needed by the vehicle at a given speed.
2.1 HEV Configurations

The decrease in fuel consumption could be enhanced with proper design of power train components, such as downsizing the ICEs, and adding higher power EMs with well-designed
power management strategies for the vehicle such as recapturing the kinetic energy lost during braking or driving the vehicle with EM at low speeds where ICE are known to be inefficient.
The transportation busses, military vehicles, and automobiles may require different speed-torque drive characteristics. For this reason, different configurations of HEVs are developed for various vehicular applications. But generally, HEVs evolved out of two basic configurations: series and parallel. However, the second generation Toyota Prius has series-parallel configuration. In this chapter, the different configurations of HEVs are introduced, compared with each other, and power flow diagrams are explained.
2.1.1 Series HEVs
The series HEV configuration, see Figure 1, has the simplest control structure because there is no direct mechanical connection between the ICE and the wheels. All the propulsion power comes from the EM while the ICE is only used to charge the battery used to power the EM or its battery The biggest advantage of a series HEV is the simplicity of its drive train which is due to the decoupling between the ICE and the wheels permit the ICE to be operated on its most efficient operating region while maximizing fuel efficiency for generating power needed by the EM. Another advantage is the near zero emission when compared with the other HEV configurations; the ICE is not primary power source and works at regions of minimum emission.
On the other hand, the presence of a generator is a big disadvantage for this configuration. Furthermore, the electric motor should provide enough power for maximum gradeability, acceleration and highway cruising. So the rapid depletion due to high speed cruising and frequent acceleration demands should be taken into consideration during the battery design. Based upon these advantages and disadvantages, the series HEVs are best suited to low speed, and interrupted type driving. As explained, during deceleration the electric motor acts as generator and converts kinetic energy to electrical energy which is referred to as regenerative braking. Part of the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed into battery power through the EM and charges the battery.
2.1.2 Parallel HEVs
A parallel hybrid vehicle is one in which more than one energy source can provide propulsion power. The ICE and the EM are configured in parallel with a mechanical coupling which blends the torque/power coming from the two different sources. Unlike series HEVs, both power sources (ICE and electric motor) can be utilized to drive the vehicle with the help of an integrated gear/clutch system that give opportunity of providing the desired power either solely from the prime mover or from both motors. As illustrated in Figure, energy from the fuel tank and the battery is transferred to the wheels via two separate mechanisms. During high speed cruising, only the selected prime mover is utilized for propulsion and this is typically the ICE for parallel HEVs. During interrupted cruising, ICE charges the battery through the transmission and EM, which eliminates the necessity for an extra component like a generator. At the regenerative
braking, the battery is charged via EM that acts as generator. For instance, Honda Insight uses this kind of HEV configuration with a 995 cc single overhead VTEC engine which has maximum power of 76 HP at 5,700 rpm and a maximum torque of 113 Nm at 1,500 rpm with the assistance of an electric motor which produces 10 kW at 3000 rpm. In parallel HEVs, the need for a generator is eliminated, which decreases the weight and the cost of the configuration. If EM is not the only power source, then EM could be used for power regeneration during deceleration and converts kinetic energy to electrical energy.
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.pptx   ABSTRACT.pptx (Size: 2.24 MB / Downloads: 221)
A hybrid electric vehicle is a hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional propulsion system with a rechargeable energy storage system to achieve better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle
A hybrid electric (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system
What is HEV?
The combination of an internal combustion engine(ICE) with one or more electric motor or generators and a battery pack
Combines propulsion system with RESS and gets better fuel economy
An HEV uses less gasoline because the electric motor does some of the work
How HEVs Work
 MMP HEV’s prolong charge on batteries capturing KE via Regenerative Braking.
 HEV’s use ICE to generate Electricity by spinning Electric Generator either to Recharge or to feed power.
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 Any vehicle that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsive power is a hybrid.
Picture: Toyota Prius Hybrid
 A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system
 A HEV having a smaller engine produces less emissions than a comparably-sized gasoline car
 So HEV causes less air pollution
 An HEV uses less gasoline because the electric motor also delivers power to assist the engine
 So fuel consumption is decreased

