Halo Networks
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shibin.sree
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22-12-2009, 07:37 PM


ABSTRACT

Todayâ„¢s global communications infrastructures of landlines, cellular towers, and satellites are inadequately equipped to support the increasing worldwide demand for faster, better, and less expensive service. At a time when conventional ground and satellite systems are facing increasing obstacles and spiraling costs, a low cost solution is being advocated.

This seminar and presentation focuses on airborne platforms- airships, planes, helicopters or some hybrid solutions which could operate at stratospheric altitudes for significant periods of time, be low cost and be capable of carrying sizable multipurpose communications payloads. The airborne-internet aircraft will circle overhead at an altitude of 52,000 to 69,000 feet (15,849 to 21,031 meters). At this altitude, the aircraft will be undisturbed by inclement weather and flying well above commercial air traffic. This type of network called HALO Network.
INTRODUCTION

HIGH ALTITUDE AERONAUTICAL PLATFORMS (HAAPS)

High Altitude Aeronautical Platform Stations (HAAPS) is the name of a technology for providing wireless narrowband and broadband telecommunication services as well as broadcasting services with either airships or aircrafts. The HAAPS are operating at altitudes between 3 to 22 km. A HAAPS shall be able to cover a service area of up to 1'000 km diameter, depending on the minimum elevation angle accepted from the user's location. The platforms may be airplanes or airships (essentially balloons) and may be manned or un-manned with autonomous operation coupled with remote control from the ground. HAAPS mean a solar-powered and unmanned airplane or airship, capable of long endurance on-station “possibly several years.

A high altitude telecommunication system comprises an airborne platform “ typically at high atmospheric or stratospheric altitudes “ with a telecommunications payload, and associated ground station telecommunications equipment. The combination of altitude, payload capability, and power supply capability makes it ideal to serve new and metropolitan areas with advanced telecommunications services such as broadband access and regional broadcasting. The opportunities for applications are virtually unlimited. The possibilities range from narrowband services such as paging and mobile voice to interactive broadband services such as multimedia and video conferencing. For future telecommunications operators such a platform could provide blanket coverage from day one with the added advantage of not being limited to a single service. Where little or unreliable infrastructure exists, traffic could be switched through air via the HAAPS platform. Technically, the concept offers a solution to the propagation and rollout problems of terrestrial infrastructure and capacity and cost problems of satellite networks. Recent developments in digital array antenna technology make it possible to construct 100+ cells from one platform. Linking and switching of traffic between multiple high altitude platforms, satellite networks and terrestrial gateways are also possible. Economically it provides the opportunity for developing countries to have satellite-like infrastructure without the funds flowing out of the country due to gateways and control stations located outside of these countries.


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loveprosen
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26-08-2010, 07:45 PM

can u plz send me the ppt the topic HALO Network..
its urgent..
thanks in advance..
e-mail: loveprosen@gmail.com
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project report helper
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16-10-2010, 07:43 PM


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Halo Networks

INTRODUCTION

HIGH ALTITUDE AERONAUTICAL PLATFORMS (HAAPS)


High Altitude Aeronautical Platform Stations (HAAPS) is the name of a technology for providing wireless narrowband and broadband telecommunication services as well as broadcasting services with either airships or aircrafts. The HAAPS are operating at altitudes between 3 to 22 km. A HAAPS shall be able to cover a service area of up to 1'000 km diameter, depending on the minimum elevation angle accepted from the user's location. The platforms may be airplanes or airships (essentially balloons) and may be manned or un-manned with autonomous operation coupled with remote control from the ground. HAAPS mean a solar-powered and unmanned airplane or airship, capable of long endurance on-station –possibly several years.

A high altitude telecommunication system comprises an airborne platform – typically at high atmospheric or stratospheric altitudes – with a telecommunications payload, and associated ground station telecommunications equipment. The combination of altitude, payload capability, and power supply capability makes it ideal to serve new and metropolitan areas with advanced telecommunications services such as broadband access and regional broadcasting. The opportunities for applications are virtually unlimited. The possibilities range from narrowband services such as paging and mobile voice to interactive broadband services such as multimedia and video conferencing. For future telecommunications operators such a platform could provide blanket coverage from day one with the added advantage of not being limited to a single service. Where little or unreliable infrastructure exists, traffic could be switched through air via the HAAPS platform. Technically, the concept offers a solution to the propagation and rollout problems of terrestrial infrastructure and capacity and cost problems of satellite networks. Recent developments in digital array antenna technology make it possible to construct 100+ cells from one platform. Linking and switching of traffic between multiple high altitude platforms, satellite networks and terrestrial gateways are also possible. Economically it provides the opportunity for developing countries to have satellite-like infrastructure without the funds flowing out of the country due to gateways and control stations located outside of these countries.


