HYDRO POWER PLANT presentation
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HYDRO POWER PLANT
CHHATTISGARH SWAMI VIVEKANAND TECHINICAL UNIVERSITY , BHILAI
1) One of the most widely used renewable source of energy for generating electricity on large scale basis is hydropower
2) The power obtained from river or ocean water is called as hydropower
3) Hydropower is the renewable source of energy since water is available in large quantities from rain, rivers, and oceans and this is will be available for unlimited time to come
TYPES OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
1) Water wheels
2) Hydro power plants
3) Wave energy from oceans
4) Tidal energy
5) Damless hydro power
Based on Quantity of Water Available
1) Run-off river hydro plants with pond
2) Run-off river hydro plants with pond
3) Reservoir hydroelectric power plants
Based on the Head of Water Available
1) Low head hydroelectric power plants
2)Medium head hydroelectric power plants
3) High head hydroelectric power plants
Based on the Nature of Load
1) Base load hydroelectric power plants
2) Peak load hydroelectric power plants
PRINCIPLE OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
The continuous cycle in which water changes from water vapor in the atmosphere to liquid water through condensation and precipitation and then back to water vapor through evaporation, transpiration, and respiration
Water cycle in nature:
Water surface evaporation
Precipitation of clouds
Collected back to the oceans
Water energies: Kinetic energy , Potential energy
PROCESS / STAGES
1) Water in reservoir
2) Fall in turbine blade
3) Shaft rotation
4) Electric generation
5) Flow back of water
COMPONENT AND WORKING OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
What is dam
Classification of dams
To impound water
Purpose - Irrigation
- Flood control
- Power generation
To provide sufficient pressure
To Minimize the effect of sudden floods
To trap sediment
They carry water discharge over their crests
Rock instead of earth
Embankment dams hold back water by the force of gravity acting upon their mass
Most gravity dams are made from concrete, a mixture of port land cement, water, and aggregates
They are much thicker at the base than the top
2) Water reservoir
Place behind the dam
Height of water
3) Intake or control gates
Gates inside of the dam.
4) The penstock
To carries the water
Controlled by the control gates
5) Water turbines
Convert HYDROLIC energy to MECHANICAL energy
Convert MECHANICAL energy in ELECTRICAL energy
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The cheapest source which is to generating power is water.
Hydro-electric power plant main aim was to generate power in flowing water.
The energy which is from hydel plant is utilized to drive turbine.
In India during 1987, the first hydro-electric power station was started near Darjeeling
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Hydro Electric Power Plant
SHRI GAURAV SIR.
In hydroelectric power station potential and kinetic energy of stored water is converted into electric energy .
For hydro power station factors like rainfall,steam flow available head and storage facilities are studied.
25% of electricity generation capacity in world is provided by hydel power plant.
In the countries like Norvey 99% electricity is produced by hydelpowerplant.
4% of the total hydel energy potential in world is in India.
In India 25.32% of total electricity generation capacity is produced by hydel power plant.
As per rocords of March-2000 23,816 MW electricity was generated by hydel power plant.
It is increasing day by day because of the institutes like National Hydro Power Corporation Limited(NHPCL).
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Hydroelectric Power Plant
Dams are structures built over rivers to stop the water flow and form a reservoir
The reservoir stores the water flowing down the river. This water is diverted to turbines in power stations.
A spillway as the name suggests could be called as a way for spilling of water from dams. It is used to provide for the release of flood water from a dam.
It is used to prevent over toping of the dams which could result in damage or failure of dams
PENSTOCK AND TUNNEL
Penstocks are pipes which carry water from the reservoir to the turbines inside power station. They are usually made of steel and are equipped with gate systems. Water under high pressure flows through the penstock.
A tunnel serves the same purpose as a penstock. It is used when an obstruction is present between the dam and power station such as a mountain.
Surge tanks are tanks connected to the water conductor system. It serves the purpose of reducing water hammering in pipes which can cause damage to pipes.
The sudden surges of water in penstock is taken by the surge tank, and when the water requirements increase, it supplies the collected water thereby regulating water flow and pressure inside the penstock.
Power station contains a turbine coupled to a generator. The water brought to the power station rotates the vanes of the turbine producing torque and rotation of turbine shaft. This rotational torque is transferred to the generator and is converted into electricity.
The used water is released through the tail race. The difference between head race and tail race is called gross head and by subtracting the frictional losses we get the net head
Elimination of the cost of fuel.
Longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation
Operating labor cost is also usually low
No green house gas (CO 2 ) emission during power generation
This project and implimentations can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site
It needs to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned
Dams may be subject to enemy bombardment during wartime, sabotage and terrorism.
Changes in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam.
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“A generating station which utilises the energy of water at a high level for the generation of electrical energy is known as a hydro-electric power station”.
Hydro-electric power station are generally located in hilly area where dams can be built conveniently and large water reservoirs can be obtain. In a hydro-electric power station, water head is created by constructing a dam across a river or lake. From the dam, water is led to water turbine. The water turbine captures the energy in the falling water and change the hydraulic energy into mechanical energy at the turbine shaft. The turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy . The hydro-electric power station are becoming very popular because of fuels are depleting day by day .
WHAT IS HYDROPOWER?
It is capture of energy of moving water to generate electric power.
Falling water is used to turn the turbine blades
Turbine converts hydraulic energy to mechanical energy.
Alternator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy .
WORKING OF HYDROPOWER PLANT
A hydro-power plant simply involves the conversion of hydraulic energy into electrical energy .
The dam is construction across a river or tank and water from the catchment area collect at the back of the dam to from a reservoir . A pressure tunnel is taken off from the reservoir and water brought to the valve house at the start of the penstock .The valve house contain main sluice valves and automatic isolating valves . The former controls the water flow power house and the latter cut off supply of water when the penstock bursts . From the valve house , water is taken to water turbine though a huge steel pipe known as penstock . The water turbine converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy . The turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
WHAT IS DAM?
It consists of floodgates which prevents water flow into specific land regions
It is a medium to store water at a height.
Most hydropower plants rely on dams.
Dam are built of concrete or stone masonary , earth or rock fill.
The earth dam may be best suited for a wide valley.
IT requires no fuel as water is used for the generation of electrical energy .
It is quite neat and clean as no smoke or ask is produced .
It requires very small running charges because water is the source of energy which is available free cost.
It is comparatively simple in construction and requires less maintenance.
It does not require a long starting time like a steam power station. In fact , such plants can be put into service instantly.
It is robust and has a longer life.
IT involves high capital cost due to construction of dam.
There is uncertainty about the availability of huge amount of water due to dependence on weather conditions.
Skilled and experienced hands are required to built the plant.
It requires high cost of transmission lines as the plant is located in hilly area which are quite away from the consumer.