 A gasoline engine and an electric motor simultaneously transmit power to drive the wheels
 Also capable of regenerative braking and the IC engine can also act a generator for supplemental recharging.
 In series hybrids, only the electric motor drives the drive train, and the ICE works as a generator to power the electric motor or to recharge the batteries
 Series hybrids usually have a smaller combustion engine but a larger battery pack as compared to parallel hybrids
• A hybrid car runs on straight electric motor up to 0- 15m ph (25-kph) thus free from pollution.
• Be yond that transmission shuts off the motor & turns on the motor. So 15-60 mph car runs on gasoline power .
• If the speed is further increased the motor is also turned on.
• In idle state, i.e. stop & go traffic, transmission automatically shuts off the engine, saving fuel.
Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs)
It is a hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source
In picture : The Chevrolet Volt Plug-in hybrid
 Hybrids can be divided into two categories:
• Mild hybrids and
• Full hybrids
 Vehicle can not be driven solely on its electric motor, because the electric motor does not have enough power to propel the vehicle on its own
 Electric motor provides assist whenever extra power is needed
 vehicle that run on just the engine, just the batteries, or a combination of both
 When higher power needed, both the gas engine and the electric motor can work together to provide the needed power
• The power split devise is the heart of the Toyota Prius, which is a Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
• This is a clever gearbox that hooks the gasoline engine, generator and electric motor together.
• It allows the car to operate like a parallel and series hybrid
• The power split device is a planetary gear set.
• The electric motor is connected to the ring gear of the gear set.
• It is also directly connected to the differential, which drives the wheels.
• So, whatever speed the electric motor and ring gear spin at determines the speed of the car.
• The generator is connected to the sun gear of the gear set, and the engine is connected to the planet carrier.
• The speed of the ring gear depends on all three components, so they all have to work together at all times to control the output speed.
 Generally the battery provides power for the electric motor and is recharged by recapturing energy from gas engine that would normally be lost when decelerating.
 This recapturing of energy is called regenerative braking
 Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed; this is known as a start-stop system
Toyota Volta Hybrid Sports Car, 408 Horsepower, 30 Miles per gallon
 Hybrid vehicles use less gasoline than conventional vehicles
 Air pollution is less as the emission is lesser due to a smaller engine in hybrid vehicles
 The additional boost in power from the electric motor in certain driving conditions also guarantees maximum performance.
 More car batteries will have to be made, posing a larger problem for disposal of such batteries.
 The higher price range of HEVs
 Safety concerns as the manufacturers reduce the weight of the vehicle to decrease fuel consumption
☺ Hybrid cars are definitely more environmental friendly than internal-combustion vehicles.
☺ Batteries are being engineered to have a long life. When the hybrid cars become more widespread, battery recycling will become economically possible.
☺ Research for energy sources such as fuel cells and renewable fuels make the future look brighter for hybrid cars.
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What Is a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)?
 The combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) with one or more electric motor/generators and a battery pack’
 Combines I.C.Engine With Electric Motor and gets Better Fuel economy.
 An HEV uses less gasoline because the electric motor does some of the work.
History of HEVs
 1997 – First modern HEV introduced in Japan: Toyota Prius (on left below)
 1999 – First modern HEV sold in U.S.:
Honda Insight (on right below)
About HEVs
 HEVs offer the efficiency of electric-powered vehicles without having to recharge by using conventional engines and fuels.
 Efficiencies are gained from motor down-sizing and regenerative braking.
 Inherent flexibility allows use for numerous applications.
HEV Efficiency
Three key factors:

 Regenerative braking
 Engine size
 Vehicle weight & aerodynamic design
 Engine size = may be smaller than in a conventional vehicle
 Engine is sized to accommodate average load – not peak load
 Vehicle weight/aerodynamic design:
 Built using special lightweight materials
Uses advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag
Regenerative Braking
 Recaptures kinetic energy normally lost as heat during braking
Kinetic energy = energy of motion
 Electric motor acts as a generator when brakes applied
 Converts kinetic energy to electrical energy, stored in batteries.
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to get information about the topic hybrid cars full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report



topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report?page=3


topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report?page=4


topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report?page=2
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give me report of hybrid electric vehicle
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Hybrid Electric Vehicle

.pptx   Hybrid Electric Vehicle.pptx (Size: 2.52 MB / Downloads: 45)

Advantages of HEV’s

HEV contains parts of both gasoline and electric vehicles in an attempt to get the best of both worlds.
HEV is able to operate nearly twice as efficiently as traditional internal combustion vehicles.
Equivalent power, range, cost and safety of a conventional vehicle while reducing fuel costs and harmful emissions.
The battery is continuously recharged by a motor/generator driven by the ICE or by regenerative braking.

Components of HEV Battery system

Battery:- Two or more electrochemical energy cells connected together to provide electrical energy.
Generator:- The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power.
Electric motor:- Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.
SOC:- The State of Charge of a battery is its available capacity expressed as a percentage of its rated capacity.