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seminar class
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31-03-2011, 12:38 PM

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.docx   HALO NETWORK.docx (Size: 35.62 KB / Downloads: 52)
ABSTRACT
The High Altitude Long Operation NetworkTM is a broadband
wireless metropolitan area network, with a star topology, whose solitary
hub is located in the atmosphere above the service area at an altitude
higher than commercial airline traffic. The HALO/Proteus airplane is the
central node of this network. It will fly at altitudes higher than 51,000 ft.
The signal footprint of the network, its "Cone of Commerce," will have a
diameter on the scale of 100 km. The initial capacity of the network will
be on the scale of 10 Gb/s, with growth beyond 100 Gb/s. The network
will serve the communications needs of each subscriber with bit rates in
the multimegabit per second range. A variety of spectrum bands licensed
by the FCC for commercial wireless services could provide the needed
millimeter wavelength carrier bandwidth. An attractive choice for the
subscriber links is the LMDS band.
The airplane's fuselage can house switching circuitry and fast
digital network functions. An MMW antenna array and its related
components will be located in a pod suspended below the aircraft
fuselage. The antenna array will produce many beams, typically more
than 100. Adjacent beams will be separated in frequency. Electronic
beamforming techniques can be used to stabilize the beams on the
ground, as the airplane flies within its station keeping volume. For the
alternative of aircraft-fixed beams, the beams will traverse over a user
location, while the airplane maintains station overhead, and the virtual
path will be changed to accomplish the beam-to-beam handoff. For each
isolated city to be served, a fleet of three aircraft will be operated in shifts
to achieve around-the-clock service. In deployments where multiple cities
will be served from a common primary flight base, the fleet will be sized
for allocating, on average, two aircraft per city to be served. Flight
operational tactics will be steadily evolved and refined to achieve
continuous presence of the node above each city. Many services will be
provided, including but not limited to T1 access, ISDN access, Web
browsing, high-resolution videoconferencing, large file transfers, and
Ethernet LAN bridging.
Chapter-1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction

Passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act and the slow growth of infrastructure
for transacting multimedia messages (those integrating voice, text, sound,
images, and video) have stimulated an intense race to deploy non-traditional infrastructure
to serve businesses and consumers at affordable prices. The game is new and
the playing field is more level than ever before. Opportunities exist for entrepreneurs
to challenge the market dominance enjoyed for years by incumbents. New types of
service providers will emerge.
An electronic "information fabric" of a quilted character—including space, atmospheric,
and terrestrial data communications layers—will emerge that promises to
someday link every digital information device on the planet. Packet-switched data
networks will meld with connection-oriented telephony networks. Communications
infrastructures will be shared more efficiently among users to offer dramatic reductions
in cost and large increases of effective data rates. An era of inexpensive bandwidth
has begun which will transform the nature of commerce.
The convergence of innovative technologies and manufacturing capabilities affecting
aviation, millimeter wave wireless, and multi-media communications industries
enables Angel Technologies Corporation and its partners to pursue new wireless
broadband communications services. The HALO™ Network will offer ubiquitous access
to any subscriber within a "super metropolitan area" from an aircraft operating at
high altitude. The aircraft will serve as the hub of the HALO™ Network serving tens
to hundreds of thousands of subscribers. Each subscriber will be able to communicate
at multi-megabit per second data rates through a simple-to-install subscriber unit. The
HALO™ Network will be steadily evolved at a pace with the emergence of data communications
technology world-wide. The HALO™ Network will be a universal wireless
communications network solution. It will be deployed globally on a city-by-city
basis.
The equipment needed to perform the functions of this broadband wireless service
will be evolutionary in nature, not revolutionary. Most of the technology already
exists. The engineering effort will be focused primarily at adapting and integrating the
existing components and subsystems from terrestrial markets into a complete network
solution. Proven technology will be used to the maximum extent. Since the HALO™
Aircraft are operated from regional airports, the equipment will be routinely maintained
and calibrated. This also allows for equipment upgrades as technology advances
yield lower cost and weight and provide increased performance.
1.2Wireless Broadband Communications Market
There are various facts that show the strong interest in wireless communications
in the United States:
•50 million subscribers to wireless telephone service
•28 million dollars annual revenue for wireless services
•38,000 cell sites with 37 billion dollars cumulative capital investment
•40% annual growth in customers
•25 million personal computers sold each year
•50 million PC users with Internet access
"The demand for Internet services is exploding and this creates a strong demand
for broadband, high data rate service. It is expected that there will soon be a
worldwide demand for Internet service in the hundreds of millions". (Lou Gerstner,
IBM, April 1997) The growth in use of the World Wide Web and electronic commerce
will stimulate demand for broadband services.
1.3 A Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
HALO™ Aircraft Provides Wireless Broadband Services over Metropolitan Centers
An airplane specially designed for high altitude flight with a payload capacity
of approximately one ton is being developed for commercial wireless services. It will
circle at high altitudes for extended periods of time and it will serve as a stable platform
from which broadband communications services will be offered. The High Altitude
Long Operation (HALO™) Aircraft will maintain station at an altitude of 52 to
60 thousand feet by flying in a circle with a diameter of about 5 to 8 nautical miles.
Three successive shifts on station of 8 hours each can provide continuous coverage of
an area for 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Such a system can provide broadband
multimedia communications to the general public.
One such platform will cover an area of approximately 2800 square miles encompassing
a typical metropolitan area. A viewing angle of 20 degrees or higher will
be chosen to facilitate good line-of-sight coverage at millimeter wave (MMW) frequencies
(20 GHz or higher). Operation at MMW frequencies enables broadband systems
to be realized, i.e., from spectrum bandwidths of 1 to 6 GHz. MMW systems
also permit very narrow beam widths to be realized with small aperture antennas. Furthermore,
since the aircraft is above most of the earth's oxygen, links to satellite constellations
can be implemented using the frequencies overlapping the 60 GHz absorption
band for good immunity from ground-based interference and good isolation from
inter-satellite links.
The HALO™ Network can utilize a cellular pattern on the ground so that each
cell uses one of four frequency sub-bands, each having a bandwidth up to 60 MHz
each way. A fifth sub-band can be used for gateways (connections to the public network
or dedicated users). Each cell will cover an area of a few square miles. The entire
bandwidth will be reused many times to achieve total coverage throughout the
2800 square mile area served by the airborne platform. The total capacity of the network
supported by a single airborne platform can be greater than 100 Gbps. This is
comparable to terrestrial fiber-optic (FO) networks and can provide two-way broadband
multimedia services normally available only via FO networks.
The HALO™ Network provides an alternative to satellite- and ground-based
systems. Unlike satellite systems, however, the airborne system concentrates all of the
spectrum usage in certain geographic areas, which minimizes frequency coordination
problems and permits sharing of frequency with ground-based systems. Enough
power is available from the aircraft power generator to allow broadband data access
from small user terminals.
1.4 A New Layer in the Wireless Infrastructure
Raytheon TI Systems and Angel Technologies Corporation have the opportunity
to serve the growing wireless communications market by using a HALO™ Aircraft
that transmits high-speed data traffic throughout a metropolitan region. The goal
is to interconnect more than 100,000 subscribers within a metropolitan center and its
surrounding communities through a star topology network. This HALO™ Network
has the benefits of low cost, high flexibility, and high quality of service.
HALO™ Aircraft provide a new layer in the traditional hierarchy of wireless
communications. The HALO™ Network can be thought of as a "tall tower" approach
that provides better line of sight to customers without the high cost of deploying and
operating a satellite constellation.
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#5
19-07-2011, 12:35 PM


.doc   Halo Networks.doc (Size: 248.5 KB / Downloads: 32)
INTRODUCTION
HIGH ALTITUDE AERONAUTICAL PLATFORMS (HAAPS)