HEV battery system design parameters

Factors affecting battery performance
Temperature:- Battery performance is highly dependent on temperature.
each type of battery works best within a limited range of temperatures.
Battery age/Shelf life:- Corrosion is the main component behind decreased
performance in lead acid type batteries by age.
Depth of discharge:- Batteries are able to maintain their performance longer
when they are not deeply discharged regularly.

Design parameters:
How much space is available for the batteries?
How much can they weigh?
What is the desired range?
What is the weight of the vehicle?
What is the targeted vehicle cost?
How will the batteries be recharged and
What kind of drive system requirements is needed?
These are necessary questions because of the variety of battery types
available and the differences between them. The chart below lists the
characteristics of the most common types of batteries.

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.doc   HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES[.DOC (Size: 300.5 KB / Downloads: 42)

Fossil fuels were discovered in early 17th century. The day they were found, the scientists of those days thought that these fossil fuels are going to bring drastical changes in the Automobile fields. Things happened as the way they predicted. It really changed the Industry. People started using commercial vehicles. Petrol brought lots of changes in the automobile field. Because of the increased demand for the fuel, the crude oil extraction was increased. But later on people found that the fossil fuels are slowly getting exhausted and that day is very nearer to us. According to the survey of several leading research institutes like MIT, the fossil fuels like coal, natural gas etc are going to be evaporated with in the coming 100 years.


What is a Hybrid Vehicle? The first doubt that arises in your mind. As I have said above, A Hybrid Vehicle is a vehicle that draws power from two or more sources. Let me explain the real meaning inside the above statement using the following example shown below.


As I have said before the main advantage of the HEVs is that they can reduce the environmental pollution to a great extent. As we all know that, the combustion engines when burns the fuel gives dangerous gases like CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2 etc into the atmosphere. These harmful gases are responsible for hazardous environmental effects like Green House Effect (Green house gases combining with rain water to give Acid rains) and Global warming (increase in the temperature of the environment which leads to the melting of polar ice caps and thus increasing the sea level).


Within a hybrid vehicle platform, the multiple propulsion sources can be arranged in a wide variety of mechanical configurations. The three most common of these configurations are known as “parallel”, “series” or “power-split” hybrids. Figures depicting these configurations show the three separate regions of power usage present in any vehicle: Energy Storage, Energy Transformation (from the stored energy to mechanical energy) and Energy Transmission to the wheels.


The disadvantages as of now with the HEVs are pretty less when compared to the ordinary automobiles. So if the technology could remove its flaws using the advanced and fast research, the HEV technology will be the ultimate automobile technology in the future. As we all know that every good thing has a long gestation period. So what all we can do is to wait and see.

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.pptx   pHYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES.pptx (Size: 220.88 KB / Downloads: 29)


A hybrid vehicle is which draws power from two or more sources.
We observe a CIDI technology ICE and Integrated power electronics based Battery power supply.
The vehicle runs using the power from both the CIDI engine as well as the power from the Battery equipment. So it is called as a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV).


The main advantage of the HEVs is that they can reduce the environmental pollution to a great extent.
They don’t depend at all on the Fossil fuels which are formed from the buried remaining of the living organisms about 300 to 500 million years ago.

Internal Combustion Engine

Internal Combustion Engine is an engine which works by the combustion of the fuel inside a evacuated chamber in presence of a air or oxygen.

Electric Motor

Electric motor generally used here is A.C type motor. It takes the energy from the battery pack and runs the wheels as per the energy supplied.
Coming to the battery pack to supply electrical power a novel technology called as the Super Capacitor is used.


A super capacitor or an Ultra capacitor is nothing but a two layered conventional capacitor. It will have a separator in between the anode and cathode.


Linear discharge of voltage enables usage of the complete energy spectrum.
High self discharge than the ordinary capacitor
Less impedance
Charges in seconds and discharges for a long time


1. These are 100% emission free since nothing is emitted into the atmosphere.
2. These are highly fuel efficient since they consume very less amount of fuel.
3. Hybrid electric vehicles are highly efficient
4. Non renewable sources are conserved since the usage of the electrical energy for the maximum extent.


Because of the presence of the cooling systems, it adds a little bit of extra weight on the vehicle.
An electric car cannot go more than 100 miles (161 km) between re-charging, is difficult to re-charge in some instances and doesn't drive beyond 60 mpg as yet.


The disadvantages as of now with the HEVs are pretty less when compared to the ordinary automobiles. So if the technology could remove its flaws using the advanced and fast research, the HEV technology will be the ultimate automobile technology in the future.


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