High Altitude Aeronautical Platform Stations (HAAPS) is the name of a technology for providing wireless narrowband and broadband telecommunication services as well as broadcasting services with either airships or aircrafts. The HAAPS are operating at altitudes between 3 to 22 km. A HAAPS shall be able to cover a service area of up to 1'000 km diameter, depending on the minimum elevation angle accepted from the user's location. The platforms may be airplanes or airships (essentially balloons) and may be manned or un-manned with autonomous operation coupled with remote control from the ground. HAAPS mean a solar-powered and unmanned airplane or airship, capable of long endurance on-station –possibly several years.
A high altitude telecommunication system comprises an airborne platform – typically at high atmospheric or stratospheric altitudes – with a telecommunications payload, and associated ground station telecommunications equipment. The combination of altitude, payload capability, and power supply capability makes it ideal to serve new and metropolitan areas with advanced telecommunications services such as broadband access and regional broadcasting. The opportunities for applications are virtually unlimited. The possibilities range from narrowband services such as paging and mobile voice to interactive broadband services such as multimedia and video conferencing. For future telecommunications operators such a platform could provide blanket coverage from day one with the added advantage of not being limited to a single service. Where little or unreliable infrastructure exists, traffic could be switched through air via the HAAPS platform. Technically, the concept offers a solution to the propagation and rollout problems of terrestrial infrastructure and capacity and cost problems of satellite networks. Recent developments in digital array antenna technology make it possible to construct 100+ cells from one platform. Linking and switching of traffic between multiple high altitude platforms, satellite networks and terrestrial gateways are also possible. Economically it provides the opportunity for developing countries to have satellite-like infrastructure without the funds flowing out of the country due to gateways and control stations located outside of these countries.
GENERAL ARCHITECTURE
A typical HAAP-based communications systems structure is shown .


HAAP Feeder-band beam


User-band
Beam
Public/Private networks

Coverage Area
The platform is positioned above the coverage area. There are basically two types of HAAPS. Lighter-than air HAAPS are kept stationary, while airplane-based HAAPS are flown in a tight circle. For broadcast applications, a simple antenna beams signals to terminals on the ground. For individualized communication, such as telephony, "cells" are created on the ground by some beam forming technique in order to reuse channels for spatially separated users, as is done in cellular service. Beam forming can be as sophisticated as the use of phased-array antennas, or as straightforward as the use of lightweight, possible inflatable parabolic dishes with mechanical steering. In the case of a moving HAAP it would also be necessary to compensate motion by electronic or mechanical means in order to keep the cells stationary or to "hand off" connections between cells as is done in cellular telephony.
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smart paper boy
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10-08-2011, 11:28 AM


.doc   halonetwork.doc (Size: 382 KB / Downloads: 33)
INTRODUCTION:
The High Altitude Long Operation (HALO) network is a broad band wireless metropolitan area network consisting of HALO aircraft operating at high altitude and carrying an airborne communication network hub and network elements on the ground. The HALO network will be located in the atmosphere, at altitude miles above terrestrial Wireless, but hundreds to thousands of miles below satellite networks. It will provide broad Band services to business and small offices in an area containing a typical large city. The HALO network infrastructure is simple, having a star topology with single central hub. Consequently, the deployment service to the entire metropolitan area can occur in the first day The network deployed and subsequent maintenance cost is expected to be low. The system Capacity can be increased by decreasing the size of beam spots on the ground while increasing the number of beams with in the signal foot print or by increasing the signal bandwidth beam
THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF THE HALO NETWORK
As shown in below fig. the HALO/Proteus aircraft servers as the hub of the wireless broad band Communication network .It carries the borne network elements including an ATM switch Spot beam antennas, and multi beam antennas, as well as transmitting and receiving electronics The antenna array provides cellular like coverage of large metropolitan area. Asynchronous transfer mode switches, now available, have capacities sufficient to satisfy the traffic volume requirements of the first network deployment and margins for growth.
The HALO/Proteus airplane shown in fig.2 has been specially designed to carry hub of the HALO Network. The airplane can carry a weight of approximately 2000lb (90 kg) to its station keeping. The airplane is essentially an equipment bus from which commercial wireless systems will be offered. A fleet of three aircraft will be cycled in shifts to achieve continuous service above an isolated city. In a multi city deployment an average of two aircraft will be allocated to each city, and the fleet operations will be conducted from a common primary flight Base as a “hub and spokes” operation to achieve continuous service. Each shift on station will have an average duration of approximately 8 hr.
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